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SCHOOL OF BUSINESS                                 AND ECONOMY (SBE)                                 CHRISTELIJKE HOGESCHO...
SummaryIn principle, every four years – and for France every five – there are elections. During theelection time each part...
ForewordAt the moment the course Trends in Communication started, the elections in the Netherlandswere quite actual. A wee...
Table of contentsSummary ....................................................................................................
1. IntroductionIn principle, every four years – and for France every five – there are elections. During theelection time e...
2. Methodological justificationBefore describing the core of the research, it is important to know what the meaning of (py...
election campaign erupted5. Politicians go on the street to talk with the citizens about the electionprograms. They are pr...
AnalysisTo compare different campaign posters, we just randomly chose some posters. The parties whichposters will be analy...
don‟t know what they are going to vote.” She continues: “The election campaign was formerlyquite different. Politicians ha...
5. ResultsThis chapter contains the results and answers of sub-question 6,7 and 8. First the Netherlands will be described...
The VVD is a liberal party. The colors they use are blue and orange. Blue is typical for liberals:“The Liberals were in th...
1995                          2002                           2002                 2007                           2012     ...
The message stays very simple. Benoit (2007): “Since 1995‟s election, the role of boards hasevolved, due to the developmen...
6. Answering the main questionThe desk research has shown that the role of physical campaign material became less supporti...
7. References / BibliographyPrintAlbouy, S., (1994). Marketing et communication politique. Paris: LHarmattanBongrand, M., ...
Appendix A. Search planOur problem statementThe (physical) campaign material used with elections in France and the Netherl...
Period        The research will be done in the period of the 24 September until the 15 October.        Sources        Data...
Appendix B. Verkiezingsposter plakken blijft populairBYLINE: Door Jan Pieter RottierSECTION: Nederlands Dagblad; Blz. onbe...
Appendix C. ‘Ranking the parties’                                    19
Appendix D. Verkiezingsposter achter het raam verdwijntBYLINE: Door Willem DekkerSECTION: Dagblad van het Noorden: In het ...
tomaat. Op de bar liggen flyers. Zo hopen we steun en aandacht te krijgen voor onze zaak. We hadden onlangsleden van SP-Ty...
Appendix E. Presentationhttp://prezi.com/sqgdzm5i28uc/tic_presentation/                                                  22
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Transcript of "The question of the use of campaign material"

  1. 1. SCHOOL OF BUSINESS AND ECONOMY (SBE) CHRISTELIJKE HOGESCHOOL WINDESHEIM The question of the use of (physical) campaign material with elections. A comparison between The Netherlands and France. By: Alexis Dongar Christel van Huffelen Patricia WieberdinkTrends in Communication (BECO.TIC.M9.V1213)2 November 2012Examiner: Jose Kooken 1
  2. 2. SummaryIn principle, every four years – and for France every five – there are elections. During theelection time each party tries to profile itself with respect to the other parties. In this essay, a deskresearch, there is a focus on the (physical) campaign material used with elections in France andthe Netherlands; styled in the main question:What are the differences of the (physical) campaign material used with elections compared to France and theNetherlands over the past 30 years?The following body of work will give an answer to this question, but below there will be given asummary of the content described in the following chapters.First an analysis was done on the posters in the Netherlands and France between 30 years agoand nowadays. The most striking differences were: The use of ranking numbers (ranking of the last election); Photos of party leaders are shown more; Dutch parties use a principle in their poster, French not anymore; All parties use a logo in their poster nowadays; France: instead of advising the voter, the poster encourages the voter to visit the website or a meeting.The differences described above will be used for answering the main question. Starting with theranking of the party. It is striking that France never has used it for a poster. The Netherlandsdoesn‟t use it nowadays either, but did use it 30 years ago. Meanwhile France always did use aphoto of the party leader in their posters. In the Netherlands parties started using it more from2003. A similarity in using the photos is that the head and a part of the hull of the party leader isalways displayed.Furthermore in the Netherlands the parties use a principle or short ideology in their poster.Where France used to use a principle they nowadays don‟t use it anymore. If parties in France usea message it is short, but mostly it is an encouragement for the voter to visit the website of theparty or attend a meeting. In the Netherlands no party uses this type of communication. Perhapsthis is a gesture for the Netherlands to try this type of communicating. Besides the use of physicalsupport in a new way (teasing marketing) the social media could be used for informing the voter. 2
