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Research on Sonic Branding

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A Review on the concept of "Sonic Branding" and its impact on Emotions, Brand Recall, Brand Recognition and Purchase Intention.

A Review on the concept of "Sonic Branding" and its impact on Emotions, Brand Recall, Brand Recognition and Purchase Intention.

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Research on Sonic Branding Research on Sonic Branding Document Transcript

  • FINAL REPORT ON A Review of the concept “SONIC BRANDING” andtechniques to measure its impact on Emotions, Brand Recall, Brand Recognition and Purchase Intention. By (DARPAN JAIN, 07BS1675, IBS AHMEDABAD) 1 |P age
  • FINAL REPORT ON A Review of the concept “SONIC BRANDING” andtechniques to measure its impact on Emotions, Brand Recall, Brand Recognition and Purchase Intention. By (DARPAN JAIN) (M.B.A. 2007-2009) A report submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements of MBA Program (Class of 2007-09) ICFAI BUSINESS SCHOOL AHMEDABADSubmitted To,Mrs. Kiran Rai(Faculty Guide) 2 |P age
  • AKNOWLEDGEMENTThis project report is an outcome of sincere efforts and cooperation of everyone who helped me.I conducted this project under the supervision of my respectful guide Prof. Kiran Rai (Faculty atIBS Ahmedabad).I am very thankful for her insightful ideas which helped me to look at the project from not onlyjust the academic point of view but also the commercial one. She did help me to pen my thoughtsand visualize the big picture. I am also thankful to Prof. Toby Mammen and Prof. Amit Saraswatfor sharing their special views on the topic and giving it a meaningful angle.I would also specially like to thank Laura Strickland (Business Strategist, Sonic Id) and NoelFranus (Managing Director, Sonic Id). Laura Strickland has been kind enough to help me atevery stage of the project. She has been sharing her knowledge from the time I started the projectand it is due to her active dialogue with me that the project has been finally completed. NoelFranus has also been a source of inspiration for the project. Having a healthy discussion with himhelped me gain a commercial understanding of the concept and at the same time a goodknowledge of industry demand. It was due to his investing precious time in my project thathelped me to frame the second phase of the project. Signature of the Student (DARPAN.L.JAIN) 3 |P age
  • Table of ContentsTable of Contents ...............................................................................................................................4Abstract .............................................................................................................................................6Introduction-I.....................................................................................................................................1 WHAT IS SONIC BRANDING?............................................................................................................2 HISTORY:.....................................................................................................................................2 SONIC BRANDING CONCEPT:........................................................................................................3 HOW TO LEVERAGE ON SONIC BRAND IDENTITY?..........................................................................7Introduction-II ..................................................................................................................................14Literature Review .............................................................................................................................17 Theories and Models.....................................................................................................................17 Attitude Theory.........................................................................................................................17 Classical Conditioning Theory.....................................................................................................18 Involvement Theory...................................................................................................................18 Music theory.............................................................................................................................19 Variables ......................................................................................................................................22 Independent Variables...............................................................................................................22 Dependent Variables .................................................................................................................22 Results .........................................................................................................................................26 Attitude Toward the Ad .............................................................................................................26 Ad Time ....................................................................................................................................26 Attitude Toward the Brand ........................................................................................................27 Brand Recall ..............................................................................................................................27 Pleasure and Arousal .................................................................................................................28 Purchase Intention ....................................................................................................................28 Content Analyses.......................................................................................................................28 4 |P age
  • Future Research ...............................................................................................................................36 Advertisers and Academics............................................................................................................36 Advertising and Popular Music.......................................................................................................36 Brand Image .................................................................................................................................37 Environments ...............................................................................................................................37 Fit and Indexicality........................................................................................................................38Conclusion .......................................................................................................................................39REFERENCES.....................................................................................................................................40 5 |P age
  • Abstract The research discusses the role of sound in branding with its usage in marketingcommunication. The impact of sound to create distinct and memorable long term image of thebrand in the minds of target audience has been one of the most cited advantage of the concept“Sonic Branding”. The research paper explores the concept in terms of its history, how theconcept grew, its utility, convergence of Sonic Branding with recent technologies and SonicBranding in India. The second part of the report concerns more on the measurement aspect and involves a criticalexamination of tools and techniques to measure the effect of music on emotions, brand recall,recognition and purchase intention. It summarizes the various methods applied by researchers allover the world and discusses in brief the outcomes of the research done by them. The research is divided into two phases- the first phase deals with concept and the techniquesto measure its impact. The second phase would deal with the application of the researchtechniques to understand its impact on the above mentioned parameters and would also discussthe results and insights that are generated from the research. 6 |P age
  • Introduction-IIn recent years, marketing and branding practices have become increasingly complex andchallenging. Getting the attention of consumers has become more difficult as the amount ofmarketing “noise” is blurring communication further. Until recently, brands have beencommunicated with a dominant emphasis on visual elements. Consumers are exposed to 3.000advertisements every day, hence creating a strong need for more efficient and distinguishablecommunication by companies attempting to communicate to them. Brand effectiveness is anideal searched for by many, but only achieved by few. This truth is reflected by the current stateof the advertising industry today; a market saturated with adverts that are indistinct andineffective. Coupled with a rise in the personalization of media, consumers now have the abilityto sidestep advertising and have begun to invest their time more in platforms that have noestablished tradition of advertising such as mobile and broadband broadcast content. Avoidanceof adverts is also causing levels of consumer interaction with brands to dramatically reduce inthe sense that they feel little need to be involved with a brand they have no interest in. Reducedinterest caused by a lack of brand distinction which is itself generated by ineffective managementand presentation of bands by advertisers. If consumers can no longer identify brands as beingdistinct, then their constant presentation will cease to be of little value to consumers oradvertisers. The perception of brands as being generic has lead consumers to direct theirattention more on the