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  • 1. By, Corben Brooks 1
  • 2. SLAVE TRADE Having been essentially kidnapped by slave traders or rival tribes and packed like sardines onto a slave ship destined for the United States or Caribbean the Africans obviously had no possessions and were forced to endure horrific conditions often times being chained down in cargo holds suffering from diseases like scurvy, dehydration and dysentery. On average one in three slaves didn’t survive the trip. 2
  • 3. SLAVERY IN AMERICA Music played a very important role in the African American slave culture that was present in the United States. The early 1600’s marked the beginning of slavery as we understand it and continued for some 265 years until the Union victory of the American Civil war in 1865, following the Civil war the Thirteenth Amendment was passed officially outlawing slavery in the United States. 3
  • 4. Having no possessions or connections to their home land orhistory, the African slave’s only option to save their heritageand continually practice their native cultures was byintroducing music into their new lives. This allowed the Africanslaves to bond with one another and construct a sense ofcommunity . 4
  • 5. THE BEGINNING Early African slave music can be divided into three categories, religious songs, work songs and recreational songs.Religious - religious songs allowed the slaves to preach and celebrate their beliefs in a open and energetic manner.Work – work songs and field hollers were used to voice frustrations and synchronize work so the day went by faster and their minds were occupied.Recreation – Unlike the other forms of music, recreational music depended on stringed instruments and was used to unwind from a the stresses of every day life. 5
  • 6. RELIGIOUS SONGS In the Deep South during the times of slavery, religious songs were more often sung a cappella and were largely representational of the African traditions and heritage slaves had been taken from back home. From these humble beginnings we eventually get the heavily synchronized clapping and stomping Gospel music that we recognize today. 6
  • 7. WORK SONGS Work songs were used to ease the burden of hard labor and keep ones mind occupied. The call and response musical form between groups of slaves working a field was typically used and while something as simple as work songs may seem unimportant it’s from this origin we can see the base premise of a wide array of music today including blues and rock and roll. 7
  • 8. RECREATIONAL SONGS Recreational songs and music depended largely on instruments, especially the Banjo. Slaves would play, sing, dance and enjoy the varying types of music while back in their homes after a long days work or worship service. Eventually this music caught the ears of their owners and prominent members of the community who began having slave musicians perform at festivals and personal gatherings. 8
  • 9. It is important to note, that without these three forms of music(Religious, Work, Recreational) and the African Americanpopulation in the early United States of America, we wouldn’thave seen the musical evolutions into Gospel, Jazz, Rock andRoll, and Blues. All of which we enjoy today. 9
  • 10. THE BLUES The genre referred to as the Blues is unquestionably American, in that it is of mixed origins, backgrounds, and has branched into countless other genres. ―The passionate and uniquely American art form known as the blues was born in the steamy fields, dusty street corners and ramshackle juke joints of the Deep South in the late 1800s. An evolution of West African music brought to the United States by slaves, the blues emerged as southern blacks expressed the hardships, heartbreak, religion, passion and politics of their experiences through a blend of work songs, field hollers and spirituals.‖ (Song Artists) 10
  • 11. THE BLUES ―As the African American community that created the blues began moving away from the South to escape its hardscrabble existence and Jim Crow laws, blues music evolved to reflect new circumstances. After thousands of African American farm workers migrated north to cities like Chicago and Detroit during both World Wars, many began to view traditional blues as an unwanted reminder of their humble days toiling in the fields; they wanted to hear music that reflected their new urban surroundings. In response, transplanted blues artists such as Muddy Waters, who had lived and worked on a Mississippi plantation before riding the rails to Chicago in 1943, swapped acoustic guitars for electric ones and filled out their sound with drums, harmonica, and standup bass. This gave rise to an electrified blues sound with a stirring beat that drove people onto the dance floor and pointed the way to rhythm and blues and rock and roll.‖ (Blues Classroom) 11
