03062013 the people of the americas

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The People of the Americas
Rolfe Mandel, Professor of Anthropology at KU and Geoarcheologist with Kansas Geological Survey

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  • Mammoth vert and Clovis point (note base sticking out below and left of the bone) in spring sands; from 1930s excavations.
  • 03062013 the people of the americas

    1. 1. Peopling of the Americas:Evidence from the Great Plains Dr. Rolfe D. MandelExecutive Director, Odyssey Program Kansas Geological Survey University of Kansas
    2. 2. The Folsom Site, 1927
    3. 3. Folsom Projectile Point embedded in skeletal remains of extinct bison at the Folsom site
    4. 4. During his tenure at the University of Kansas during the late 1800s and early 1900s,Williston served as a professor of geology and anatomy, and as the first dean of theschool of medicine.
    5. 5. The Twelve Mile Creek Site, Logan County, KansasIn 1895, 30 years before the discovery at Folsom, two of Williston’sassistants, H.T. Martin and T.R. Overton, found a small fluted point indirect association with a complete bison skeleton.
    6. 6. The Twelve Mile Creek Site revisited.
    7. 7. Folsom:10,300-10,700 Radiocarbon years before present
    8. 8. The Clovis Gravel Pit – Looking Southeast South Bank
    9. 9. The Clovis site
    10. 10. Mammoth vertebra and Clovis point (note the base of the point stickingout below and left of the bone) in spring sands; from 1933 excavation.
    11. 11. Folsom:10,300-10,700 Radiocarbon years before presentClovis:11,600-10,700 Radiocarbon years before present
    12. 12. Were people in the Americas beforeClovis time, i.e., earlier than 11,600radiocarbon years ago?
    13. 13. Monte Verde in southern Chili hasarchaeological materials dating to12,500 radiocarbon years ago.
    14. 14. Dillehay et al. 2008
    15. 15. Pre-Clovis tool kit from the Monte Verde site
    16. 16. • Acceptance of the Monte Verdesite in southern Chile, dating toat least 12,500 14C yr B.P. opensnew pre-Clovis possibilities forNorth America.
    17. 17. • What was the Spatial Patternof Paleoindian Colonization of theGreat Plains?• When did People arrive inthe Great Plains?
    18. 18. • Several sites in the Geat Plains holdpotential pre-11,500 14C evidence.These include La Sena, Nebraska;Lovewell and Kanarado, Kansas; andBurnham, Oklahoma.
    19. 19. A refit of four mammoth femur segments showing the point of impact
    20. 20. Negative cone of percussion at the point of impact on thick cortical mammoth femur segment
    21. 21. Tip of highly polished bone artifact
    22. 22. Flaked bone biface
    23. 23. Bone flakes produced on thick cortical mammoth bone. The flakes refit.
    24. 24. 18,250 ± 90
    25. 25. • If any of these or other sitesyield unequivocal pre-11,500evidence of human activity, thenour perspectives on Paleoindianarchaeology in the Plains regionwill be significantly altered.
    26. 26. • The only effective way to evaluatethe possibility of pre-11,500 evidenceis to systematically study depositsand soils of the appropriate age insettings which would have beenconducive to human settlementand other activities.
    27. 27. 10,050 ± 70
    28. 28. 9015±100 10,215±11512,525±10012,600±90
    29. 29. 8240 ± 709700 ± 7010,130 ± 80 11,550 ± 100 13,300 ± 130
    30. 30. 14SN105 14SN10114SN106
    31. 31. 14SN101 14SN10514SN106 Site Locations at the Kanorado Locality
    32. 32. Area C Area A Area B Site 14SN105, Areas A, B and C
    33. 33. K. Don Lindsey at the Kanorado Excavation, 1976
    34. 34. 1976 Excavation of Lower Mammoth at the Kanorado Locality
    35. 35. Cobble 1976 Mammoth ExcavationNote Large Cobble in Fine-grained Sediments
    36. 36. Mammoth Radius from the 1981 Excavation Note Spiral Fractures
    37. 37. Rib Mid-section from the 1981 ExcavationNote Heavy Wear and High Polish on Right
    38. 38. Faceted Mammoth Cortical Limb Bone Fragment From the Upper Mammoth Level, 1981
    39. 39. Jack Hofman pointing out in situ camel elements at the base of a buried A horizon, 2001
    40. 40. MammothCamel Excavation Excavation Kanorado Locality Excavations, June 2002
    41. 41. Excavation of Camelops Elements in Base of Buried A Horizon
    42. 42. Artifacts Eroding out of Buried A Horizon in Area C, 14SN105 Four Artifacts on Left are Alibates and Artifact on Right is Flattop Chalcedony
    43. 43. Site 14SN105, Area A
    44. 44. 2003 Excavation in Lower Mammoth Level
    45. 45. Lower Mammoth/Camel Bone Level, June 2003
    46. 46. Spirally Fractured Ribs from Lower Mammoth Level
    47. 47. 12,215 ± 35
    48. 48. 9240±70 9750±70 10,370±20 Folsom Component 10,950±60 Clovis Component Lower Mammoth/Camel 12,375±35 Bone Bed14SN105, Area A
    49. 49. 14SN101 14SN105 14SN106Site Locations at the Kanorado Locality
    50. 50. Site 14SN101
    51. 51. FlakeClovis-Age Component, 14SN101
    52. 52. Alibates Tools From Clovis-Age Component, 14SN101
    53. 53. Bison humerus 20 cm above Clovis-Age Component
    54. 54. 14SN101 14SN105 14SN106Site Locations at the Kanorado Locality
    55. 55. Site 14SN106
    56. 56. FolsomComponentClovis-Age 11,085 ± 20Component
    57. 57. Artifacts in the Clovis-Age Component at the Bottom of the Akb2 Horizon, Site 14SN106
    58. 58. Endscraper Made on a Pristmatic Blade, Clovis-Age Component, Site 14SN106
    59. 59. Folsom Endscraper, Hartville Chert, Site 14SN106
    60. 60. Folsom point tip (top images) and the base of a Midlandpoint (bottom images) recovered in the main block at14SN106.
    61. 61. Folsom Endscraper, Hartville Chert, Site 14SN106
    62. 62. 10,854 ± 40
    63. 63. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE KANORADO LOCALITY First in situ Folsom site in the Central Plains First in situ Clovis sites in the Central Plains Possible pre-Clovis cultural deposits Evidence for long-distance transport of Lithic materials
    64. 64. Kanorado
    65. 65. ScheuermanMammoth SiteScott County
    66. 66. ScheuermanMammoth Site
    67. 67. 13,470 ± 40
    68. 68. • Currently, there are multiplemodels that can account for thepeopling of the Great Plains, andthe possibility that this peoplingprocess occurred prior to Clovistime remains open.

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