content of the media they interact with and less on the advertisingpositioned around it. This in turn has simply encouraged advertisers to produce bigger, attentiongrabbing campaigns that cater more to the consumer eye than brand equity, and only act as redflags for the consumer –beginning the whole cycle once more. A strong, almost disproportionate,emphasis on the visual perception of consumers has lead to different advertisers treating differentbrands in the same manner and visual execution more than long-term brand impact has becomethe main drive behind advert presentation. This communication space is hence somewhatsaturated, and companies must turn to other methods in order to communicate their brandsthrough the filter. Sensory branding has been appraised as one of the characteristics of brandcommunication in the new millennium. Herein, sound is one of the main players, and it offers aconsiderable means for brands to enhance their image and consumer awareness. Companies areslowly realizing the potential of audio, however, the execution remains a somewhat untouchedaspect. This field lacks management perspectives on how to create and implement audioelements as a prolongation of the visuals. The literature that exists within this developing field isvastly descriptive and draws upon examples from companies that have already implementedaudio into their brand communication. In order for brands to benefit from audio, and perhapsachieve first mover advantage in relation to audio elements, it is essential that the academic fieldprogresses and contributes with theoretical considerations that companies can utilize for thefurther development of brands. 11 Breaking the Silence- A managerial approach for companies to realize their audio potential, School ofEconomics and Management, Lund University (2007). 1 |P age
  • WHAT IS SONIC BRANDING? Before we define sonic branding, it’s important to define the concepts of brand and logo.These may be generic terms that are used in everyday lingo, and that is exactly why they need aspecific definition. A brand as “an identifying mark burnt on livestock” was the original definition(Anonymous), and it has been extended to the field of marketing since the advent of packagedgoods and the industrial revolution. Marketing guru Phillip Kotler defines brand as “a name,term, sign, symbol, or design, or a combination of them intended to identify the goods or servicesof one seller or a group of sellers and to differentiate them from those of competitors.” (Kotler,2000) According to Kotler, a logo is a vital part of the brand. It is the face of the company and“a graphic element, symbol or icon of a trademark or brand and its logotype, which is set in aunique typeface or arranged in a particular way (Kotler, 2000).”HISTORY:Jean Pierre Bacelon, a French radio producer turned airtime salesman has been credited withidentifying the benefits of sonic branding on radio in the mid-1980s (Jackson, 2004). He coined theterm “marque sonique” and after analyzing and categorizing radio commercials of his era, heconcluded that radio advertising containing sonic branding elements achieved greater success inawareness, sale and repeat purchase.As Director of IP France, he started working closely with Media Sales and Marketing UK, which iswhen he created the English translation of his ideas – “sonic branding”. It was initially used by radioadvertisers to pitch radio advertising and the use of sound as a powerful brand communication tool(Miller & Marks, 1992). In the UK, the Radio Advertising Bureau adopted the sonic branding sell totry and convince more advertisers to try out radio, during a time of lean growth for the industry.Growth in dotcoms and new media in the late 1990s enabled venture capital to be made available forsonic branding agencies (Jackson, 2004).In the new millennium, every media platform has sound built-in. Sonic branding provides theopportunity for companies to extend a common identity across various platforms, whether as TV,Internet, radio, podcasts, ringtones, online navigational sounds, website sounds, tones at point of saleareas in retail stores, cinema, cash registers, stadium public address systems, or the “hold music” ofthe company’s customer service number.This has led to a phenomenal growth in the number of sonic branding agencies. In the US,establishment of sonic branding as a specialized field is much more recent as compared to the UK. In2001, there was one company specializing in offering sonic branding services in the US, one in the 2 |P age
  • UK, and one in the Switzerland. Today there are more than 50 companies in the world, 35 in Europealone (Lamb, 2006). 2SONIC BRANDING CONCEPT:“The intentional use of music, sound, voice and silence to create rational and emotionalconnections between people and organizations.” (Sonic ID)People and nature have been using sonic branding since the world began. We talk, sing, hum andshake to our own tune and rhythm, using the sounds we make to differentiate ourselves fromthose around us and express how we feel. Humans use sound in an incredibly sophisticated way.From the cradle we use our primitive voice to express how we feel, what we need and whom welike. As we develop our voices and skills we use speech and song. In our characteristic way, wehave developed tools for making sounds. Firstly percussive (drums) and latterly musicalinstruments and polyphonic synthesizers. We also value sound very highly – emotionally andfinancially. We buy recorded sounds and they form a soundtrack to our lives. We build concerthalls, we cherish musicians and singers as central to our society. Sound is big news in allsocieties, everywhere. There is much yet to be discovered about the true relationship betweensound and the brain. Some things we do know include the fact that sound is processed in both theleft and right hemispheres, thereby appealing to our rational and emotional sides. Left Brain Right Brain Logical Random Sequential Intuitive Rational Holistic Analyses Synthesizes Objective Subjective Parts WholesWe also know that sound and memory have very strong associations. We all have a greatcapacity for remembering voices, ambient sounds and especially music.Brand ExperienceThe idea of treating a brand as an entire experience is well established. The premise is that everytime a person comes into contact with a brand physically, or through media the experience2 The Sonic Boom- Effec t of Logo Presentation Style in Television Commercials on Memory for the adver tised Brand 3 |P age
  • should be distinct, consistent and positive. Back in the 1950s, companies like McDonalds firstdiscovered the benefits of paying attention to all aspects of a brand experience – not just theproduct and packaging.These pioneers established the value of a distinct, positive and consistent retail environment,incorporating look, feel and sound. As media has proliferated, the brand experience can takeplace almost everywhere and at any time. Brand experience now incorporates every TV, radio,outdoor, cinema and press ad and editorial. It involves websites, WAP/3G, direct mail and shelf-wobblers. It involves telephone hold systems, call centers, IVRs, events and retail space. Peoplehave five senses. If a brand can establish a consistent approach to taste, smell, visuals, texturesand sound then every part of the brand experience can be distinct, consistent and positive.Sonic Brand ExpressionsThese range from corporate identity, Sonic Logos to three- hour symphonies composed toentertain guests at the summer party. Any expression of a brand starts with an understanding ofwhat makes the brand distinct. The best consultants help brands draw honest conclusions thatrelate to the truth of the brand not just to the smokescreens of image, spin and PR. Once theessence of a brand is defined then all expressions, sonic or otherwise can be created to conveythe brand in a consistent, distinct and positive way.EnvironmentSound is as integral a part of environment as materials and structure. As such, it has a huge roleto play in delivering the brand experience for retailers, entertainment and service industries.Designing sound for environment involves the arts of acoustics and composition. In simpleterms, acoustics involves deciding where to put what kind of speakers and how loud they shouldbe.Huge strides have been made with speaker technology over the last 20 years with thedevelopment of new technology such as Dolby Surround and THX. The enhanced soundprovides the ‘feel’ to go with the ‘look’ and that is the role it fills in retail and serviceenvironments.Many retail environments already have high quality speaker systems in place. Starbucks andPottery Barn, for example, deliver hi- fi as part of their brand experience. Also from the States,FAO Schwartz toy stores have invested in good sound delivery. They use their system to playtheir own musical identity – a single piece of music that can also be heard in their ads, on the‘phone and anywhere else they have sound-delivering capabilities.It is common knowledge that a busy sounding environment is more conducive to shopping.Research carried out at Leicester University indicates that the type of music played in a retailenvironment has a marked influence over a number of variables such as the propensity to return,to spend time and to spend money. For example, it was suggested by the findings of one study inone particular environment that classical music caused customers to spend more than easylistening. There is a trend amongst independent retailers to play a commercial radio station in- 4 |P age