  • 12. MUDDY WATERS Born with the name McKinley Morganfield in 1915, Muddy Waters as he would later be known , moved to Chicago in 1943 with the intention of becoming a Blues man. After a few failed recordings, Muddy Waters finally found success with his song I Can’t Be Satisfied. A link to his first hit single: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BPfJoBwWRQ8 12
  • 13. MUDDY WATERS Muddy waters (1915-1983) is credited with inventing the ―Chicago sound‖ of Blues music and is referred to as the ―Father of modern Chicago blues‖. He was voted No. 17 in Rolling Stone magazines list of the 100 Greatest Artists of All Time. He has also been inducted into the Blues Foundation Hall of Fame, Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, and the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award. (The Official) 13
  • 14. CHICAGO BLUES Chicago Blues: ―During the 1950s, Chicago blues flourished, developing the signatures—use of rhythm sections and amplification; reliance on guitar and harmonica leads; and routine reference to Mississippi Delta styles of playing and singing—that identify it today. Consolidation of blues recording continued, with new labels Chess, Vee-Jay, and Cobra all signing and producing large numbers of artists. Of these, the most prominent was Chess, whose first generation of artists—Muddy Waters (McKinley Morganfield), Little Walter ( Jacobs), Willie Dixon, Howlin Wolf (Chester Burnett)—were exemplars of Chicago blues style. The distinctive sound of these artists restructured popular music, providing fundamental elements for subsequent genres like soul and rock and roll.‖ (Chicago Blues) 14
  • 15. MUDDY WATERS Here is a list of a few famous songs performed by Muddy Waters. Honey Bee - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZIOmo7OuDgc You Shook Me - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LpbSRJhCl9g The Same Thing - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W2NxUngq9cM Rollin’ Stone - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Cy7T5BpVKl0 Note: Links may need to be copy/pasted in browser. 15
  • 16. BO DIDDLEY Born with the name Ellas Otha Bates in 1928, Bo Diddley was one of the first American musicians to allow and include females in his band and initially found success in 1955 with his No. 1 R&B single Bo Diddley. (Bo Diddley) A link to his first hit single: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VVIrTHqKm5w 16
  • 17. BO DIDDLEY While Bo was very innovative with the progression of music, creating new rhythms and showcasing his trademark rectangle guitar, he truly was helping advance womens rights simultaneously. By being one of the first American men to allow women in his band, Bo Diddley was able to let women like "The Duchess" Norma-Jean Wofford show case their musical talents. 17
  • 18. BO DIDDLEY Bo Diddley (1928-2008) is commonly referred to as ―The Originator‖ for paving the way for artists in the transition from Blues to Rock and Roll. He is credited with influencing the likes of The Beatles, Elvis Presley, The Rolling Stones, Jimi Hendrix, and Eric Clapton. Bo Diddley was a Grammy winning artist that has also been inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. (Bo Diddley) 18
  • 19. BO DIDDLEYHere is a list of a few famous songs performed by Bo Diddley .Super Blues - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SJTX6LMCoLoWho Do You Love - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MAGoqMZRLB4Road runner - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WOOFx9c6qyABring it to Jerome - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t9qypu3lbZ0Note: Links may need to be copy/pasted in browser. 19
  • 20. B.B. KING Born with the name Riley B. King in 1925, B.B. King was and still is one of the hardest working men in the music industry. ―Along the way to becoming an international icon, B.B. had heeded his mother’s advice. He treated the people he encountered with honesty, civility, and compassion. And the work ethic he learned in his youth guided the businesslike management practices he applied to his large traveling entourage.‖ (The Early Years) 20
  • 21. B.B. KING ―B.B.s first big break came in 1948 when he performed on Sonny Boy Williamsons radio program on KWEM out of West Memphis. This led to steady engagements at the Sixteenth Avenue Grill in West Memphis, and later to a ten-minute spot on black-staffed and managed Memphis radio station WDIA. "Kings Spot," became so popular, it was expanded and became the "Sepia Swing Club." Soon B.B. needed a catchy radio name. What started out as Beale Street Blues Boy was shortened to Blues Boy King, and eventually B.B. King.‖ (B.B. King) 21
