Poverty Coping Strategies and Strategies of Coping with the Poverty Threat in the Context of Homelessness

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  • 1. EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Housing First. What’s Second? Berlin, 20th September 2013 Coping tactics with Poverty and Poverty Threat in the Context of Homelessness in the Czech Republic and in the City of Ostrava Eliška Lindovská, Faculty of Social Studies, University of Ostrava Insert your logo here
  • 2. EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Housing First. What’s Second? Berlin, 20th September 2013 Structure:  Numbers of homeless people in the Czech Republic.  Some of the findings of a survey report about “Commercial Hostels” in the Ostrava city.  Strategies of coping with poverty and poverty threat and preliminary results of the research Poverty and poverty threat coping tactics of families with minors in the city of Ostrava.  Chosen course of action in the field of homelessness in the Czech Republic.
  • 3. EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Housing First. What’s Second? Berlin, 20th September 2013 Homelessness in numbers  No consistent data  1996 – 9 000 (estimation by 169 municipalities); 4 500 (estimation by 18 hostels) (Horáková, 1997)  2004 – 3 096 (in Prague) (Hradecký, 2005)  2011 - 11 496 - Czech Republic (Housing and Population census 2011, www.scitani.cz)  Indicator: “People housed in emergency and mobile objects” - 85 647 (counted as being housed)  Taken ETHOS into account: 85 647 + 11 496 = 97 143 homeless people in the Czech Republic (0,92% of Czech population)
  • 4. EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Housing First. What’s Second? Berlin, 20th September 2013 Housing situation with emphasis on commercial hostels  No Housing First model operating in the country  Commercial hostels considered as long term solution of housing loss  Survey report drawing on floating support workers experiences – Ostrava (Jedináková, Pischová, 2013) – unique survey – findings:  31 commercial hostels in Ostrava with over 7 000beds available  Families stay long term – more than 5 years X not suitable for long term occupancy
  • 5. EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Housing First. What’s Second? Berlin, 20th September 2013  4 main issues:  Technical parametres for long term use – absent, some hostels not even suitable for short term occupancy. Overcrowded space, shared facilities (showers, toilets, kitchen)  Short term contracts with no occupant´s rights  High costs, sometimes abused by landlords  Restricted access for support workers, restricted access for other visitors
  • 6. EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Housing First. What’s Second? Berlin, 20th September 2013
  • 7. EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Housing First. What’s Second? Berlin, 20th September 2013  Commercial hostels as creator of new phenomenon – families unable to cope in independent living, feelings of isolation and loneliness, missing „housing culture“ („hostel children“)  Associations with Goffman´s „total institutions“ – 4 ways of coping:  „resignation“  „regression“  „rebellion“  „colonization“
  • 8. EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Housing First. What’s Second? Berlin, 20th September 2013 Coping tactics with poverty and poverty threats by families with minors  Quantitative study in Ostrava (Chytil, Gojová, A., Gojová, V., Lindovská, Nedomová, Špiláčková, Tichá, Vondroušová, 2013)  Poor families and families threatened with poverty contacted through NGO´s and social work departments  Criterion – 1 child under 15 yeards old, various forms of housing situation  Research sample: 262 families from the Ostrava city
  • 9. EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Housing First. What’s Second? Berlin, 20th September 2013  Coping tactics drawn from literature: Budowski, Tillmann, Keim, Amacker (2010); Duvoux; Paugam; Gaulejac, Léonetti; Dubet (in Keller, 2013a); van der Land, Doff (2010); Sirovátka (2000); Leisering, Leibfried (1999); Wadswarth (2012).  Combined with phases of social disqualification (Paugam, 1991)  Elaborated into questionnaire, structured interviews conducted.
  • 10. EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Housing First. What’s Second? Berlin, 20th September 2013
  • 11. EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Housing First. What’s Second? Berlin, 20th September 2013  Preliminary results:  Three categories:  • Poor families (21%)  • Families threatened with poverty (76%)  • Families out of poverty (3%)  The main criterion:  Poor families – under living minimum line  Families threatened with poverty – living minimum line and above + precarious employment or unemployment of at least one adult household member or small savings or problems with debts, mortgage payments.
  • 12. EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Housing First. What’s Second? Berlin, 20th September 2013  Coping tactics:  48% (126) families use coping tactics; 52% (136) of families were not selected as using any specific coping tactics.  Out of 126 families – most common coping tactics are:  “situation instrumentalization” (22,22%),  “discrediting of others” (21,42%)  “passive adaptation” (17,46%).