  • store. While this is better than no sound at all, it is less than ideal as the choice of music is takenout of the hands of the retailer.British Airways offers a fine example of how the right emotion expressed through music that‘fits’ the environment can benefit the brand experience. Their use of Delibe’s Flower Duet fromLakme, played while awaiting take-off, creates a relaxing and soothing atmosphere. Indeed, thatpiece of music is such a good fit with the brand that it has been used as sonic branding in theiradvertising, on the ‘phones and in airport lounges for over ten years.MultimediaBy multimedia I mean any medium that has the ability to use sound. (See Figure Below)SOURCE: AN INTRODUCTION TO SONIC BRANDING, DANIEL JACKSON, MANAGING DIRCTOR, SONIC BRAND LTD.The scope for sonic branding through multimedia is huge and new technology is being developedall the time to put sound capabilities in more and more things: from greetings cards to handhelddevices, supermarket till dividers and even product packaging.Defining the sonic branding for each application or context requires a flexible approach. Eachmedium is consumed in a different way by a different audience. The challenge is to maintain the‘fit’ with the environment whilst retaining the emotional values of the brand.For many years, Renault was a great example of how music can be subtly altered to fit context.Having decided to use Robert Palmer’s Jonny & Mary for all its corporate communications, 5 |P age
  • Renault created over 150 variations on the theme. Each fitted its context beautifully, had arecognizable melody and maintained its distinctive and positive elements.MusicMusic is the most sophisticated form of sonic branding. It is also the most powerful forgenerating memorability and distinctiveness – two of the holy grails of the communicationsindustries.Technology has made it possible to create and record new music incredibly quickly. The totalamount of music created each year is growing exponentially as more people find they have thetools – a computer and some software – to create bedroom symphonies.With increased ease come lower cost and the chance for brands to create wholly original musicthat exactly fits the emotions of the brand and context. Original music ensures a fit with brandessence and also, because of copyright law, allows true distinctiveness in a way that licensingexisting music cannot.Back to British Airways. Their corporate music is a classical piece that is out of copyright. Thisallowed Ford to use the same piece, along with airline imagery, for the launch of the Galaxypeople carrier. Most people we talk to believe there must have been a tie- up brand promotion;there was no such thing. It was just a company taking someone else’s logo without permissionand using it as an endorsement (except this was legal). Original music means this cannot happen.VoiceThere are at least twenty-five variables that can be used to describe a voice excluding accent! Aswith music, we are incredibly sensitive to these variables and able to differentiate betweencountless numbers of voices. Using the Speech font™ system, it is possible to choose a voice,the quality of which matches the emotional essence of the brand. If the perfect voice is then usedconsistently, the sonic branding effect from voice can be very powerful. The finest example ofthis in recent years has been Orange, the mobile communications company. They have used thesame authoritative, friendly, voice since launch and now, whatever he says in commercials, it isalways stamped with the Orange brand essence.AmbienceAny sound that cannot be described as music or voice comes under the banner of ambience orsound effects (sfx).Natural ambient sounds can be very useful in stressful office environments. We have used thesound of a gentle summer breeze to free the minds of Reuter’s staff and enable them to thinkmore creatively. Many restaurants use water features as much for the relaxing sound they makeas much as for the visual effect. 6 |P age
  • Sound effects can be incorporated into Sonic Logos, too. The re-arranged excerpt of Bach’s Air on the G String, which has been used for many years by Hamlet Cigars in their advertising, incorporates the sound of a match being struck. Sony Playstation uses the same sfx for its advertising sonic logo as it does for its start-up noise. In this case it is a distinct analogue ‘noise’ that perfectly matches the dark, hedonistic nature of the brand. Why Music as a source of Brand Ele ment? Music: it can express that which has no othe r means of expression. Music listening seems to encourage the release of endorphins which in turn elicit emotional responses. “Our Neuroimaging studies show Amygdala activation to music...repetition, when done skillfully by a master composer, is emotionally satisfying to our brains, and makes the listening experience as pleasurable as it is.” Daniel Levitin “Music doesn‘t represent any tangible, earthly reality. It represents things of the heart, feelings which are beyond description, beyond any experience one has had. The feeling of the holy, the sacred, the wonderful, the mystical...is conveyed very powerfully in music.” Oliver Sacks HOW TO LEVERAGE ON SONIC BRAND IDENTITY? Based on a British consumer research programme of 50 leading brands and their experiences in the audio branding-industry, Jackson provided four key-lessons for successful audio branding. These are:1. Be frequent or consistent over a long period2. If you want people to remember your brand name when they hear your audio branding, make sure you say the name3. Link your audio branding to a benefit of your brand4. Be creative, be distinct and remember that nobody is listening! For the first point, a good example of a consistent use of audio branding would be Nestlé’s Kit Kat, which has used a consistent sound image (the chunkiness of the product) since the 1950’s. Examples of audio branding efforts that have been successful due to their frequency are Carphone Warehouses landline product Talk Talk and McDonald’s “I’m lovin’ it” campaign. Secondly, Intel’s sonic logo is one of the most successful and most quoted examples of audio branding. However, in his studies Jackson found out that although 90% of the respondents were familiar with the sound only 38% could identify the name of the brand. This underlines the second key-lesson in Jackson’s studies. In order to make sure that the recipient connects the sound with the right product it is beneficial to cite the name of the product simultaneously to the visual representation. 7 |P age
  • Thirdly, by linking the benefit of the brand to the sound of the brand, consumers are brought closer to theactual brand identity that the company wants to portray. Cadillac enhanced its luxurious image bysucceeding to acquire a very limited licensed Led Zeppelin’s song “Rock and Roll” in its advertisingcampaigns. Starbucks emphasizes the benefit of its brand, a warm and cosy atmosphere, with “easylistening, slightly jazzy, soulful tunes” in its outlets.Finally, in audio branding, like in all branding activities, being creative is vital for success. The promotionof Audi TT Roadster for women in France was successful because of the creative use of music. Toportray the feeling of actually driving the car, the advertising agency compiled a soundtrack of cover-songs (e.g. "Riders on the Storm" with a hip-hop flavor) that was sent to subscribers of French Elle. Thiscompilation gave the listeners an overall experience of the feeling to drive the Roadster. The importanceof being distinct is also emphasized in research by North & Law. Their survey showed that “Ads withmusic that fits the brand are 96% more likely for the ad claim to be recalled than those with non-fitmusic and 47% more than ads with no music”. This could also be interpreted as a warning sign forcompanies getting into audio branding. The choice of music must be evaluated extremely carefullybecause non-fit music causes a deeper decrease in recall than not using music at all.The final point that Jackson makes in his key-lessons is that nobody is really listening. Becauseconsumers are constantly surrounded by various commercial stimulants, getting the message through isquite difficult. Arnold illustrates this problem by referring to the passivity of the recipient in relation toTV-advertisements: “Statistics show that 50% of people are in a way, occupied while the TV is on. Thatfigure jumps to 85% when a commercial kicks in…”. A solution to this problem offered by Jackson is touse more complex and melodic audio messages. This causes the recipients to shift from passive hearinginto active listening.Brand awarenessTo support Jackson’s criterion of frequency and consistency for audio brands, it is essential to putemphasis on creating and sustaining brand awareness. At present, the majority of organizations usetraditional marketing methods as a way of creating brand awareness. However, it seems that the conceptof audio branding can generate the same brand recognition as a visual identity brand identity alone.Studies have shown that sound and memory have strong associations52 . Sound can be considered to be anintegrated part of our everyday life and culture. Hence, it can play an immense part in delivering thebrand experience both for retailers, and in the service and entertainment industries. However, manycompanies fail to recognize this opportunity and focuses mainly on the visual identity of the brand. In the increasingly competitive business environment, consumers are faced with too muchinformation, which makes it difficult for companies to differentiate. Hence, instead of focusing merely onthe visual identity companies should look elsewhere to enhance their brand identity. In relation to this, thestrategic use of sound to create memory and experience can prove a strong brand differentiator.A number of research surveys have indicated that sound has a strong ability to enhance brandrecall. From a company perspective, this knowledge is vital as the use of sound elements tocommunicate a brand can be used to enhance the brand’s identity. If sound or music is playedwhile creating a memorable interaction with the consumer, the possibility of internalizing thisexperience into the memory which would easily be recalled in the future is more likely. Hence,brand managers are increasingly using in-store music strategically, as it has the capability toincrease sales by 38.2 %. However, companies have numerous interaction points (touch points)with consumers, from the logo to the experience of the product itself. By extending audio brandinginto the different touch points, such as products, services and promotions, companies have more ways togrow brand value and increase brand awareness. 8 |P age