  3. 3. ForewordAt the moment the course Trends in Communication started, the elections in the Netherlandswere quite actual. A week later the elections were so the climax of it was visbible. For us, PatriciaWieberdink and Christel van Huffelen, it was clear to have an essay about this subject. Later on aFrench man, Alexis Dongar, joined the group and accidentally there had been elections in Francejust before. That was quite witty so we decided to keep the subject we had at the beginning.This course was taught by Jose Kooken, so we would like to thank her for her lectures duringclass and feedback on our essay. 3
  4. 4. Table of contentsSummary ........................................................................................................................................................ 2Foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 31. Introduction .............................................................................................................................................. 52. Methodological justification ................................................................................................................... 6 2.1. Choices ............................................................................................................................................... 6 2.2. Operationalization.. .......................................................................................................................... 63. The Netherlands ....................................................................................................................................... 74. France ........................................................................................................................................................ 95. Results ...................................................................................................................................................... 106. Answering the main question ............................................................................................................... 147. References / Bibliography .................................................................................................................... 15Appendix A. Search plan ........................................................................................................................... 16Appendix B. Verkiezingsposter plakken blijft populair ........................................................................ 18Appendix C. „Ranking the parties‟ ........................................................................................................... 19Appendix D. Verkiezingsposter achter het raam verdwijnt ................................................................. 20Appendix E. Presentation ......................................................................................................................... 22 4
  5. 5. 1. IntroductionIn principle, every four years – and for France every five – there are elections. During theelection time each party tries to profile itself with respect to the other parties. This spring therehas been elections in the Netherlands and France, so this subject is quite actual.In the Netherlands, in 1917 the universal manhood suffrage was provided, in 1919 the women‟ssuffrage1. The suffrage in France was provided in 18482. Suffrage does exist already quite a longtime and parties use means of communication to profile itself and try to get the most voters.To conclude: in the following body of work we will focus our attention on the (physical)campaign material used with elections in France and the Netherlands; styled in the main question:What are the differences of the (physical) campaign material used with elections compared to France and theNetherlands over the past 30 years?With the following sub-questions we will answer the main question: 1. What do we mean by (physical) campaign material? 2. When will the (physical) campaign material be used? 3. How do they use the(physical) campaign material in the Netherlands nowadays? And how important is the (physical) campaign material there? 4. How do they use the (physical) campaign material in France nowadays? And how important is the (physical) campaign material there? 5. How did both countries use the (physical) campaign material 30 years ago? 6. What has changed in the (physical) campaign material in the Netherlands over the past 30 years? 7. What has changed in the (physical) campaign material in France over the past 30 years? 8. What are the similarities between the Netherlands and France in (physical) campaign material?1.1. Method and literatureWe have chosen this particular subject in order to reveal background information and the newpossible trend in-between the use of (physical) campaign material with elections. We have tried tonarrow down our scope to very basic definitions of concepts like elections, politics, the period1982- 2012 etc. and also provide a comparison between the Netherlands and France.There might be some slight alternations in text as both Dutch and French literature had beenused to provide deeper insight to the questions described above. With the search plan (seeappendix A) we have made an overview about sources we thought we could use on forehand.1 http://www.parlement.com/9353000/1f/j9vvhy5i95k8zxl/vh8lnhrouwze, retrieved October 1, 20122 Garrigou, 1998 5
