Mammoth vert and Clovis point (note base sticking out below and left of the bone) in spring sands; from 1930s excavations.
1. Peopling of the Americas:Evidence from the Great Plains Dr. Rolfe D. MandelExecutive Director, Odyssey Program Kansas Geological Survey University of Kansas
2. The Folsom Site, 1927
3. Folsom Projectile Point embedded in skeletal remains of extinct bison at the Folsom site
4. During his tenure at the University of Kansas during the late 1800s and early 1900s,Williston served as a professor of geology and anatomy, and as the first dean of theschool of medicine.
5. The Twelve Mile Creek Site, Logan County, KansasIn 1895, 30 years before the discovery at Folsom, two of Williston’sassistants, H.T. Martin and T.R. Overton, found a small fluted point indirect association with a complete bison skeleton.
6. The Twelve Mile Creek Site revisited.
7. Folsom:10,300-10,700 Radiocarbon years before present
8. The Clovis Gravel Pit – Looking Southeast South Bank
9. The Clovis site
10. Mammoth vertebra and Clovis point (note the base of the point stickingout below and left of the bone) in spring sands; from 1933 excavation.
11. Folsom:10,300-10,700 Radiocarbon years before presentClovis:11,600-10,700 Radiocarbon years before present
12. Were people in the Americas beforeClovis time, i.e., earlier than 11,600radiocarbon years ago?
13. Monte Verde in southern Chili hasarchaeological materials dating to12,500 radiocarbon years ago.
14. Dillehay et al. 2008
15. Pre-Clovis tool kit from the Monte Verde site
16. • Acceptance of the Monte Verdesite in southern Chile, dating toat least 12,500 14C yr B.P. opensnew pre-Clovis possibilities forNorth America.
17. • What was the Spatial Patternof Paleoindian Colonization of theGreat Plains?• When did People arrive inthe Great Plains?
18. • Several sites in the Geat Plains holdpotential pre-11,500 14C evidence.These include La Sena, Nebraska;Lovewell and Kanarado, Kansas; andBurnham, Oklahoma.
19. A refit of four mammoth femur segments showing the point of impact
20. Negative cone of percussion at the point of impact on thick cortical mammoth femur segment
21. Tip of highly polished bone artifact
22. Flaked bone biface
23. Bone flakes produced on thick cortical mammoth bone. The flakes refit.
24. 18,250 ± 90
25. • If any of these or other sitesyield unequivocal pre-11,500evidence of human activity, thenour perspectives on Paleoindianarchaeology in the Plains regionwill be significantly altered.
26. • The only effective way to evaluatethe possibility of pre-11,500 evidenceis to systematically study depositsand soils of the appropriate age insettings which would have beenconducive to human settlementand other activities.
57. Artifacts in the Clovis-Age Component at the Bottom of the Akb2 Horizon, Site 14SN106
58. Endscraper Made on a Pristmatic Blade, Clovis-Age Component, Site 14SN106
59. Folsom Endscraper, Hartville Chert, Site 14SN106
60. Folsom point tip (top images) and the base of a Midlandpoint (bottom images) recovered in the main block at14SN106.
61. Folsom Endscraper, Hartville Chert, Site 14SN106
62. 10,854 ± 40
63. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE KANORADO LOCALITY First in situ Folsom site in the Central Plains First in situ Clovis sites in the Central Plains Possible pre-Clovis cultural deposits Evidence for long-distance transport of Lithic materials
65. ScheuermanMammoth SiteScott County
66. ScheuermanMammoth Site
67. 13,470 ± 40
68. • Currently, there are multiplemodels that can account for thepeopling of the Great Plains, andthe possibility that this peoplingprocess occurred prior to Clovistime remains open.