  • Touch PointsHaving outlined the different means of achieving brand awareness, the catalysts for creating consistency,namely the touch points, will be elaborated. The increasing focus on touch point is a rather newphenomenon, which is likely to have emerged as a sub category to Customer Relationship Management(CRM)56. There are various definitions of the constituents of touch points, however, in this paper theconcept will be referred to as the various situations in which the consumer encounters a brand. In order toincrease awareness and brand preference, it is crucial that companies exploit their various touch points.The amount of touch points varies from company to company as well as the industry they operate in.Jackson brings forward an outline of the various touch points57 . Due to the scope of the paper, all of themwill not be dealt with separately in this chapter. As an alternative four main categories constituting themajority have been identified and serve as a generic overview of the touch points that many companieshave (figure given below) . These categories encompass1.) The product/service2.) Media communication3.) Retail4.) After sales/IVR, and5.) Web.It is hence acknowledged that the following framework is by no means exhaustive; however it shouldserve its purpose of clarifying the relation between the different touch points and the various factors thatinfluence and shape them.SOURCE: Breaking the Silence, School of Economics and Management, Lund University 9 |P age
  • The Audio Strategy in PracticeIn addition to creating a strong correlation between the existing brand identity and the audioidentity, as described in an earlier chapter, it is essential for companies to have specificguidelines for the type of audio used and how. The audio strategy serves a crucial role inimplementing and utilising audio. It is prepared by identifying the core elements of the brand orcorporate identity with the use of audio identity triangle as described in the previous chapter.However, due to the fact that audio as a strategy is a rather new phenomenon, companiesadopting an audio strategy are currently opting for audio branding consultants. Sonic Brandingcreates the audio branding strategy through interaction with managers and employees for thepurpose of revealing the true core of the brand identity. The strategy often covers various touchpoints and companies develop an audio manual, in which the core of the strategy is described.For instance, if the core identity of the brand is tradition and royalty, then the audio strategyshould encompass these elements and make them transferable to the various touch points. Hencethe audio strategy represents both an extended identity of the current brand identity. In addition,the audio strategy also comprises its own core in which the touch points are extensions. As thedotted line in figure 6 illustrates, there is a dynamic correlation between the brand identity andthe brand image. This implies that the audio might affect the brand image and subsequentlypossibly cause alterations of the brand identity if beneficial. Inevitably, the touch points also have an effect on each other, although not illustrated. As anexample, when audio is implemented into the product, the sound that is used in marketingcommunication should be similar in order for the audience to connect the commercial to thebrand. Naturally, the process might skip some of the various touch points, however what remainsof importance is that all touch points used share the same core.1. The Product/ServiceAs described in a previous chapter, the sound logo is connected to the core of the brand. It is often usedfor intangible products by brands such as Intel, in which case it seeks to make the brand memorable as theconsumer is not likely to remember the actual product. Sound is also implemented in actual physicalproducts. Several car manufacturers have developed and implemented specific “click” audio elementswhen the car door is closed. The purpose is to illustrate the quality of the car, as studies have shown thatconsumers expect the “click” sound for a quality car. A different example is the Tic Tac mints, whichheavily focuses on the sound of the product. The different commercials present the recognizable featureof Tic Tac’s; the click of opening as well as the shaking of the plastic container59 . The essence of thesebrands is that the sound reflects the core identity. In the case of Tic Tac, the sound is the maincharacteristic of the product and the sound will be recognized by other users, hence optimizing thevisibility of the product in the market. Thus, it is essential for brands to reflect the core identity aselaborated in a previous chapter. In order to be successful and gain recognition and recall, the soundshould remain stable over time.2. Media Communication In addition to staying tuned to the core identity as described above, the brand can epitomize variousextended identities through media communication60 . This umbrella term covers the variouscommunication channels that the brand uses to communicate with its audiences. Examples of these are 10 | P a g e
  • TV/cinema commercials, radio spots, conferences and various PR events61 . Oftentimes these channelsserve to increase consumer awareness and additionally to enhance the consumer perception of theconnection between brand values and brand offering.3. Retail This element refers to the various instances when the consumer is in direct contact with the brand by anintention to buy or gain more information. Often this will be in a retail setting, and there is a paradoxfound herein, as not all brands have the opportunity for exploiting this channel. Not many brands haveown stores in which they can fully implement their audio logo and identity. The majority of brands areavailable in retail settings that contain many different brands. Oftentimes the audio used in these settingswill consist of music, which in general reflects the identity of the retail change and not the specificbrands. The individual brands can make use of this channel by using TV’s and product demonstrationsincluding sound in the retail setting. The risk by doing so, however, as Jackson points out is that staff andconsumers oftentimes spend a considerable amount of time in store and hence find the use of repetitiveaudio a nuisance62 . A means to avoid this factor is to use subtle audio both in relation to volume andlength of piece of audio clip. In other words, the constant repetition of the sound logo in this settingfosters irritation rather than desired recognition and perception. Brands opting for this channel shouldhence aim for utilization of their audio identity (theme) as it conveys the identity without displeasing thevarious stakeholders.4. After Sales / IVRIn order to exploit the brand audio in a long-term perspective, companies should strive to implement theaudio in IVR (Interactive Voice Response) and other channels that the consumer might encounter afterpurchasing the product or service. According to Sonic Branding, most companies have not realized theimportance of creating telephone profiles that reflect the identity of the brand. This becomes an obstaclein that it fails to communicate the values of the company, and consequently some of the credibility is lostor damaged. Often for IVR it is recommended to use a voice of a person external to the company63 as itmakes it possible to create a consistent voice identity, which is a feature that consumers or clientsappreciate. In addition, it is equally important not to utilize the voice of a person that is used by manycompanies as it does not appear authentic. This concerns both the IVR and general media communication.5. WebOne of the most important touch points is the Internet. This channel is interrelated to mediacommunication; however in the above illustration it has been separated in order to stress its importance.This touch point represents both the brand web site and advertisements on the net. The majority of brands,at least the higher-involvement, have a web site to communicate its values and other information.Presently, many companies operating online fail to exploit this channel in relation to audio64 . In additionto being a crucial point for communication, web sites are limited in their sensory appeal. Sound is in factthe only additional appeal that can be implemented and should hence be exploited to the extent possible.This can be done through regular background music, such as heard on the Finlandia web site as well asplaying the audio logo in order to create a stronger connection to commercials in which the audio logo isused. 11 | P a g e
  • A recent trend is for brands to place their sound logos as POD (Play-On-Demand), which branddevotees download and use as ring tones for their mobile phones or MP3 players. A company that hasalready exploited this new channel is Coca Cola. The sound logo can be downloaded and used for themobile. Moreover, the company offers its own “coke music”, which users can engage in like a regularradio channel65 . Undoubtedly, the majority of companies will not be able to implement such an extensiveservice, yet most companies will benefit from using their sound logo and sound profile as much aspossible through this channel. 12 | P a g e
