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Gouty Arthritis
 

Gouty Arthritis

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    Gouty Arthritis Gouty Arthritis Presentation Transcript

    • DEFINITION  Gout is characterized by sudden, severe attacks of pain, redness and tenderness in joints, often the joint at the base of the big toe.  A complex form of arthritis — can affect anyone. Men are more likely to get gout, but women become increasingly susceptible to gout after menopause.  An acute attack of gout can wake you up in the middle of the night with the sensation that your big toe is on fire. The affected joint is hot, swollen and so tender that even the weight of the sheet on it may seem intolerable.  Fortunately, gout is treatable, and there are ways to reduce the risk that gout will recur.
    • ETIOLOGY  Gout occurs when urate crystals accumulate in your joint, causing the inflammation and intense pain of a gout attack. Urate crystals can form when you have high levels of uric acid in your blood. Your body produces uric acid when it breaks down purines — substances that are found naturally in your body, as well as in certain foods, such as organ meats, anchovies, herring, asparagus and mushrooms.  Normally, uric acid dissolves in your blood and passes through your kidneys into your urine. But sometimes your body either produces too much uric acid or your kidneys excrete too little uric acid. When this happens, uric acid can build up, forming sharp, needle-like urate crystals in a joint or surrounding tissue that cause pain, inflammation and swelling.
    • RISK FACTORS  You're more likely to develop gout if you have high levels of uric acid in your body. Factors that increase the uric acid level in your body include:  Lifestyle factors  Medical conditions  Certain medications  Family history of gout  Age and sex
    • Lifestyle factors  Choices you make in your everyday life may increase your risk of gout. Excessive alcohol use — generally more than two drinks a day for men and more than one for women — increases the risk of gout.
    • Medical Conditions  Certain diseases and conditions make it more likely that you'll develop gout. These include untreated high blood pressure (hypertension) and chronic conditions such as diabetes, high levels of fat and cholesterol in the blood (hyperlipidemia), and narrowing of the arteries (arteriosclerosis).
    • Certain Medications  The use of thiazide diuretics — commonly used to treat hypertension — and low-dose aspirin also can increase uric acid levels. So can the use of anti-rejection drugs prescribed for people who have undergone an organ transplant.
    • Family History of Gout  If other members of your family have had gout, you're more likely to develop the disease.
    • Age and Sex  Gout occurs more often in men than it does in women, primarily because women tend to have lower uric acid levels than men do. After menopause, however, women's uric acid levels approach those of men. Men also are more likely to develop gout earlier — usually between the ages of 40 and 50 — whereas women generally develop signs and symptoms after menopause.
    • COMPLICATIONS  Recurrent gout  Advanced gout  Kidney stones
    • COMPLICATIONS  Recurrent gout  Some people may never experience gout signs and symptoms again. But others may experience gout several times each year. Medications may help prevent gout attacks in people with recurrent gout.
    • COMPLICATIONS  Advanced gout  Untreated gout may cause deposits of urate crystals to form under the skin in nodules called tophi (TOE-fi). Tophi can develop in several areas such as your fingers, hands, feet, elbows or Achilles tendons along the back of your ankle. Tophi usually aren't painful, but they can become swollen and tender during gout attacks.
    • COMPLICATIONS  Kidney stones  Urate crystals may collect in the urinary tract of people with gout, causing kidney stones. Medications can help reduce the risk of kidney stones.
    • S/SX  The signs and symptoms of gout are almost always acute, occurring suddenly — often at night — and without warning. They include:  Intense joint pain  Lingering discomfort  Inflammation and redness
    • S/SX  Intense joint pain  Gout usually affects the large joint of your big toe, but it can occur in your feet, ankles, knees, hands and wrists. The pain is likely to be most severe within the first 12 to 24 hours after it begins.
    • S/SX  Lingering discomfort  After the most severe pain subsides, some joint discomfort may last from a few days to a few weeks. Later attacks are likely to last longer and affect more joints.
    • S/SX  Inflammation and redness  The affected joint or joints become swollen, tender and red.