  • 13. EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Housing First. What’s Second? Berlin, 20th September 2013  Not possible to generalize, but interesting links noticed:  “Resignation” and “Colonization” reflected by floating support workers resonate with “Passive adaptation” and “Situation instrumentalization” identified by the empirical research.  Implications: families in Ostrava living in poor conditions tending to passively adapt to its situation? Make the situation comfortable as possible? Distinguishing themselves as „better sort“? Can these be explained by „external locus of control“?  Who is an actor of change?
  • 14. EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Housing First. What’s Second? Berlin, 20th September 2013  Power (less) Social Work? (Gojová, 2012) – focus groups with social work departments´ officers in Moravia – Silasia county – results:  No initiation of grassroot change, solutions and activities only on local level, within established framework  Who is an actor of change?
  • 15. EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Housing First. What’s Second? Berlin, 20th September 2013 Course of action in the field of homelessness in the Czech Republic  Platform for Social Housing - proactively seeking solution of legal definition of social housing, trying to establish mutual dialogue between NGO sector and the government (Ministry of Local Affairs and Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs), includes more than 40 NGO´s.  Night Out – socially innovative project (awarded by Sozial Marie price for social innovation – 2013) run in cooperation of Faculty of Social Studies, Association of Shelters in the Czech Republic and homeless people themselves.
  • 16. EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Housing First. What’s Second? Berlin, 20th September 2013  Aim: to raise and change general awareness about homelessness in an experiential way (sleep out).  Theatre of the Oppresed – the most vulnerable not being heard, empowerment.  Strategical material: Conception of working with homeless people in the Czech Republic up to 2020 (Hradecký, Plachý, Prudký, Růžička, Slavíček, Šmídová, Šos, Riadová) – suggests to pilot Housing First
  • 17. EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Housing First. What’s Second? Berlin, 20th September 2013 Resources:  EDGAR B., MEERT H, Fourth Review of Statistics on Homelessness in Europe. The ETHOS Definition of Homelessness, Brussels: FEANTSA, 2005.  GOJOVÁ, A. Bez(mocná) sociální práce? Habilitační práce, FSS OU, 2012.  HRADECKÝ I., PLACHÝ A., PRUDKÝ L., RŮŽIČKA J., SLAVÍČEK A., ŠMÍDOVÁ M., ŠOS L., RIADOVÁ B., Souhrnný materiál pro tvorbu Koncepce práce s bezdomovci v ČR na období do roku 2020, Praha, 2012. Dostupné na WWW: http://www.esfcr.cz/file/8471/[on-line] [1. 4. 2013]  HORÁKOVÁ M., Současné podoby bezdomovství v České republice: pilotní sonda. Praha: Výzkumný ústav práce a sociálních věcí, 1997.  Housing and Population Census 2011, Český statistický úřad. Dostupné na WWW: http://www.scitani.cz/csu/2012edicniplan.nsf/t/D70024DBB2/$File/ZVCR030 .pdf [on-line] [08. 04. 2013]  HRADECKÝ I., Profily bezdomovství v České republice: proč spí lidé venku a kdo jsou ti lidé. Praha: Ilja Hradecký, 2005.
  • 18. EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Housing First. What’s Second? Berlin, 20th September 2013  CHYTIL, O., GOJOVÁ, A., GOJOVÁ, V., LINDOVSKÁ, E., NEDOMOVÁ, E., ŠPILÁČKOVÁ, M., TICHÁ, I., VONDROUŠOVÁ, K. Dílčí výzkumná zpráva „Způsoby zvládání chudoby a ohrožení chudobou rodinami s nezletilými dětmi", Rozšíření a rozvoj vědeckovýzkumného týmu Ostravské univerzity, Fakulty sociálních studií, číslo projektu: CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0080, 2013. (nepublikovaný text)  JEDINÁKOVÁ, H., PISCHOVÁ, J. Zpráva o ubytovnách na Ostravsku aneb Jsou ubytovny opravdu vhodným řešením pro bydlení rodin s dětmi a lidí bez domova? Ostrava: Občanské sdružení Vzájemné soužití Terénní programy Práce s oběťmi trestné činnosti – Pomocná ruka, 2013. Dostupné na WWW: http://www.vzajemnesouziti.estranky.cz/clanky/aktuality/zprava- o-ubytovnach-na-ostravsku.html [on-line] [31. 07. 2013]  www.nocvenku.cz  www.socialnibydleni.org
  • 19. EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Housing First. What’s Second? Berlin, 20th September 2013 Thank you for your attention!  Email: Eliska.lindovska@osu.cz