  • Tools and Techniques to measure the Concept“SONIC BRANDING” 13 | P a g e
  • Introduction-II It is almost impossible to turn on the radio or the television, or walk into a retailestablishment and not witness the marriage of art and commerce. Even before the days of mediaand malls, music was a major force in consumer marketing. Without exception, music plays avital role in the interactive process of consumer behavior. The commercial uses of music inmarketing account for billions of dollars nationwide. Not surprisingly, this area of study hasreceived considerable attention primarily focused on the impact of music on consumer responsesto commercial advertising. There are many stimuli, or environmental cues, that retailers use to affect consumer behaviorincluding music, color, scents, etc. Music is considered to be the most commonly studiedstimulus variable (Turley & Milliman, 2000). Most retailers would agree that music is one oftheir most important considerations and expenses (Yalch & Spangenberg, 1993). Billions ofdollars are spent worldwide on music in the retail environment (North & Hargreaves, 1998). Pastreviews of experimental evidence in this area have included music as part of a larger review ofatmospheric effects (Lam, 2001; Turley & Milliman, 2000), and more narrowly focused on justits effect on shopping behavior (Allan, in press). There are also many stimuli, or executional cues, that advertisers use to affect consumerresponse to commercials including music, spokespersons, animation, etc. Music is alsoconsidered to be the most used executional cue in commercials (Yalch, 1991). Dunbar (1990,p. 200) argued that “music makes you watch or listen [to advertising] in a different way” thancommercials without music and adds an emotional dimension to the consumer response to thebrand. While it should not be surprising that the effect of music on advertising has beenextensively researched, it should be surprising that a current, comprehensive, and critical reviewof the literature has not been completed. Bruner (1990) provided an early collection of relevantresearch involving music and advertising as part of the literature review for his “Music, Moodand Marketing” but that is now more than a decade old. North and Hargreaves (1997) updatedthe list as part of a larger chapter (“Music and Consumer Behaviour”) on the commercial and 14 | P a g e
  • industrial uses of music (advertising, shops and the music industry) in The Sociology of Music.This article then, has three purposes. First, it is a review of the most important studies involvingmusic and advertising beginning with the most relevant definitions (Table 1). Second, it is asynthesis and comparison of variables and results. Third, based on what has been done and howit has been executed, it is a foundation and facilitation for future research. 15 | P a g e
  • Table 1A Summary of Relevant Definitions Definition__________________________ Citation__________________Fit The music’s relevance or appropriateness to the central ad message. MacInnis & Park (1991)Indexicality The extent to which the music arouses emotion- laden memories. MacInnis & Park (1991)Jingle Unique, novel lyrics written for a particular advertisement. Wallace (1991)Modality A pitch-related variable that is the configuration of intervals between notes Kellaris & Kent (1991) in the scale such as major and minor modes.Mood A fleeting, temporary feeling state, usually not intense and not tied to a Gardner (1985) specifiable behavior.Music A complex chemistry of three main controllable elements (time, pitch and Bruner (1990) texture).Needle drop Music that is prefabricated, multipurpose, and highly conventional. Scott (1990)Placement The position of the music in the advertisement. Brooker & Wheatley (1994)Popular Music that is “well- liked” by “ordinary people” (Shuker, 1994) that has Shuker (1994)Music had wide exposure and appeal but usually for a fixed period of time.Tempo A time-related variable that controls pace. Kellaris & Kent (1991)Texture Comprised of timbre and orchestra. Kellaris & Kent (1994)Tonality The configuration of intervals between pitches on a scale. Kellaris & Kent (1994) 16 | P a g e
  • Literature Review The review of literature is divided into two parts. The first part is a discussion of the mostcited theories and models including the terms and concepts. The second part is an analysis of themost relevant empirical studies of the effects of music on advertising. A summary table followseach section.Theories and Models Advertising and music have been investigated through many variables with a wide range ofoutcomes. An analysis of these studies begins with a discussion of the most relevant theories andmodels. These theories and models provide the foundation of music in advertisingexperimentation and include attitude theory, classical conditioning theory, involvement theoryespecially the elaboration likelihood model (ELM), and music theory. Attitude Theory. Fishbein’s (1963) attitude theory, that a person’s attitude is a function ofhis salient beliefs activated from memory at a point in time in a given situation, is the primaryconsideration with all research dealing with attitude toward the ad and attitude toward the brand.As will be apparent in the results section, many researchers have studied music’s effect onattitude toward the brand in regard to product preference (Allen & Madden, 1985; Gorn, 1982;Kellaris & Cox, 1989; Middlestadt et al., 1994; Park & Young, 1986; Pitt & Abratt, 1988; Zhu,2005) and purchase intention (Brooker & Wheatley, 1994; Morris & Boone, 1998). Others havealso considered attitude toward the ad and product preference (Macklin, 1988; Shen et al., 2006)and purchase intention (Morris & Boone, 1998; North et al., 2004). The music variables withregard to attitude toward the brand and the ad that have been most studied are indexicality, or“the extent to which the music arouses emotion- laden memories,” and fit, or “the music’srelevance or appropriateness to the central ad message,” and its effect on the processing of thecommercial (MacInnis & Park, 1991). 17 | P a g e
  • Classical Conditioning Theory. Pavlov’s classical conditioning, as it relates toadvertising, suggests that positive attitudes towards an advertised product or a conditionedstimulus, usually the brand, might develop through its association in a commercial with stimulithat are reacted to positively, such as music, celebrities, or color. But, research has producedconflicting results. Gorn (1982) concluded that positive attitudes towards an advertised product,in this case colored pens, might develop through its association in a commercial with otherstimuli like music (he used the theme from “Grease” and classical Indian music). The results oftwo experiments supported the notion that the simple association between a product and anotherstimulus such as music can affect product preferences as measured by product choice.Furthermore, an individual who is in a decision- making mode when exposed to a commercial ismore affected by the information therein than an individual who is not in a decision- makingmode. Many researchers have attempted to extend Gorn’s study but have been unable to replicatehis findings (Allen & Madden, 1985; Alpert & Alpert, 1990, Kellaris & Cox, 1989; Pitt &Abratt, 1988). As it stands, classical conditioning appears to occur unreliably (Kellaris & Cox,1989) and then only in case of low involvement consumers. Involvement Theory. Involvement Theory in general, and the Elaboration LikelihoodModel (ELM) in particular, have been suggested as keys to understanding how music affectsresponses to advertising. Krugman (1965) defined involvement as “the number of consciousbridging experiences, connections, or personal references per minute that a viewer makesbetween his or her own life and a stimulus” (p. 356). Salmon (1986) added that “involvement, inany form, seems to mediate both the acquisition and processing of information through activatinga heightened state of arousal and/or greater cognitive activity in an interaction between anindividual and a stimulus” (p. 264). Petty and Cacioppo’s (1986) concept of elaborationlikelihood refers to “the likelihood one engages in issue-relevant thinking with the aim ofdetermining the merits of the arguments rather than the total amount of thinking per se in whicha person engages” (p. 674). ELM assumes that once an individual receives a message, processingbegins. Depending on the personal relevance of this information, the receiver will follow one oftwo “routes” to persuasion: “central” and “peripheral.” 18 | P a g e
  • When the consumer gives the message a high degree of attention, there is high involvement andthus a central (active) processing route. When the consumer gives the message a low degree ofattention, there is low involvement and a peripheral (passive) processing route. Petty andCacioppo suggested that high involvement was the result of a message with high personalrelevance. Researchers that have studied involvement with regard to advertising and music havefound that it can positively affect message processing in low involvement conditions (MacInnis& Park, 1991; Park & Young, 1986).Music theory. The idea that music has the potential to enhance attention (stimulate awareness)and memory (recall) has been widely speculated and researched (Adorno 1941, 1976; Bartlett &Snelus, 1980; Bower & Bolton, 1969; Galizio & Hendrick, 1972; Hecker, 1984; Macklin, 1988;Rothschild, 1987; Rubin, 1977; Schulkind et al., 1999; Wallace, 1994). Macklin (1988) found that messages that were sung in a produced, original jingle thatsounded like a nursery rhyme produced the same recall from children as spoken messages.Bartlett and Snelus (1980) found that cued recall of lyrics of popular songs from 1921 (“WhenFrancis Dances With Me”) to 1974 (“Morning Has Broken”) was higher in response to melodiesthan in response to titles. Schulkind, Hennis, and Rubin (1999) observed a correlation betweenmusic, emotion and autobiographical, long-term memory of older adults and songs from theiryouth when testing the Top 20 from 1935 (“On Treasure Island”) to 1994 (“That’s The WayLove Goes”). Some researchers have also observed the enhancement of recall by music. Rubin(1977) found that recall of information is improved when cued with the melody of a well knownsong (“Star Spangled Banner”). Wallace (1994) found that the melody of a song (using threeballads from “The Frank C. Brown Collection of North Carolina Folklore) could facilitate recallof text by providing it with musical structure for learning and remembering. Serafine, Crowder,and Repp (1984), Serafine, Davidson, Crowder, and Repp (1986), and Crowder, Serafine andRepp (1990) suggested an integration effect where the melody or text of a song (using folksongsfrom Erdei) is better recalled with original text than with different text. 19 | P a g e