  6. 6. 2. Methodological justificationBefore describing the core of the research, it is important to know what the meaning of (pyshical) campaign materialis (in this research) and when the (pyshical) campaign material will be used. Below there is also described whatkind of choices are made in the field of type of research and which matching strategy is best.2.1. ChoicesThis research contains a desk research. Desk research is doing research to all available data for aproblem. Such data are also called secondary data; the data that are already collected by others.We will use this information for answering our sub-questions and main question. The sub-questions are mainly questions about what and how. Therefore these are descriptive questions.Following is the implementation of the chosen strategies:Who: during the desk research there has been searched to various information to get progress.Where: the search tools that are used are databases, internet, literature and publications.How: mainly academically sources are used. This is important for the reliability of the study.What: the secondary data that are used are mainly academically.2.2. Operationalization2.2.1 (Physical) campaign materialPhysical campaign material consists of multiple words. Below is a definition of the two mostimportant words: physical and campaign.Physical: having substance or material existence; perceptible to the senses;"a physical manifestation"; "surrounded by tangible objects"3.Campaign: the competition by rival political candidates and organizations for public office4.So in this research the physical campaign materials are the (tangible) material recourses which willbe used during the election campaigns. By (tangible) material recourses you can think of visualmedia like posters, flyers, brochures, advertisements in newspapers and promotional items(giveaways). But you can also think of audiovisual media like television and the digital world likeinternet. (Michels, 2006). In this research the focus is on the visual media, on the posters andflyers.2.2.2 The use ofThis paragraph describes when the (physical) campaign material will be used. As mentioned inthe introduction, mostly there are every four years – and in France every five- elections. Duringthis time there are also the election campaigns.Just before the elections the parties announce their plans in the final election programs. This isthe official kick-off for the campaigning. It‟s up to the parties when they decide to announce theirelection programs. Most parties will do this two or three weeks before the elections. During thelast elections in the Netherlands on 12 September 2012, the parties D66 and VVD announcedtheir election programs on 25 August. They were the last two parties. After that moment the3 http://ardictionary.com/Physical, retrieved October 1, 20124 http://ardictionary.com/Campaign, retrieved October 1, 2012 6
  7. 7. election campaign erupted5. Politicians go on the street to talk with the citizens about the electionprograms. They are promoting their political party (Tweedekamer.nl). And also from thismoment you will see more and more posters and flyers around.3. The NetherlandsIn this chapter you will find an answer to the question how the (physical) campaign material is used nowadays andhow important the material really is. There also will be a clearing about what has changed over the past 30 years.In this chapter anything applies to the Netherlands.NowadaysThe (physical) campaign material is still used that is clear. But are election posters still relevant?Hermannus Blok, chair of the Christian Union (ChristenUnie), hears this question more often(see appendix B). He says: “‟Poster stickers‟ have a lot to do with vandalism: posters are defaced,smeared and even torn.” The CUer even wonders what the added value of the posters is: “Itescapes no one that elections are coming, dont you?” (Rottier; 2012)Though according to Anneremarie Walter (Rottier; 2012), Associate Professor of PoliticalCommunication at the VU, a poster is a „useful supporting medium‟ in the campaign. “A picturehas more power than words, a poster creates awareness and also has a psychological effect: whenmany people have the same election poster in their windows, it gives the impression that theparty is important.”Kant (University of Utrecht) agrees with this. He says: “A picture often says more than 1000words, if the picture is clear and easy.” To clarify, this phrase emerged in the USA in the earlypart of the 20th century. Its introduction