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Tsunamis Tsunamis Presentation Transcript

  • TSUNAMIS Tsunamies A tsunami is a series of waves generated when water in a lake or in the sea is rapidly displaced on a massive scale. Earthquakes, landslides, volcanic eruptions and large meteorite impacts all have the potential to generate a tsunami. The effects of a tsunami can range from unnoticeable to devastating.
  •  The term of tsunami comes from the Japanese language meaning harbour (tsu) and wave (nami). Although in Japanese tsunami is used for both singular and plural, in English “tsunamis” is wellestablished as the plural. The term was created by fisherman who returned to port to find the area surrounding the harbor devastated, although they had not been aware of any wave in the open water. A tsunami is not a sub-surface event in the deep ocean; it simply has a much smaller amplitude (wave heights) offshore, a very long wavelength (often hundreds kilometers long), which is why they generally pass unnoticed at sea, forming only a passing “hump” in the ocean.
  •  Tsunamis have been historically referred to as “tidal waves” because as they approach land they take on the characteristics of a violent onrushing tide rather than the sort of cresting waves that are formed by wind action upon the ocean (with which people are more familiar). However, since they are not related to tides, the term is considered misleading and its usage is discouraged by oceanographers.
  • Social Function  To enable the readers to understand or explain the processes involved in the formation or the working of natural, social, scientific and cultural phenomena.
  • Generic Structure  General Statement : present the subject that is going to be explained.  Explanation : supports the following paragraphs. The explanation statements are illustrated in sequence.
  • LANGUAGE FEATURES  Focus on generic, non-human participants, e.g.      chocolate, tree, tsunami, etc. Simple present tense, e.g. chocolate starts with a tree, Adverbial phrases, e.g. especially for, generally known as, etc. Noun phrases, e.g. cacao tree, tree seeds, etc. Action Verbs, e.g. the chocolate maker starts by roasting Passive voice, e.g. the beans are fermented for about a week.
  • EXAMPLE OF EXPLANATION TEXT  Reports on natural phenomena,  articles on scientific inventions,  documentary films.