  • These results suggest that music in ads has the potential to stimulate emotion, attention andrecall but not all studies support this theory. Galizio and Hendrick (1972) did not observe thatmemory for verbal information was enhanced by presenting the information in the form of asong (the musical accompaniment of a guitar). A summary of the most cited theories and modelsincluding terms and concepts can be seen in Table 2. 20 | P a g e
  • Table 2 A Summary of Relevant Theories and ModelsTheory____________________________________________________ __ Citation________________Attitude Suggests that beliefs are the only mediators of attitude formation and change and FishbeinTheory that a person’s attitude is a function of salient beliefs at a particular moment. (1963)Classical The process of behavior modification by which a subject (dog) comes to respond PavlovConditioning in a desired manner to a previously neutral stimulus (bell) that has been (1927) repeatedly presented along with an unconditioned stimulus (food) that elicits the desired response.Elaboration Assumes that once an individual receives a message, processing begins. When the Petty & CacioppoLikelihood consumer gives the message a high degree of attention because it is relevantModel (ELM) there is high involvement and thus a central (active) processing route. When the (1986) consumer gives the message a low degree of attention because it is not relevant, there is low involvement and a peripheral (passive) processing route.Hierarchy of The processes of attending to a commercial, learning and remembering its Thorson et al. (1992)Advertising content, developing attitudes, and generating conative [tendency to moveEffects towards] responses occur in a sequential causal chain.Involvement The number of conscious bridging experiences, connections, or personal Krugman (1965) references per minute that a viewer makes between his or her own life and a stimulus.Music Theory The recall of information is improved when cued with the melody of a well known Rubin (1977) song. The melody of a song can facilitate recall in certain environments. There is a Wallace (1994) correlation between music, emotion and memory. Schulkind et al. (1999) 21 | P a g e
  • Variables While the amount of consumer behavior theories and models used in the investigationand explanation of music’s effect on advertising may be relatively few, the variables have beenmany and varied. The following is a summary of the most widely observed independent anddependent variables including a continuum, followed by a comprehensive review of the results ofthe interaction of these variables. Independent Variables. The impact of music on advertising has been observed with avariety of behaviors when mediated either individually or through the interaction of certainvariables. Music appeal (like or dislike) has been observed in relation to product preferences(Allen & Madden, 1985; Gorn, 1982; Kellaris & Cox, 1989; Pitt & Abratt, 1988). The effect ofmusic arousal or mood (a temporary feeling or state) was studied with purchase intention (Alpert& Alpert, 1990; Alpert et al., 2005; Kellaris & Mantel, 1996). Music fit has been observed inrelation to message processing (MacInnis & Park, 1991; North et al., 2004; Shen et al., 2006).Different types of music placements/treatments (vocals, instrumentals, jingles, etc.) and recallhave been researched (Allan, 2006a; Roehm, 2001; Wallace, 1991, 1994; Yalch, 1991). Musicpresence has positively affected product preference and purchase attention when interacting withattitude (Macklin, 1988; Morris & Boone, 1998; Middlestadt et al., 1994; Park & Young, 1986;Wheatley & Brooker, 1994) and recall (Macklin, 1988; Olsen, 1995; Wheatley & Brooker,1994). Finally, music tempo (speed or pace), texture (timbre and orchestration), modality(intervals between notes), and tonality (intervals between pitches in a scale) have been shown tohave the potential to enhance pleasure and arousal resulting in a greater purchase intention(Brooker & Wheatley, 1994; Kellaris & Kent, 1991, 1994; Kellaris & Rice, 1993). Dependent Variables. When mediated with the above variables, the effect of music inadvertising on a variety of consumer responses has also been observed. Attitude toward the adcan be positively influenced by the presence of music (Macklin, 1988; Morris & Boone, 1998;North et. al., 2004; Shen et al., 2006). Perception of ad time can be decreased by arousing music(Kellaris & Mantel, 1996). Attitude toward the brand can be improved by appealing music (Allen& Madden, 1985; Brooker & Wheatley, 1994; Gorn, 1982; Kellaris & Cox, 1989; Kellaris &Rice, 1993; Middlestadt et al., 1994; Morris & Boone, 1998; Park & Young, 1986; Pitt & Abratt,1988; Zhu, 2005). Brand recall can be increased by personally relevant and significant music 22 | P a g e
  • (Allan, 2006a; Brooker & Wheatley, 1994; Kellaris et. al., 1993; Macklin, 1988; MacInnis &Park, 1991; North et al., 2004; Olsen, 1995; Roehm, 2001; Shen et al., 2006; Wallace, 1991,1994; Yalch, 1991; Wheatley & Brooker, 1994). Music attitude can be positively affected bytempo (Kellaris & Rice, 1993; Kellaris & Kent, 1994). Pleasure/arousal can be affected by notonly the tempo but the tonality and texture of the music (Kellaris & Kent, 1994). Finally,purchase intention can be affected by interaction of music and mood (Alpert & Alpert, 1990;Alpert et al., 2005; Brooker & Wheatley, 1994; Kellaris & Kent, 1991; Morris & Boone, 1998;North et al., 2004). A continuum of dependent variables and the corresponding independentvariables that have been observed can be seen in Figure 1. 23 | P a g e
  • Figure 1 DV/IV Continuum____________________________________________________________________________________________________________Attitude Toward →→ → Ad→→→ Attitude Toward →→ Brand→→→ Pleasure/ → →→ Purchase the Ad Time the Brand Recall Arousal IntentionMusic fit Music arousal Music appeal Music fit Music tempo Music fit Music presence Music melody Music texture Music melody Music presence Music tonality Music modality Music tempo Music mood Music placement Music presence Music tempo____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 24 | P a g e
  • 25 | P a g e
  • Results Much has been learned about music and advertising since it was first used in commercialsin the early days of radio. Through a survey and analysis of experimental literature and a contentanalyses of experimental results and their theoretical underpinnings, a better understanding of theinteraction of independent and dependent variables or more conversationally, how music affectsthe processing of the ad, and how much it is being used in advertising, has been achieved. Whatfollows is a discussion of the results.Attitude Toward the Ad Shimp (1981) argued that attitude toward the ad (ATTA) is an important mediator when aconsumer makes a choice. Since then, music’s potential to affect the consumer’s ad attitude hasreceived some attention with conflicting results. The presence of music was shown to affect howa viewer feels when looking at print ads (Morris & Boone, 1998). Musical fit resulted in a betterattitude toward the ad (North et al., 2004; Shen & Chen, 2006). Brooker and Wheatley (1994),however, reported no effect of music placement on attitude toward the ad. Likewise, Macklin(1988) reported no effect of music presence on attitude toward the ad with children.Ad Time It has been argued that, under some circumstances, there is a disparity between objectivetime and perceived time of the ad and that the latter is affected by external stimuli like music(Kellaris & Mantel, 1994; 1996). While not a lot of attention has been given to perceived adtime, it is still worth mentioning. Arousal was found to moderate the influence of stimuluscongruity on perceived time such that congruity contributed positively to retrospective durationestimates among subjects exposed to soothing (versus arousing) music (Kellaris & Mantel,1996). The implications of objective time versus perceived time involve the potential benefits tothe advertiser of increasing memory for the ad while reducing its length (60-second versus 30-second commercial). 26 | P a g e