is widely attributed to Frederick R. Barnard, whopublished a piece commending the effectiveness of graphics in advertising with the title “Onelook is worth a thousand words”, in Printers Ink, December 1921 (phrases.org.uk). It may beclear that a picture is useful, but is it still relevant?According to „The General Newspaper‟ (Het Algemeen Dagblad) it is still popular to stickelection posters. There are printed more than 400.000 posters by different political parties.Though there is also an alternative: political parties deliver their posters for the campaign digitalat the municipality. The municipality print banners (all equal in size and made of strong material)and of the posters. For example Soest and Capelle aan den IJssel experimented with this therecent elections. This is also to discourage vandalism. Blok finds it hard to say if thisdevelopment can be seen as a trend: “Many municipalities now have those wooden boards. Thesecan still be used for a while.” But the alternative banners don‟t make political parties less visible,he thinks. “I can‟t imagine that the voting behavior is influenced by the posters. But as long asthe current boards are still there, parties don‟t want to fall behind, like parties not stay behind,”thus the chair of the Christian Union.Walter: “In the countries around us, but also in the United States, the poster plays a major roleduring the elections.” She suspects that because of the less prominence of posters in stock, theinfluence of the voter has decreased. Moreover for relatively unknown parties the posters are ofgreater importance. Walter finds the poster pretty boring now: “You see a party leader and thelogo of the party. Posters used to be genuine artwork and were full of symbolism.”5 http://nos.nl/artikel/410493-vvd-d66-stellen-programma-vast.html, retrieved October 1, 2012 7
  8. 8. AnalysisTo compare different campaign posters, we just randomly chose some posters. The parties whichposters will be analyzed are: Peoples Party for Freedom and Democracy (VVD), ChristianDemocratic Appeal (CDA), Christian Union (ChristenUnie) and the Labour Party (PvdA). Onthe following page you can see the campaign posters from 1982 (Verkiezingsaffiches.nl):1. VVD: 2. CDA:3. ChristenUnie (Reformed Political Federation): 4. PvdA:What is striking is that the parties mostly use only one color. You also see at poster 2,3 and 4 abig number. This number means the ranking of the last elections (see appendix C). Aboutsymbols; you see at poster 1,3 and 4 that the parties use their logo in the poster, to let the votersrecognize their party. The principles of the parties are not told in the poster, but you see at 1,2and 3 the name of the party leader. Only the poster of the VVD has a photo of the party leaderin it.Annemarie Walter (Rottier; 2012): “During the pillarization election posters were used widely,also by citizens at home. Now more people hide their political preference. Many people also 8
  9. 9. don‟t know what they are going to vote.” She continues: “The election campaign was formerlyquite different. Politicians had much more direct contact with voters”, says Walter. “Now thedebate is mainly through the media played.”4. FranceAfter the Netherlands, the sub-questions will be answered for France. Answers to: how is the (physical) campaignmaterial used nowadays and how important is the material really. There also will be a clearing about what haschanged over the past 30 years.First of all, there is a need to explain the differences in elections between the Netherlands andFrance. In the Netherlands when there are the national elections, there are a lot of parties you canchoose in-between. The parties that win seats are called the parliament. There are 150 seats todivide. The party with the most seats, is able to form the coalition, which has to contain at least75 seats. In France meanwhile, they use a district system with a first and second round(Bongrand, 1993) . The party with finally the absolute majority can deliver the party leader.Before the elections start in France, utilities install boards, available to all political parties runningfor the elections. Because every party is able to post its poster on this board, it happens that thereadability is not that good; posters are displayed in a strange way and some are placed one overanother. It is also possible to buy spots, but only richer parties can afford this. This makes thereading easier and the posters are located at better places sometimes.First of all the physical campaign material has an informative role (Gerstlé, 1996); it is used totransmit an ideology, an idea or valor to the person who is watching it: these ideas are the base ofthe party‟s purpose. Because space is limited, the message must be simple, evocative, clear andrelevant.Physical campaign material has an important role in France. Albouy (1994) says “it personalizesthe political party into one man, generally their party leader. Posters have the role of presentingthe politician and more important: they have to establish his/her image, if the politician is alreadyknown by the target, the board could