THE NOUN Countable NounsUncountable Nouns Articles Determiners
Countable Uncountable Countable nouns are nouns which Uncountable nouns are nouns which can be counted and can have a cannot be counted and they usually singular and a plural form. have no plural. These nouns include: Food: cheese, butter, salt, chocolate Liquids: coffee, milk, water, tea, beer Materials: gold, iron, wood, paper Abstract nouns: beauty, love Others: money, hair, information a flower three flowers• some cheese not: a cheese an apple two apples
1 The Plural of the Nouns singular + -s cat cats book books lamp lamps
2 The Plural of the Nouns singular –s, -ss, -zz, -sh, -ch, -x + -escircus – circuseskiss – kissesbuzz- - buzzesbush – busheswatch – watchesbox - boxes
3a The Plural of the Nouns singular –consonant – y > i + -es singular plural a city two cities a lady two ladies
3b The Plural of the Nouns singular –vowel – y + -s singular plural a boy two boys a day two days
4 The Plural of the Nouns Singular -o > -s or -es add -s add -es singular plural singular plural a disco two discos a tomato two tomatoes a piano two pianos a potato two potatoes a photo two photos a hero two heroes
5 The Plural of the Nouns Singular -f or -fe > v + -es add -s substitute with -ves singular plural singular plural a roof two roofs a wolf two wolves a cliff two cliffs a wife two wives a sheriff two sheriffs a shelf two shelves
Irregular Plurals man – men woman – women child – children
Abstract nouns Uncountable Nouns joy happiness freedom They have no plural form
Special Cases news measles Verbs at singular MathematicsMathematics is not an easy subject.
Special Cases advice furniture luggage +information money Verbs at singular
Articles Indefinite Articles Definite Articles No Article a, an, some, the Refers to general or Refers to a specific noun Occurs withnonspecific nouns Did you lock the car? nonspecific, general, mass or plural nouns –I saw an elephant this We use the to talk about nouns that have nomorning. geographical points on the globe. specific quantity the North Pole, the equatorI am a builder. Books are expensive. We use the to talk about rivers, oceans and seas Coffee is bad for you. the Nile, the Pacific I like tea. We also use the before certain nouns when we know there is only one of a particular thing. the rain, the sun, the earth
In each of the sentences below, you will see a blank. Please choose one of thefollowing articles for each sentence – a, an, the or leave it blank. 1. My father’s car is considered to be ______ piece of art. 2. _______ (B/b)eauty is fleeting. 3. _______ (A/a)ir in the room was stifling. 4. The doctor told me that I needed ______ operation tomorrow. 5. ______ (I/i)nformation I received was extremely important. 6. ______ (A/a)ir is made up of millions of atoms. 7. My parents could not believe that their dog had peed on ______ carpet. 8. ______ (A/a)pple a day keeps the doctor away. 9. In some cultures ______ dogs are considered man’s best friend. 10. My sister decided to cut her hair with ______ scissors. 11. I was bitten by _______ mosquito in the Caribbean. 12. When the horn honked, it scared me and I dropped ______ glass on the floor. 13. In ancient Egypt _______ cat was considered sacred. 14. Is _______ water in Lake Erie safe to drink?
Much / Many Much ManyMuch is used with uncountable Many is used with countable nouns. nouns.How much milk is in the fridge? We have many friends. I wish you much happiness. There are many pencils on the table.
Decide whether you have to use much or many.• Jane hasnt got __________ time.• Do you know __________ words in English?• He didnt eat __________ meat.• There isnt __________ butter in the fridge.• How __________ eggs did the hens lay?• Samantha has as __________ money as Bruce.• How __________ lessons do you have on Mondays?• There was too __________ noise in the streets.• I cannot see __________ stars in the sky tonight.• Do you have __________ friends abroad?
Decide whether you have to use much or many.• There is too __________ water in the bath tub.• How __________ brothers and sisters has Anne got?• I dont receive __________ letters nowadays.• How __________ rice do you eat per week?• I put too __________ salt in the soup.• How __________ people were at the party?• It doesnt make __________ sense.• There wasnt __________ traffic on the motorway.• My grandfather does not have __________ hair, anymore.• How __________ plates do we need?
Little / Few Little FewLittle is used with uncountable nouns. Few is used with countable nouns. There’s little milk in the fridge. We have few friends. I need little money. There are few pencils on the table.
Decide whether you have to use little or few.• We had __________ snow last winter.• __________ people were interested in the exhibition.• I speak __________ French.• There are __________ gentlemen nowadays.• She has __________ relatives.• There is __________ water in the pond.• The professor spends __________ time in company.• We have __________ knowledge of this phenomenon.• There are __________ mushrooms in my mushroom soup.• __________ animals can survive in the desert.
Some / Any Some Any In positive clauses, we usually In negative clauses, we use any.use some.I have bought some bread. I have not bought any bread.I have bought some apples. I have not bought any apples. We usually use any in questions. But if In questions, we usually use any.we expect or want the other to answer Have you bought any bread?‚yes‘, we use some. Have you bought any apples?Would you like some biscuits? We usually use some in positive clauses. After never, without, hardly, we use any. We never go anywhere. She did her homework without any help. There’s hardly anyone here.
Fill in the correct word (some or any).• Sue went to the cinema with __________ of her friends!• Jane doesnt have __________ friends.• Have you got __________ brothers or sisters?• Here is __________ food for the cat.• I think you should put __________ flowers on the table.• Could you check if there are __________ calls on the answering machine?• I dont want __________ presents for my birthday.• Did they have __________ news for you?• Im hungry - Ill have __________ sandwiches.• There arent __________ apples left.
Fill in the correct word (some or any).• I need a hammer and __________ nails.• He does not want __________ help.• There are __________ sheep in the garden.• Do you know __________ famous people?• They often invite __________ friends to their home.• Do you have __________ idea what they are doing there?• Charley doesnt have __________ pets.• My little brother already knows __________ words in English.• My mum doesnt speak __________ foreign languages.• Ive got __________ sweets for you.