  • 22. B.B. KING It was B.B. King’s smash hit Three O’clock Blues that really put him on the map in 1956. Following this hit B.B. King began touring and performing an incredible 342 one-night stands the following year. It was through this hard work ethic that B.B. king has become one of the most renowned musicians in this century. Here is the link to B.B. King’s single Three O’clock Blues: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nPeTtg3fTB8 22
  • 23. B.B. KING With B.B. King’s long career comes a very long list of produced songs and albums. The amazing part is that his list of awards and accomplishments is long enough to rival it. To name a few B.B. King has been inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, the Blues Hall of Fame, was awarded the National Medal of Arts award, and was awarded an honorary Doctor of Music by Yale University. Ranked No. 3 in Time magazines top 10 electric guitarists of all time Ranked No. 6 in Rolling Stones list of 100 greatest guitarists of all time. Referred to as ―The King of Blues‖. Has won 15 Grammy awards. 23
  • 24. B.B. KINGHere is a list of a few famous songs performed by B.B. King.The Thrill is Gone - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4fk2prKnYnILucille - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-Y8QxOjuYHgHow Blue Can You Get - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6jCNXASjzMYWoke Up this Morning - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nDh_Fg4G0uENote: Links may need to be copy/pasted in browser. 24
  • 25. CONCLUSION It has been a long journey , starting from the disenfranchised African American slaves being plucked from their home land, being forced onto ships with music as the only option to maintain their histories . Then years later slaves begin to have their music recognized by their owners and the evolution begins to take hold. What started as work, recreational, and religious music begins to take root in all ethnicities and evolve through the African American culture of the deep south into Jazz, Rock and Roll, and Blues. Artists like Muddy Waters and Bo Diddley influenced the next generation to take risks and invent, without them we wouldn’t have Elvis Presley or the Rolling Stones. Music builds and evolves itself through generations and while music groups today may thank the generation before them, they need to look further back . The popular forms of music today are here because of the African American culture of the deep south, just listen to B.B. King, a man who is the Blues, without artists like himself who knows what we’d be listening to today…maybe we’d still be stuck with early European folk music? 25
  • 26. WORKS CITED"B.B. King." Bbking.com. Web. 8 Dec. 2012. <http://www.bbking.com/bio/>."Blues Classroom." PBS.com. PBS. Web. 6 Dec. 2012. <http://www.pbs.org/theblues/classroom/essaysblues.html>."Bo Diddley." Bodiddley.com. Web. 5 Dec. 2012. <http://www.bodiddley.com/history.html>."Chicago Blues." Encyclopedia.com. Web. 6 Dec. 2012. <http://www.encyclopedia.chicagohistory.org/pages/151.html>."The Early Years." Bbkm.org. Web. 8 Dec. 2012. <http://www.bbkingmuseum.org/bb-king-the-man>."The Official." Muddywaters.com. Web. 8 Dec. 2012. <http://www.muddywaters.com/home.html>."Song Artists." PBS.com. PBS. Web. 5 Dec. 2012. <http://www.pbs.org/theblues/songsartists/songsartists.htm>. 26
  • 27. WORK CITED (IMAGES)http://concertblogger.com/2012/10/2013-rock-roll-hall-of-fame-nominees-are-announced-who-will- you-vote-for/http://peacecorpsjournals.com/?Journal&journal_id=2732http://www.bluesmusicnow.com/blog.htmlhttp://www2.gwu.edu/~folklife/bighouse/panel19.htmlhttp://www.beertripper.com/OffTopic/RocknRoll/Elvis_Presley.htmlhttp://csmh.pbworks.com/w/page/7309520/1808%20-%20Slave%20Trade%20Abolishedhttp://technostudies.wordpress.com/2008/10/13/unit-2-slavery-mexican-revolution-and-segregation/http://www.fastcompany.com/1696259/sharing-vs-selling-lesson-gospel-musichttp://www.loonydoctor.com/2010/08/african-tribal-dance-togo.htmlhttp://beginningandend.com/does-the-bible-condone-slavery/http://americanrtl.org/Dredhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blueshttp://themusicsover.com/2010/06/02/bo-diddley/http://barryraphael.wordpress.com/page/13/http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chicagohttp://42ndblackwatch1881.wordpress.com/2009/07/12/well-said-well-plaid-rocker-vintage-bo-diddley/http://spyvibe.blogspot.com/2010/05/bo-week-bo-diddley-duchess.htmlhttp://www.musicradar.com/guitarist/bb-king-documentary-film-arrives-in-cinemas-564758http://pinterest.com/pin/11540542765447484/ 27