  • Attitude Toward the Brand Mitchell and Olson (1981) argued that a consumer’s attitude or “internal evaluation” of abrand has always been an important consideration in marketing research. It is not surprising then,that a considerable amount of investigation into music’s effect on attitude toward the brand(ATTB) has been undertaken with a variety of variables and results. Gorn (1982) observed thathearing liked or disliked music can affect product preferences but his results were neverreplicated (Allen & Madden, 1985; Kellaris & Cox, 1989; Pitt & Abratt, 1988). The presence ofmusic (Blondie’s “Tide Is High”) had a facilitative effect on brand attitude (shampoo and theirfunctional performance) in the low involvement condition and a distracting effect for those in thecognitive involvement condition (Park & Young, 1986). Music presence was also shown to haveeither no effects (Morris & Boone, 1998) or negative effects (Shen et al., 2006) on attitudedepending on its fit. As to how the process of attitude change toward the brand occurs, it hasbeen suggested that it might be a belief-based rather than an affect-based change (Middlestadt etal., 1994). Brooker and Wheatley (1994) reported no effect of placement on attitude toward thebrand. Macklin (1988) reported no effect of the presence of music on attitude toward the brandwith children.Brand Recall Recall of the brand is obviously a primary consideration in the evaluation of theeffectiveness of music in advertising. When the music fit, the message processing of the ad wasenhanced (MacInnis & Park, 1991; North et al., 2004). Different music treatments (original andaltered vocals, instrumentals, jingles, silence) did affect recall differently under varied conditions(Allan, 2006a; Olsen, 1995: Roehm, 2001; Wallace, 1991, 1994; Yalch, 1991). The presence orabsence of music was shown to be both attention-getting (Park & Young, 1988) and distracting(Wheatley & Brooker, 1994). The placement (Brooker & Wheatley, 1994) or the presence ofmusic (Macklin, 1988) was not observed to affect recall. Musical fit, however, was shown tostimulate better recall of brands (North et al., 2004; Shen et al., 2006). 27 | P a g e
  • Pleasure and Arousal It has been argued that music is an especially powerful stimulus for affecting moods(Bruner, 1990). Thus, it is maybe a bit surprising that music’s potential to affect moods primarilythrough pleasure and arousal garnered a significant amount of attention in the 1990’s but notmuch since. During that time, it was observed that arousing music was found to produce greaterdegrees of mood enhancement thus positively affecting purchase intention (Alpert & Alpert,1990; Alpert et al., 2005; Kellaris & Mantel, 1996; Morris & Boone, 1998). Music tempo (fast)was shown to have positive effects on behavioral intent (Kellaris & Kent, 1991).Purchase Intention Since purchase intention or conation was first defined as “behavior directed towardaction” (Shanteau & Ptacek, 1983, p. 149), it has been one of the most difficult advertisingeffects to research but arguably the most important. With regard to purchase intention and music,the results varied with some observing significant effects (Alpert & Alpert, 1990; Alpert et al.,2005; Kellaris & Kent, 1991) and some observing no significant effects (Brooker & Wheatley,1994; Morris & Boone, 1998). The placement of music was shown to invite attention to themessage and motivating consumers to process the message and facilitate the potential topurchase (Brooker & Wheatley, 1994). The combination of music with silence also has beenshown to be attention- getting resulting in the enhancement of purchase intention (Olsen, 1995).The effect of music tempo was shown to have had contradictory results with some reporting apassive effect on purchase intention (Kellaris & Kent, 1991), and some reporting no effect(Brooker & Wheatley, 1994; Morris & Boone, 1998).Content AnalysesOnly a few studies have dealt with the amount of commercials on television and radio withmusic. Stewart and Furse (1986, p. 160) found music featured in slightly more than 40% of 1000television commercials they studied, but that only 12% of those used lyrics to directly convey theadvertising message. Similar frequencies were obtained in a follow-up study (Stewart & Koslow,1989, p. 29). Appelbaum and Halliburton (1993) analyzed international commercials and foundmusic in 89% of their sample (p. 237). Allan (2006b) analyzed commercials in prime-timetelevision and reported that 86% of the unique ads contained some type of music. 28 | P a g e
  • A summary of the most relevant qualitative and quantitative studies on the effects of music onadvertising can be seen in Table 3. 29 | P a g e
  • Table 3 Summary of Relevant Effectual Research Involving Advertising and Music___________________Citation Sample Independent Variables Dependent Variables Results______________________Gorn 1982 244 Music appeal Brand attitude Hearing liked or disliked undergraduates music while being exposed to a product can directly affect product preferences.Allen & 60 undergraduates Music appeal Brand attitude Hearing liked or dislikedMadden music while being exposed to(1985) a product did not directly affect product preferences.Park & Young 120 women Music Brand attitude/information Music had a facilitative effect(1986) presence/absence, on brand attitude for subjects Involvement in the low involvement (high/low) condition and a distracting (TV ads) effect for those in the cognitive involvement condition.Sewall & 200 mall Music background Brand recall Background music had noSarel (1986) shoppers/ significant effect 832 radio adsPitt & Abratt 172 undergraduate Music appeal Brand attitude Hearing liked or disliked(1988) students music while being exposed to a product did not directly affect product preferences. 30 | P a g e
  • Table 3 (continued)________________________________________________________Citatio Sample Independent Variables Dependent Variables Results___________________________Macklin (1988) 75 preschoolers Music background Ad attitude Music did not enhance outcomes. Presence Brand attitude Brand recallStout & 1498 mall Music Cognitive/ Music had only minor effects.Leckenby shoppers/ tempo; mode; Affective responses(1988) 50 TV ads volume; presenceKellaris & Cox 302 undergraduates Music appeal Brand attitude No evidence that product preferences can(1989) be conditioned through a single exposure to appealing or unappealing music. (Classical Conditioning)Alpert & 48 undergraduate Music Mood Music had a significant effect on moodsAlpert (1990) students Purchase intention and purchase intention.Kellaris & 180 undergraduates Music tempo/ Music evaluation Tempo and Modality influenced arousalKent (1991) modality Purchase intention and intent.MacInnis & 178 undergraduate Music fit/ Message processing Indexicality and fit affect the processing ofPark (1991) women indexicality both high- and low- involvement consumers, (TV ads) influencing message- and non-message-based processing. 31 | P a g e
  • Table 3 (continued)____________________________________________________Citation Sample Independent Variables Dependent Variables Results_______________________Wallace (1991) 120 subjects Music placement- Brand recall Music provides a retrieval cue. Sung/ Music acts as a frame which the text is spoken words tightly fit. (jingles/ ballads)Yalch (1991) 103 undergraduates Music placement- Brand recall Music enhances memory for advertising slogans with and slogans when the slogans were incorporated without music into an advertisement in the form of a jingle (jingles) or song.Kellaris & Rice 52 undergraduates Music tempo, Music responses Gender moderates the influence of loudness(1993) Loudness, resulting in females responding more Gender positively to music at lower volumesKellaris et. al. 231 undergraduates Music- message fit, Brand recall/ Increasing audience attention to music(1993) Attention- gaining value Recognition of brand enhances message reception when the music name and messages evokes message-congruent thoughts. 32 | P a g e
  • Table 3_________________________________________ (continued)__________________________________________________Citation Sample Independent Variables Dependent Variables Results_____________________Brooker & 100 participants Music tempo/ Ad attitudes Tempo had effects on perceptionWheatley placement Brand attitudes of music but no effect on DV’s.(1994) (radio ads) Purchase intention Placement had a stronger effect Brand recall on DV’s.Kellaris & 288 Music tempo/ Pleasure/Arousal Tempo affected pleasure andKent (1994) undergraduates Tonality/ arousal. Texture Tonality affected pleasure and surprise. Texture moderated tempo and tonality on pleasure.Middlestadt et 97 undergraduates Music presence Brand attitude Belief-based changeal. (1994)Wallace 64 undergraduates Music melody Brand recall Text is better recalled when it is(1994) heard as a song rather than as speech, provided the music repeats so that it is easily learned.Wheatley & 144 undergraduate Music Brand recall Music hindered message recallBrooker students and their presence/absence Cognitive response and did not enhance attention.(1994) parents Spokespersons (radio ads) 33 | P a g e
  • Table 3 (continued)_________________________________________________Citation Sample Independent Variables Dependent Variables Results______________________Olsen (1995) 144 undergraduate Music Brand recall/ Silence effectively increases students presence/absence attribute importance listener retention of ad (music/silence) information especially when the highlighted information was the last item of a series.Kellaris & 85 undergraduate Music arousal/ Ad time Arousal was found to moderateMantel (1996) students congruity the influence of stimulus (radio ads) congruity on perceived time such that congruity contributed positively to retrospective duration estimates among subjects exposed to soothing (versus arousing) music.Morris & 90 undergraduates Music Emotional response Music affected emotionalBoone (1998) presence/absence Brand attitude response of print ads. No effect on (print ads) Purchase Intention brand attitude or purchase intention.Roehm (2001) 48 MBA Music placement Brand recall Instrumentals produced greater students/44 versus vocals recall of the message if the community people (radio ads) individuals knew the song. Vocals produced greater recall of the lyrics if the individuals did not know the song. 34 | P a g e
