Dante's divine comedy presentation 1st part

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Dante's divine comedy presentation 1st part

  1. 1. Dante’s Divine Comedy One of the Best Poems of European Literature
  2. 2. Type of Literature <ul><li>Late Medieval Literature (Dante finished shortly before his death in 1321 AD) </li></ul><ul><li>Originally written in the Italian vernacular </li></ul><ul><li>“ Divine” indicates subject matter </li></ul><ul><li>“ Comedy” indicates style of poem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Starts off oppressive but ends on a happy note </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not written in an elevated style, such as that of Homer’s Illiad or Virgil’s Anead </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Dante’s Divine Comedy
  4. 4. Numbers in Medieval Society <ul><li>Number were extremely important in Medieval Society. </li></ul><ul><li>100 is the square of 10 , and is therefore considered the perfect number. </li></ul><ul><li>The number 3 was associated with the Trinity and 9 was important as the square of 3. </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Significance of the Number Three <ul><li>The number three is prominent throughout the Divine Comedy , most specifically the “Inferno.” </li></ul><ul><li>The Trinity provides one possible reason for the frequency of the number three: Dante, obviously, wrote the Comedia as a deeply Christian work, and would have understood three to be a deeply theological number. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Uses of 3 <ul><li>Three Books: Inferno, Purgatorio, Paradiso </li></ul><ul><li>Each book has thirty three cantos. (not counting the introduction in the Inferno) </li></ul><ul><li>Terza Rima Rhyme Scheme: the poem also employs a unique, interlocking terza rima rhyme scheme (aba bcb cdc...) that seems to be Dante's own invention. </li></ul><ul><li>In Canto One Dante encounters 3 beasts </li></ul><ul><li>Satan is represented as being a 3 headed creature. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Structure of the Divine Comedy <ul><li>Contains three great divisions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cantica One: Hell (Inferno) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cantica Two: Purgatory (Purgatorio) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cantica Three: Paradise (Paradiso) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Each Cantica contains thirty-three cantos with an additional canto in Inferno serving as a prologue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>33 + 33 + 33 + 1 = 100 cantos </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>The three greater divisions or canticas were to represent the Trinity. </li></ul><ul><li>The number 9, the square of three, figures centrally in the interior structure of each of the three divisions. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There are nine circles in the Inferno </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There are nine ledges in the Purgatorio </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There are nine planetary spheres in Paradiso </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Dante varied the lengths of the individual cantos for a purpose: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The canto length in the Inferno is chaotic, this parallels the chaos between souls and God. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The canto length becomes more standardized in Purgatorio, this parallels the state of the soul and God </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The canto length in Paradiso is uniform, this parallels the harmony between the souls and God. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. The Nature of the Divine Comedy
  11. 11. Allegory and Journey <ul><li>Allegory is a story operating at a literal and symbolic level, each character and action signify the literal as well as represent an idea. </li></ul><ul><li>The Divine Comedy is a narrative that details the journey of one man, Dante, through Hell, Purgatory and Heaven. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Allegory and Journey <ul><li>Dante represents every human. </li></ul><ul><li>The journey represents rejection of sin (Hell), redemption of the soul (Purgatory), and finally the unification between soul and God (Heaven). </li></ul><ul><li>The journey mirrors medieval Catholic theology. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Journey and Allegory Continued <ul><li>Virgil represents Reason, which can take Dante only through Hell and Purgatory. </li></ul><ul><li>Beatrice, or Divine Revelation, must take Dante through Heaven. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Dante & Virgils Journey <ul><li>Dante, guided by Virgil, heads down into the Inferno. </li></ul><ul><li>Hell is an inverted cone, wide at the top and narrow at the bottom. </li></ul><ul><li>Dante and Virgil travel through Hell and Dante recounts the sights of sinners being punished in ways that symbolically fit the sin. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Structure of Inferno (cross section)