strengthen its image.”These are examples of French posters, used in 1981 for the presidential elections.You see that both posters have a photo of their party leader at the poster. The first person looksinto the camera, the second doesn‟t. You also see that poster 1 is a black and white poster, poster2 is a colored poster. The principles of the parties are told in the poster. On poster 1, the posterof the Union for the French democracy (UDF), they have the slogan „Il faut un president a laFrance‟; which means in English: France requires a president. This type of marketing was calledteasing marketing (Gerstlé, 1996). The second poster, Socialist Party (Parti Socialiste) has theslogan „La force tranquille‟; in English: „the quiet strength‟. Both parties didn‟t use a symbol intheir poster. 9
  10. 10. 5. ResultsThis chapter contains the results and answers of sub-question 6,7 and 8. First the Netherlands will be described,further on the results of France are described.To compare the campaign material for the Netherlands over the past 30 years, you can find atable with four different posters from the parties of chapter 3 ordered by party and year: VVD,CDA, RPF (ChristenUnie) and PvdA (verkiezingsaffiches.nl): 1982 1989 2003 2012 1. VVD 2. CDA 3. RPF(Christen-Unie)4. PvdA 10
  11. 11. The VVD is a liberal party. The colors they use are blue and orange. Blue is typical for liberals:“The Liberals were in the 1870s in the elections a place at the election card on the left, the bluecolumn. The Catholics were right in carmine red, the rest stood in the middle, without color. TheLiberals won, and they kept the blue as their „color‟. The Catholics lost, and so they didn‟t clingto red. Moreover, the color red became the color for international socialist movement thatgradually came (exempli gratia the red hats of the French revolutionaries). The socialistseverywhere turned into red.” (KADOC, 2003) That is why the PvdA has the color red in itsposter. It is a socialistic party. “The color green is the color of the Christian workers movement.”The CDA and RPF are both Christian parties.Changes30 years ago most parties had the ranking of the last elections in their poster, but since 2003 itisn‟t popular anymore. Even in 2012 no party used it anymore. Where party 1,3 and 4 used theirlogo as symbol in their poster in 1982, nowadays every party uses its logo (PvdA only half of it),so in terms of symbols aren‟t there so many changes.In 1982 no party used a principle in its poster. From 1989 some parties start using it and in 2003every party has used it. In 2012 every party has still one or more principles they carry out in theirposter. About using a photo; line by line the parties use a photo of the party leader. Striking isthat the VVD always used a photo, but in 2012 didn‟t use a photo of their party leader. In theexcision of the photos you also see differences: in 1982 the head was cropped, you see this in1989 as well. In 2003 all the photos are taken in a quite strange setting. Wouter Bos (PvdA) is atthe picture with his whole party, Gerrit Zalm (VVD) is sitting on a chair, trying to be wise (?)with his hand under his chin and André Rouvoet‟s (CU) picture was taken from above. In 2012you see a big similarity: the photos of the party leaders all contain the head and a part of the hull.In general the changes which can be seen are that the ranking isn‟t important anymore. You see itis useful that the logo is used. Some parties already used this, but now it is more important. Lastthing is that the photos are getting important as well; nowadays the posters contain at least thehead and a part of the hull.FranceThe President of the French Republic is elected every five years since 2002. Before 2002 it wasevery seven years. Therefore there are not that many posters available to analyze. Moreover it washard to trace out campaign material from each year. That is the reason why you sometimes onlysee one poster from a year. 1981 1981 1988 11
  12. 12. 1995 2002 2002 2007 2012 2012 2012 2012 2012DevelopmentsWhat immediately strikes is the fact that all posters contain a person, the party leader. This is theonly thing what is representative for the whole political party. You can see a quality differencebetween the poster from 30 years ago and 2012, but that may be clear. There is not a trend visiblewhere the party leader is looking at: it varies between looking in the camera and lookingsomewhere else. Colors that are used are always national colors (red, white or blue). It also hassomething to do with political colors (KADOC, 2003), which was described before.In contrast to 30 years ago, nowadays the parties don‟t use their message to transmit an ideology.It is more a short shout to remind the voter. Also different is the fact that the posters have a logoin their poster more often. 12
