What is history


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What is history

  1. 1. What is History? David Gomez
  2. 2. Journey of Man <ul><li>Journey of Man </li></ul><ul><li>Evolution is a genetic history </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal was to construct a family tree: Luca </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Using isolated tribal blood predominately in Africa as samples. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Follows DNA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Following the Genetic Markers of Men: </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Y markers do not change, Son bushman markers are unique </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>First branch to split in the family tree </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bushman are the only families that have “clicks” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Began using bone, ivory and shell, not stone tools </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Began formal burials with items placed with them. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>As trackers they began to think as the prey, and analyze the foot prints </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>De Kelders cave </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Human Remains over 80,000 years old </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Almost identical facial structure to modern man </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The next Human Remains are in Australia </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Little to no evidence of there journey </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Last time Australia was connected to mainland was 100 mya </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>There are no other primates on the Australian continent. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mungo people, lived in Australia around 30-45k years ago. One of the first settlements had around 200 people. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Next stop India to find the link for the migration from Africa to Australia. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Collect blood samples from Madurai India extracting DNA. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They have found the evidence for the coastal migration to Australia. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>From the Middle East it took mankind close to 10k years to get to Europe. Known as Cro-Magnon </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cave paintings describe the migration during the ice age. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Isolated in Europe because of growing ice age, they developed light hair and eyes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Through the Central Asia/ Kazakhstan </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Because of the drought and fires and subsequent repopulation of grass lands led early humans to follow the herds. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Then migration through Russia began to the Americas. Where the Chukchi Indians still live to this day. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>People still live their, 200 kilometers inside the Arctic Circle. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They survive completely off of herding Reindeer, who survive off the lichen under the snow. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Following the Reindeer they continued on throughout the Americas. Only 10-20 people made it. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>With 800 years they populated both continents. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The Conclusion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The perception of Race and Race superiority is a divisive and wrong </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>We all come from the same place and have just adapted to our different surroundings. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Catastrophe! <ul><li>1500 years ago, mid-sixth century the world’s climate and temperature dropped. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The sun grew dark and rain was red, clouds of dust enveloped the earth. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drought, famine, plague </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tree Rings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>We know what the weather has been like for the last 7000 years. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trees around the world experienced the same decline of tree growth. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lasted for about a decade. Reduced sunlight and very cold. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mid-Sixth Century: The dark ages in Europe. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Roman Empire was in a resurgence after being sacked about a hundred years prior </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ The sun became dark for about 18 months. There was only light for 4 hours a day.” John of Ephesus </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A dense veil of dust in the atmosphere, blocking the sun. With only three causes. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Volcano </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sulfuric acid is present in the ice cores in Greenland and in Antarctica </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The eruption would have to happen along the equator where equatorial winds will spread the dust. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Krakatau </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shows the caldera left from a large volcanic eruption. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Asteroid or Comet </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To cause a catastrophe that would render climate change for over a decade it would call for an object over 4ki across to strike the earth </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No written evidence or physical damage on the earth @ mid 6th century. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The outcome of the 535AD theoretical eruption. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plague of Justinian (Bubonic Plague) weakened the Roman Empire </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Documented by Evagrius Scholasticus </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bacillus Bacteria that is carried in the gut of a common rat flea. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>10,000 bodies a day had to be buried </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Climatic event was effecting the Avar people, horsemen in Mongolia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They move westward and extract large amounts of gold from the Roman Empire </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><ul><ul><li>Teotihuacan City, Mexico- At its peak, early 6th century, 125k people lived there. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Midcentury infant mortality rises </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lake samples from the Yucatan Peninsula show a receding of water and a drought. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A civilian uprising set the cities temples on fire. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Did the Event Give Rise to the Islamic Religion? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Marib dam in Yemen, fails. The Merib people move to Medina and Mecca </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mohammed’s family are major importers of food during the drought and plague that had reached Arabia at this time. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>There are mass amounts of apocalyptic literature </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What would a future event cause? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Yellowstone Caldera, Long Valley Caldera, Campi Flegrei Caldera </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Agriculture would fail </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Satellite and radio communications would be interrupted </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It would take close to 150 years to recover from an event like this </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. The Columbian Exchange <ul><li>On Columbus 3rd Voyage he sailed north up the coast of South America and found the Mouth of the Oronoco River. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When he discovered this he deduced that he had not found an island but a new continent. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Horses brought over by Cortez </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They had not been present on the American continents for 10k years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>These horses transformed the life styles of the people </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In North America the Horse made it possible to hunt the Buffalo, in greater numbers and “brought the Indians time.” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They Spanish also brought with them large cattle ranching traditions. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In North America we began to see large cattle drives to the mid-west. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The US implemented a policy of exterminating the Buffalo, eliminating the food source of the plains Indians. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They were replaced by cattle and later wheat from Europe. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also brought over many livestock </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pigs, Cattle, Sheep, Donkeys, Goats, and Chickens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coca, Pineapple, Tabacco, Tomato, and Peanut were brought over from Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Europeans Flooded this new land mostly Italians and Spaniards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Population Booms in Europe due to the importation of the South American Potato </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>After the subsequent blights in Europe we see a mass immigration to the Americas. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Irish poured into Boston and built Boston into an Irish city. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reshaped politics and defined the Democratic Party. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The Exchange brought Over slaves to harvest the Sugar cane brought over to the Caribbean </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sugar Cane workers and harvesters on the Plantations had the highest mortality rates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Men had to cut and pile 6-10 tons, each, of cane a day to keep the mill working 24 hours a day </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Slaves that attempted to escape, had the front of there foot cut off. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Slavery moved throughout all of the Americas. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Slave traders brought over Casaba, Maize, Sweet Peppers, Pumpkins and Chile peppers, from America. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Corn is a cultivated plant from central Mexico and perhaps the most important crop to be exposed to the world. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It can be stored for long periods of time, and was a staple that fed slaves coming over to the new world. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They now feed a large portion of Africa. </li></ul></ul>