  • Table 3 (continued)____________________________________________________Citation Sample Independent Variables Dependent Variables Results______________________North et. al. 162 participants Music/voice fit Attitude toward the ad Musical fit resulted in better(2004) Brand recall recall of products, brands, and Purchase Intention claims, attitude toward the ad, and purchase intention. Voice fit resulted in better recall of claims, attitude toward the ad, and purchase intention.Alpert et. al. 75 undergraduate Music mood Purchase intention When music is used to evoke(2005) students emotions congruent with the symbolic meaning of product purchase, the likelihood of purchasing is enhanced.Zhu, Rui & 77/109 Music meanings Brand attitude Intensive processors areMeyers-Levy, undergraduates (embodied/referential) sensitive to music meanings.Joan (2005)Shen & Chen 130 students Music fit Ad attitude When the music does not fit(2006) (music incongruity) it can have an adverse effect on attitudes toward the ad. 35 | P a g e
  • Future Research It’s been over twenty years since Hecker (1984, p. 7) called music “the catalyst of advertising.”He suggested that “researchers can better understand and use this magic if they understand that music istoo important to be wasted on amorphous, irrelevant, or inappropriate goals.” While much has been done,there is still great “potential for real research into music’s effectiveness” (Dunbar, 1990). Bruner (1990, p.102) reinforced in his review of literature that the relevant body of research was indeed still “meager” andNorth and Hargreaves (1997, p. 282) concluded that the “field is [still] under-investigated.” A number ofthe studies reviewed have suggested additional research that either has not been undertaken or needsadditional investigation. These include more collaboration between the private and academic sectors, alongitudinal study on the amount of music in advertising, more attention to the effect of music on brandimage, the use of different experimental environments, and finally a richer investigation of the effect ofmusic fit and indexicality on advertising.Advertisers and Academics Alpert and Alpert (1991, p. 236) called for more “cooperative efforts between academicresearchers and industry practitioners applying musical theories to advertising executioners.” Too oftenthe efforts remain separate with the industry findings unavailable. Joint efforts would benefit both partiesto better understand “when and why music works in advertising” (p. 236). Many advertisers use popularmusic in their advertising especially The Gap and Old Navy. The Gap primarily uses original lyrics withOld Navy utilizing altered lyrics. Since they are both owned by the same parent company, it would bebeneficial to not only conduct an academically-based effectual study as well as to correlate the findingswith sales results during the campaign. At the very least, private research should be made available to theacademic community to verify the results and provide a practical basis for the use of music in advertising.Advertising and Popular Music It is clear that there is a need to more consistently quantify and trend the use of music, especiallypopular music, in advertising. Stewart and Furse (1986, p. 160) lamented the absence of its systematicmeasurement and set out to provide such documentation. In a later report, Stewart, Farmer, and Stannard(1990) recommended that additional research was needed in this area. Nonetheless, only Appelbaum andHalliburton (1993) and Allan (2006b) heeded this recommendation by analyzing internationalcommercials. A longitudinal investigation of the amount of music in advertising, especially popularmusic, should be conducted to track its proliferation and progression. Since the use of popular music in advertising continues to prosper, more needs to also be known aboutthe effects. In fact, Kellaris and Kent (1991, p. 248) suggested further study into the effects of musical 36 | P a g e
  • components on the processing of verbal material (e.g., song lyrics, advertising messages). More needs tobe done with popular music and altered lyrics (e.g. eBay, Old Navy). This could include more diversedemographics and “the role of listener characteristics in shaping responses to music (Kellaris & Kent,1994, p. 397). Additionally, while comparisons have been made between some placements/treatments(vocals/instrumentals, etc.), a larger study needs to be done comparing all possible treatments (vocals,instrumentals, jingles, altered vocals, and a control treatment of silence). Also apparent is the need forfurther research into the role of background music (Alpert & Alpert, 1990, p. 130). It is also clear that weneed further “investigations of advertisements with songs that represent varied styles of popular music”(Roehm, 2001, p. 57). Finally, McChesney (2001) called popular music and advertising the “bankruptcy of culture” andBurns (1996) called it “disturbing and even shocking.” Advertisers who use it consider it a “marriage ofart and commerce” and Allan (2005) suggested that the combination of popular music and advertisingcreates “a new cultural product.” Clearly, more attention needs to be given to the social and ethicalimplications of the use of popular music and advertising. This can be done as part of a longitudinal study.Brand Image Stout and Lechenby (1988, p. 223) called for more research into “the contribution made by musicto brand image.” It is clear that many advertisers are using music to create an image (e.g., iPod). What isnot so clear is music’s effectiveness or the implications for the music and/or artists (e.g., U2). A relatedarea of consideration is the use of music in the imaging of a brand as a distribution channel (e.g.,Starbucks). Each of these areas of research is certainly underdeveloped and warrants further investigation.Additionally, some popular music and artists are actually being exposed and “branded” throughadvertising (e.g., Modest Mouse) and placement in television shows (e.g., Grey’s Anatomy). The effectsof advertising and media on popular music could also be investigated.Environments Scott (1990, p. 234) argued that “we must not let our methods drive our theories but must insteaddesign our methods in a way that can encompass whatever theory seems articulate enough to fullydescribe the phenomenon.” Studies need to be conducted under more realistic viewing and listeningconditions. Bruner (1990) agreed and called for the raising of “level of experimental sophistication” (p.100). Far too many studies continue to be done in isolated lab environments. One possible idea would beto observe and survey customers in The Gap or Old Navy when their respective advertisements are playedin the store. Additionally, due to their growing distribution of music, Starbucks provides a potentiallyeffective field experiment location. 37 | P a g e
  • Fit and Indexicality More studies need to further investigate fit (a person’s perception of the music’s relevance) andindexicality (a person’s emotion-laden memories). This research can be expanded to look at variousgenres and eras of music with special attention given to the personal relevance of the music/effect ofprocessing (ELM). Additionally, more focus needs to be given to “the study of executional cues and theirprocessing implications for high- and low-involvement consumers’ ad processing” (MacInnis & Park,1991, p. 172). It may be that music can influence a person’s involvement with advertising due to someconceptualization of involvement (Zaichkowsky, 1986) such as personal, object, or situationalcharacteristics. A great deal of contemporary advertising utilizes classic rock music evidently targetedtowards 25-54 males, yet some teenagers are also listening to this genre of music from the 1970s. It maycertainly be involving to both demographics with much different indexicality, not to mention fit. Furtherinvestigation must be conducted to determine the consequences. 38 | P a g e
  • ConclusionThe research suggests that music is more likely to positively than negatively affect the consumer’sresponse to your advertising. That’s the easy part but not very helpful to an agency trying to advise anadvertiser on whether or not to use music and what music to use. The use of music in general, and thetype of music in particular, must be carefully chosen with the target audience and the desired outcomedriving the selection. It is clear from this review that music has been shown to both positively andnegatively stimulate a variety of responses including attention, mood, attitude, and purchase intention.The stimulation of these responses is different based on various characteristics of the music itselfincluding its appeal, presence, tempo, background or foreground, etc. In the case of its appeal, differentgenres of music from different eras affect different demographics of consumers differently. So it’scomplicated. What we do know from this overview of research on music and advertising is that, whenused effectively, it can be effective. That “sounds” rather trite but it’s true. An advertiser should not justuse any music in a commercial just for the sake of using music. It should be carefully chosen and tested topredict its potential to stimulate a positive response for the brand and/or the ad with the ultimate goal ofbranding and purchase. There is a substantial amount of research out there to guide the advertiser and thisreview provides the foundation for that process. There is also much research that needs to be done andthis review also provides direction and motivation. 39 | P a g e
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  • WEBSITESwww.sonicbrand.comwww.sonicid.comwww.audiobrain.comwww.movingbrands.comwww.id-ology.net/idologywww.linkedin.comwww.sonicaudibranding.comwww.intentionalnoise.com Sonic Branding, Daniel Jackson, Palgrave MacmillanBOOKSSonic Branding, Daniel Jackson 42 | P a g e