Estimating the Number of Homeless Sleeping Rough: A Study in 4 Dutch Cities

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Estimating the Number of Homeless Sleeping Rough: A Study in 4 Dutch Cities

  1. 1. EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Housing First. What’s Second? Berlin, 20th September 2013 Estimating the number of homeless sleeping rough, a study of 4 cities in the Netherlands Marcel Buster, Public Health Service Amsterdam, The Netherlands In cooperation with: Eva Mandos & Staf van Zeele, Rotterdam-Rijnmond, Renske Gilisen, Den Haag Regien Vleems & Addi van Bergen, Utrecht, Matty de Wit, Natalie Runtuwene, & Mariette Hensen-Baas, Amsterdam Insert your logo here
  2. 2. EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Housing First. What’s Second? Berlin, 20th September 2013 Public Health Services of 4 cities Amsterdam Utrecht Rotterdam Den Hague
  3. 3. EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Housing First. What’s Second? Berlin, 20th September 2013 Context: Similar policy on homelessness  Prevention of homelessness..  Offering integrated care to the homeless who:  belong to the public mental health care population  are citizens of the city’s region.  Encouraging re-migration of homeless from other cities, other countries…
  4. 4. EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Housing First. What’s Second? Berlin, 20th September 2013 Aims..of the study  Describing size and characteristics of the homeless population.  Estimating the number of people that are sleeping rough.
  5. 5. EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Housing First. What’s Second? Berlin, 20th September 2013 Context: The number of homeless that are sleeping rough is difficult to estimate because:  hidden population  Risk of getting a fine, safety.  dynamic population:  Starting, ending episodes of homelessness  Within an episodes of homelessness: changing type of location…  Migration  longer period of observation  higher number of homeless…
  6. 6. EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Housing First. What’s Second? Berlin, 20th September 2013 During periods of frost in wintertime….  Shelters are free of charge and accessible for all homeless.  Homeless ‘sleeping rough’ are actively motivated to use a shelter.  Shelter capacity is adapted to demand.  Research opportunity!
  7. 7. EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Housing First. What’s Second? Berlin, 20th September 2013 Winter 2010/’11 and 2011/’12
  8. 8. EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Housing First. What’s Second? Berlin, 20th September 2013 Methods  Registers of night-shelters (both the regular shelters and of the surplus of beds during the frost period)  Interviews with homeless in shelters during 1 or 2 evenings at start of the (first) period of frost.
  9. 9. EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Housing First. What’s Second? Berlin, 20th September 2013 Number of people using the night shelters during a two months period in winter 393 510 688 1163 345 450 500 937 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 Utrecht Den Hague Rotterdam Amsterdam cumulativenumberofpeople(twomonthperiod) Winter 2010/2011 (dec, jan) Winter 2011/2012 (jan, feb) 2010/11: 2754 2011/12: 2232
  10. 10. EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Housing First. What’s Second? Berlin, 20th September 2013 Average daily number of people admitted during period of frost 141 188 260 413 142 196 248 405 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 Utrecht Den Haag Rotterdam Amsterdam averagenumberofpeopleperday,duringfrostperiod 2010/2011 2011/2012 Total number 2010/11: 1001 2011/12: 991 Total interview- sample 2010/11: 629 2011/12: 567
  11. 11. EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Housing First. What’s Second? Berlin, 20th September 2013 Estimation based on the ratio # Sleeping Rough / # Shelter for Homeless
  12. 12. EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Housing First. What’s Second? Berlin, 20th September 2013 Formula to estimate the number of people Sleeping rough ? = Estimated (Sample) city total (registered) city total
  13. 13. EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Housing First. What’s Second? Berlin, 20th September 2013 How long ago did you “sleep rough”? 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% UtrechtDen HaagRotterdamAm sterdam TO TAAL 2010/2011 TO TAAL 2011/2012 Never ≥ 1 year ago ≥ 1 month, < 1 year previous 30 days
  14. 14. EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Housing First. What’s Second? Berlin, 20th September 2013 Where did you spend the last 30 nights? Differences between cities: 10% 17% 14% 27% 71% 47% 56% 28% 10% 18% 14% 14% 9% 19% 15% 31% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Utrecht Den Hague Rotterdam Amsterdam Sleeping rough Night-shelter Family, friends other
  15. 15. EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Housing First. What’s Second? Berlin, 20th September 2013 Where did you spend the previous 30 nights? Differences between years: 21% 19% 45% 45% 11% 14% 23% 22% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 2010/11 2011/12 Sleeping rough Night-shelter Family friends Other
  16. 16. EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Housing First. What’s Second? Berlin, 20th September 2013 within 4 cities 2011/12 0,96 0,25 0,14 0,36 0 0,2 0,4 0,6 0,8 1 1,2 1,4 1,6 Utrecht Den Haag Rotterdam Amsterdam
  17. 17. EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Housing First. What’s Second? Berlin, 20th September 2013 Results: Absolute numbers 101 105 175 157 15 40 45 150 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 Utrecht Den Hague Rotterdam Amsterdam number Total daily average: 538 night shelter beds vs. estimated 250 sleeping rough
  18. 18. EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Housing First. What’s Second? Berlin, 20th September 2013 Results per 100,000 population ( > 15 yrs) 39,1 25,8 34,4 23,9 31,7 29,4 5,8 9,8 8,8 22,9 15,8 13,7 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 U trecht D en H ague R otterdam A m sterdam A ll2010/2011 A ll2011/2012 number/100,000 # slots nightshelter Sleeping rough
  19. 19. EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Housing First. What’s Second? Berlin, 20th September 2013 Are the homeless who are sleeping rough, part of the registered citizens of the city? 12% 36% 34% 25% 32% 27% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Utrecht Den Hague Rotterdam Amsterdam Total 2010/2011 Total 2011/12 Yes No, migrants (national or international)
  20. 20. EUROPEAN RESEARCH CONFERENCE Housing First. What’s Second? Berlin, 20th September 2013 Conclusion / limitations  Simple indicator of the number of homeless sleeping rough for comparison of urban areas.  Limitation: estimated number on an ‘average’ night.  Does the ratio of the nights spend in shelter / sleeping rough, reflects the true ratio….???  Both shelter + sleeping rough ≈ 43 /100,000 population  Sleeping rough varies ≈ 6 – 23 / 100,000 population  Only a minority of those ‘sleeping rough’ is considered as citizen of the city’s region.

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