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Project of Ports and Harbor

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  1. 1. TSUNAMI<br />
  2. 2. # “TSU” MEANS HARBOUR AND “NAMI” MEANS WAVE.<br />TSUNAMI = HARBOUR + WAVE.<br /># Tsunami is a series of waves with extremely long wave length and long period generated when a body of water rapidly displace. <br /># Tsunami is not a tidal wave because the tides are the result of gravitational influences of the moon, sun and planets.<br />DEFINITION<br />
  3. 3. # Earthquake<br /># mass movements above or below water<br /># some volcanic eruptions<br /># Underwater explosions<br /># Landslides<br /># Large asteroid impact.<br />CAUSES OF TSUNAMI<br />
  4. 4. CHARACTERISTICS<br /># Tsunamis are shallow-water waves, which means the ratio between the water depth and water length is very small.<br />
  5. 5. # “NO WARNING!!”, “NO PREDICTIONS”<br /># Earthquakes are often a cause of tsunami.<br /># IF the part of tsunami to reach land is trough (draw back) rather than a crest of the wave, the water along the shoreline may recede dramatically, exposing areas that are normally always submerged.<br />SIGNS OF AN APPROACHING TSUNAMIS.<br />
  6. 6. WARNING AND PREVENTION<br /># BOTTOM PRESSURE SENSORS. <br />These are anchored and attached to buoys. Sensors on the equipment constantly monitor the pressure of the overlying water column.<br />
  7. 7. GENERATION OF TSUNAMI<br /> Earthquake<br /> Water column up and down<br /> Potential energy<br /> Kinetic energy <br /> Tsunami<br />
  8. 8. Initial tsunami<br />Distance Local<br />Height above mean sea level is the half of the original tsunami.<br />
  9. 9. # Increases and wave length decreases.<br />This result in steepening of the leading wave.<br /># Deep ocean tsunami has traveled much faster than the local tsunami because of the propagation speed.<br />
  10. 10. # Run up is a measurement of the height of the water onshore observed above a reference sea level. <br /># The first run up of a tsunami is often not a largest.<br />
  11. 11. # Tsunamis are not rare, with at least 25 tsunami occurring in the last century. <br /># Many tsunamis were recorded in the Asia-Pacific region-particularly Japan. <br /># The boxing day tsunami (Indian ocean tsunami) in 2004 caused approximately 350,000 deaths and many more injuries.<br />TSUNAMI IN HISTORY<br />
  12. 12. # It was an undersea earthquake.<br /># Occurred on December 26, 2004 of magnitude 9.3 with an epicentre off the west cost of Sumatra, Indonesia.<br />#Second deadliest earthquake of all time <br /> observed up to 10 minutes <br />#US Geological Survey recorded the toll as 283,100 killed ,14100 missing, and 1,126,900 people displaced <br />Countries affected:-Indonesia,Srilanka,Bangladesh,India,Malaysia,Myanmar,Singapore,Maldives<br />2004 INDIAN OCEAN TSUNAMI<br />
  13. 13. MALDIVES<br />THAILAND<br />SRI LANKA<br />INDONESIA<br />
  15. 15. CHARECTERISTICS<br />#The sudden vertical rise of the seabed during earthquake displaced massive volumes of water <br />#Tsunami wave height in shallow water near coastline:-24 to 30 meter and in deep water the maximum height was 2 foot <br />
  16. 16. Tectonic Plate<br />#994 miles of fault line slipped about 50 foot along the subduction zone <br />#Indian Plate slides <br />under the Berma Plate<br />#Energy released on the earth surface was 1.1*10^17 joules or 26.3 megatons(equivalent to 1502 times of the Hiroshima atomic bomb)<br />
  17. 17. IMPACTS OF 2004 TSUNAMI<br />-Loss of human life<br />-shortage of food and drinking water <br />-damage of the infrastructure<br />-spreading of diseases<br />-economic damage such as fishing business, tourism, shipping<br />-environmental impact for many years on ground water , soil and ecosystem<br />