    • TESTS AND DIAGNOSIS  Joint fluid test. Your doctor may use a needle to draw fluid from your affected joint. When examined under the microscope, your joint fluid may reveal urate crystals.  Blood test. Your doctor may recommend a blood test to measure the uric acid level in your blood. Blood test results can be misleading, though. Some people have high uric acid levels, but never experience gout. And some people have signs and symptoms of gout, but don't have unusual levels of uric acid in their blood
    • TREATMENT AND DRUGS  MEDICATIONS TO TREAT GOUT ATTACKS Drugs used to treat acute attacks and prevent future attacks include:  Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). NSAIDs may control inflammation and pain in people with gout. Doctor may prescribe a higher dose to stop an acute attack, followed by a lower daily dose to prevent future attacks. ○ ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others) ○ naproxen (Aleve, others)  as well as more-powerful prescription NSAIDs such as ○ indomethacin (Indocin)  NSAIDs carry risks of stomach pain, bleeding and ulcers.  Colchicine. If you're unable to take NSAIDs, your doctor may recommend colchicine (Colcrys), a type of pain reliever that effectively reduces gout pain — especially when started soon after symptoms appear. The drug's effectiveness is offset in most cases, however, by intolerable side effects, such as nausea, vomiting and diarrhea.  After an acute gout attack resolves, your doctor may prescribe a low daily dose of colchicine to prevent future attacks.
    • TREATMENT AND DRUGS  Corticosteroids. Corticosteroid medications, such as the drug prednisone, may control gout inflammation and pain. Corticosteroids may be administered in pill form, or they can be injected into your joint. Your doctor might inject a corticosteroid medication during the same visit as a joint fluid test — where he or she withdraws (aspirates) fluid from your joint with a needle. Corticosteroids are generally reserved for people who can't take either NSAIDs or colchicine. ○ Side effects of corticosteroids may include thinning bones, poor wound healing and a decreased ability to fight infection. To reduce the risk of these serious side effects, your doctor will try to find the lowest dose that controls your symptoms and prescribe steroids for the shortest possible time.
    • TREATMENT AND DRUGS  MEDICATIONS TO PREVENT GOUT COMPLICATIONS If you experience several gout attacks each year or if your gout attacks are less frequent but particularly painful, your doctor may recommend medication to reduce your risk of gout-related complications.  Medications that block uric acid production. Drugs called xanthine oxidase inhibitors, including ○ allopurinol (Aloprim, Lopurin, Zyloprim) ○ febuxostat (Uloric), limit the amount of uric acid your body makes. This may lower your blood's uric acid level and reduce your risk of gout. Side effects of allopurinol include a rash and low blood counts.  Febuxostat side effects include rash, nausea and reduced liver function.  Xanthine oxidase inhibitors may trigger a new, acute attack if taken before a recent attack has totally resolved. Taking a short course of low-dose colchicine before starting a xanthine oxidase inhibitor has been found to significantly reduce this risk.  Medication that improves uric acid removal ○ Probenecid (Probalan) improves your kidneys' ability to remove uric acid from your body. This may lower your uric acid levels and reduce your risk of gout, but the level of uric acid in your urine is increased.  Side effects include a rash, stomach pain and kidney stones.
    • LIFESTYLE AND HOME REMEDIES  Medications are the most proven, effective way to treat gout symptoms. However, making certain changes to your diet also may help.
    • LIFESTYLE AND HOME REMEDIES  Drink 8 to 16 cups (about 2 to 4 liters) of fluid each day, with at least half being water.  Avoid alcohol.  Eat a moderate amount of protein, preferably from healthy sources, such as low-fat or fat-free dairy, tofu, eggs, and nut butters.  Limit your daily intake of meat, fish and poultry to 4 to 6 ounces (113 to 170 grams).
    • PREVENTION  Keep your fluid intake high  Aim for 8 to 16 cups (about 2 to 4 liters) of fluid each day, with at least half being water. Limit how many sweetened beverages you drink, especially those sweetened with high fructose corn syrup.
    • PREVENTION  Eat a balanced diet following the Dietary Guidelines for Americans  Your daily diet should emphasize fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and fat-free or low-fat milk products.
    • PREVENTION  Get your protein from low-fat dairy products  Low-fat dairy products may actually have a protective effect against gout, so these are your best-bet protein sources.
    • PREVENTION  Limit your intake of meat, fish and poultry  A small amount may be tolerable, but pay close attention to what types — and how much — seem to cause problems for you.
    • PREVENTION  Maintain a desirable body weight  Choose portions that allow you to maintain a healthy weight. Losing weight may decrease uric acid levels in your body. But avoid fasting or rapid weight loss, since doing so may temporarily raise uric acid levels.