  13. 13. The message stays very simple. Benoit (2007): “Since 1995‟s election, the role of boards hasevolved, due to the development of new media; the physical support has found a new youth, inthe continuity of the 80‟s teasing marketing, the role of the physical campaign material becameless supportive and other types of media became more important, including social networks.”Artufel (2007): “The paper is no longer there to advice the reader to vote for a political party butto encourage them to go to visit the website of the party or ask them questions about socialnetworks, it could also be an invitation to a meeting.” To conclude: on the boards between 30years ago and 2012 you can see that the message is longer, but it doesn‟t communicate an idea oran ideology. It stays basic and refer to a website or a great meeting.SimilaritiesIt may be clear that there are more differences than similarities in the use of campaign materialbetween the Netherlands and France during the years. There are two similarities. The first one isthat both countries use photos in their posters nowadays. France already had done this before. Inthe Netherlands the use of photos became also more important; nowadays most posters include aphoto of the party leader. The way these photos are shown today, are generally in both countriesthe same: the posters contain at least the head and a part of the hull of the party leader.The other similarity is that the use of the logo in posters has become more important for bothcountries. In the Netherlands most parties use a logo in their posters. In France you also see thismore often. 13
  14. 14. 6. Answering the main questionThe desk research has shown that the role of physical campaign material became less supportive and other types ofmedia became more important, including social networks (Benoit, 2007). Still posters are used. In the followingchapter the main question will be described and potential trends will be suggested.First there was an analysis on the posters in the Netherlands and in France between 30 years agoand nowadays. For the Netherlands the main differences between 30 years ago were: The ranking isn‟t important anymore; Photos of party leaders are shown more; Every party uses a principle in their poster.Differences for France since 30 years ago and nowadays: Transmitting of an ideology has disappeared; Nowadays the parties use a logo in their poster; The message is shorter; Instead of advising the voter, encouraging the voter to visit the website or a meeting.Compared to the similarities it may be clear that there are more differences than similarities in theuse of campaign material between the Netherlands and France during the years. But whilecomparing the differences between the Netherlands to France over the past 30 years there aremore aspects.After the body of work described in the chapters above there will follow an answer to the mainquestion:What are the differences of the (physical) campaign material used with elections compared to France and theNetherlands over the past 30 yearsThe differences described above will be used for answering the main question. Starting with theranking of the party. It is striking that France never has used it for a poster. The Netherlandsdoesn‟t use it nowadays either, but did use it 30 years ago. Meanwhile did France always use aphoto of the party leader in their posters. In the Netherlands parties started using it more from2003. A similarity in using the photos is that the head and a part of the hull of the party leader isalways displayed.SuggestionFurthermore in the Netherlands the parties use a principle or short ideology in their poster.Where France used to use a principle they nowadays don‟t use it anymore. If France uses amessage it is short, but mostly it is an encouragement for the voter to visit the website of theparty or attend a meeting. In the Netherlands no party uses this type of communication. Perhapsthis is a gesture for the Netherlands to try this type of communicating. Besides the use of physicalsupport in a new way (teasing marketing) the social media could be used for informing the voter. 14
  15. 15. 7. References / BibliographyPrintAlbouy, S., (1994). Marketing et communication politique. Paris: LHarmattanBongrand, M., (1993). Le marketing politique. Paris: Presses Universitaires de FranceGerstlé, J., (1996). La communication politique. Quebec: Presses Université du QuébecMichels, W.J. (2006). Communicatie handbook. Groningen/Houten: Wolters-NoordhoffOnlineArtufel. C., (2007). Nicolas Sarkozy ou la communication politique en action. [Mouvements,n°52] Retrieved October 6, 2012, from http://www.cairn.info/revue-mouvements-2007-4-page-45.htmAuthor Unkown. ARDictionary. Retrieved October 1, 2012, fromhttp://ardictionary.com/CampaignAuthor Unkown. ARDictionary. Retrieved October 1, 2012, fromhttp://ardictionary.com/PhysicalAuthor Unknown. Campagne voeren. Retrieved October 3, 2012, fromhttp://www.tweedekamer.nl/hoe_werkt_het/verkiezingen_en_kabinetsformatie/campagne_voeren/index.jspAuthor Unknown (2003). KADOC [Newsletter # 4]. Retrieved October 3, 2012, fromhttp://www.demeester.com/politiekekleuren.htmAuthor Unkown. Kiesrecht. Retrieved October 1, 2012, fromhttp://www.parlement.com/9353000/1f/j9vvhy5i95k8zxl/vh8lnhrouwzeAuthor Unkown. VVD, D66 stellen programma vast. Retrieved October 1, 2012, fromhttp://nos.nl/artikel/410493-vvd-d66-stellen-programma-vast.htmlBenoit, J-M., (2007). La communication dans la campagne [Le débat, n°146] Retrieved October6, 2012 http://www.cairn.info/revue-le-debat-2007-4-p-73.htmGarrigou, A. (1998). Le suffrage universel, « invention » française. Retrieved October 1, 2012,from http://www.monde-diplomatique.fr/1998/04/GARRIGOU/10288Kant, G. (2001). Algorithms for drawing planar graphs. University of Utrecht, Retrieved October 2,2012, from http://igitur-archive.library.uu.nl/dissertations/01855269/UUindex.htmlVerbal- 15