  16. 16. Structure of Inferno <ul><li>There are 9 concentric circles in Hell. </li></ul><ul><li>Hell is geographically divided into Upper Hell and the Lower Hell by the Walls of the Dis. </li></ul>
  17. 18. Four Areas of Hell, Four Types of Sin <ul><li>Hell is theologically divided into four sections: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Opportunisim (vestibule/outside hell) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sin of Paganism (circle 1) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sins of Incontinence (circles 2-6) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sins of Violence (circle 7) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sins of Fraud (circles 8-9) </li></ul></ul>
  18. 20. Vestibule: Opportunism <ul><li>Sin: choosing neither right nor wrong. </li></ul><ul><li>Punishment: floating around outside Heaven, Hell and Purgatory chasing a banner (opportunity) being stung by bees (conscience or guilt). </li></ul>
  19. 21. Circle One: Limbo <ul><li>Sin: Not knowing Jesus Christ </li></ul><ul><li>Punishment: No physical torments, only the emotional torment of never knowing God or experiencing Heaven (no hope). </li></ul>
  20. 22. Incontinence: Circles 2-6 <ul><li>Sins of incontinence are irrational sins against God. Sins in which people give into their physical or emotional urges without regard to rational thought or moral consequences. </li></ul>
  21. 23. Circle 2: Sins of Lust <ul><li>Sin: Lust or Adultery </li></ul><ul><li>Punishment: To have one’s soul float around in a whirlwind, just as one gave into physical desires. </li></ul>
  22. 24. Circle 3: Gluttony <ul><li>Sin: to give into one’s physical desires to eat and drink regardless of consequences </li></ul><ul><li>Punishment: To be bloated and mired in filth, while filth rains down from the sky </li></ul>
  23. 25. Circle 4: Avarice & Prodigality <ul><li>Sin: Hoarding (greed) or Wasting (prodigality) without thought to consequence. </li></ul><ul><li>Punishment: Souls of misers push rocks into the rocks pushed by spendthrifts </li></ul>
  24. 26. Circle 5: Anger <ul><li>Sin: Wrathfulness or great anger in life </li></ul><ul><li>Punishment: to be immersed in the filthy river, Styx, and constantly tear at one another </li></ul><ul><li>Sin: Sullen, those who refused to welcome the light of God into their hearts </li></ul><ul><li>Punishment: To forever be buried underneath the Styx, never seeing light. </li></ul>
  25. 27. Circle 6: Heretics <ul><li>Sin: Heretics who denied the idea of immortality (they thought the soul died with the body) </li></ul><ul><li>Punishment: To exist eternally in graves in the fiery morgue of God’s wrath </li></ul>
  26. 28. Circle 7: Violence <ul><li>Circle 7 is an area divided into three separate rounds, each round is an area in which specific groups of sinners are punished. </li></ul><ul><li>Round One: The Violent Against Neighbors </li></ul><ul><li>Round Two: The Violent Against Themselves </li></ul><ul><li>Round Three: The Violent Against God, Nature and Art </li></ul>
  27. 29. Circle 8: The Fraudulent and Malicious <ul><li>Circle 8 consists of 10 bolgias or pockets. </li></ul><ul><li>They are often referred to as malebolges, or ‘pockets of evil.’ </li></ul><ul><li>Each pocket or bolgia is where a group of specific sinners is punished. </li></ul>
  28. 30. Ten Malebolgias of Circle 8 <ul><li>Bolgia 1: Panderers and Seducers </li></ul><ul><li>Bolgia 2: Flatterers </li></ul><ul><li>Bolgia 3: Simoniacs </li></ul><ul><li>Bolgia 4: Fortune Tellers and Diviners </li></ul><ul><li>Bolgia 5: The Grafters </li></ul><ul><li>Bolgia 6: The Hypocrites </li></ul><ul><li>Bolgia 7: The Thieves </li></ul><ul><li>Bolgia 8: The Evil Counselors </li></ul><ul><li>Bolgia 9: The Sowers of Discord </li></ul><ul><li>Bolgia 10: The Falsifiers </li></ul>
  29. 31. Circle 9: Treachery <ul><li>Circle 9 includes four areas called rounds: </li></ul><ul><li>Round 1: Treacherous to Kin </li></ul><ul><li>Round 2: Treacherous to Country </li></ul><ul><li>Round 3: Treacherous to Guests & Hosts </li></ul><ul><li>Round 4: Treacherous to Their Masters </li></ul><ul><li>The Center: Satan </li></ul>
  30. 32. Dante Emerges from Hell <ul><li>Dante views Satan and proceeds to climb his spiny back to emerge on Earth, not far from the nine ledges of Purgatory. </li></ul>

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