  16. 16. Appendix A. Search planOur problem statementThe (physical) campaign material used with elections in France and the Netherlands.Main questionWhat are the differences of the (physical) campaign material used with elections compared toFrance and the Netherlands over the past 30 years?Sub-questionsFor answering the problem statement, we will use the following sub questions: 1. What do we mean by (physical) campaign material? 2. When will the (physical) campaign material be used? 3. How do they use the(physical) campaign material in the Netherlands nowadays? And how important is the (physical) campaign material there? 4. How do they use the(physical) campaign material in France nowadays? And how important is the (physical) campaign material there? 5. How did both countries use the (physical) campaign material 30 years ago? 6. What has changed in the (physical) campaign material in the Netherlands over the past 30 years? 7. What has changed in the (physical) campaign material in France over the past 30 years? 8. What are the similarities between the Netherlands and France in (physical) campaign material?Definition of our subjectThe subject is doing research to the differences of the (physical) campaign material used withelections compared to France and the Netherlands over the past 30 years. This research have tomake clear what the big changes are in (campaign) material between these countries and, if thereis some trend, in (physical) campaign material. Besides the differences between the countries, itshould also show the similarity in (physical) campaign material in the Netherlands and France.The research will be done in English, because the investigation involves two countries with adifferent language. The research will be done by one French student and two Dutch students.They will communicate with each other in English. The research will be done in the period 1982-2012. A time frame of 30 years.KeywordsThe keywords we will be using are: Elections (Physical) campaign material Politics France The Netherlands Election posters Differences Changes Similarities The period 1982- 2012 (30 years) 16
  17. 17. Period The research will be done in the period of the 24 September until the 15 October. Sources Databases We will use the following databases HBO Kennisbank PiCarta Narcis Lexis Nexis Academic WorldCat Publications We will search for publications in above databases and on Google Scholar. We will also use the websites of the selected politics parties. For the Netherlands we will take as example the PvdA. We will use their website www.pvda.nl. There is also a Dutch website www.verkiezingsaffiches.nl. This website gives some information about Dutch election posters during the years, starting from 1815. Literature We will use Google Scholar for finding literature. Practices We will use some examples like the (physical) campaign material that has been used during the recently elections in the Netherlands (September 2012) and in France (June 2012). Search engines Name Databases: Google Scholar, LexisNexis Academic Selected keywords: verkiezingsposters, digitaal verkiezingsbordTitle Journal Author ISSN Year Volum Number Page eDe teloorgang van Online article Gerrit Unkown 2003 Unkown Unkown 1het politieke affiche VoermanVerkiezingsposter Dagblad van Willem Unknown 2012 157.000 128 2achter het Noorden Dekkerhet raam verdwijnt Section: In het NieuwsVerkiezingsposters Nederlands Jan Pieter Unknown 2012 29.708 Unkown Unkownplakken blijft populair Rottier (2010) Dagblad 17
  18. 18. Appendix B. Verkiezingsposter plakken blijft populairBYLINE: Door Jan Pieter RottierSECTION: Nederlands Dagblad; Blz. onbekendLENGTH: 658 woordenZe hangen schots en scheef, soms half over elkaar heen. Verkiezingsposters opvallend opplakken hoort bij hetpolitieke spel. Maar hoe lang nog? Een aantal gemeenten experimenteert met posters die naast elkaar op eengroot doek geprint staan. Winsum Zijn verkiezingsposters nog wel van deze tijd?Hermannus Blik, voorzitter van de ChristenUnie-fractie in Winsum, hoort die vraag steeds vaker.Posterplakkers hebben veel te maken met vandalisme: posters worden beklad, besmeurd en soms zelfs kapotgescheurd. De CUer vraagt zich zelfs af wat de toegevoegde waarde van de posters is: Het ontgaat tochniemand dat er verkiezingen aankomen? Maar volgens Annemarie Walter, universitair docent PolitiekeCommunicatie aan de VU, is een poster een nuttig ondersteunend medium in de campagne. Beeld heeft meerkracht dan woord, een poster zorgt voor bekendheid en heeft ook een psychologisch effect: als veel mensendezelfde verkiezingsposter achter hun raam hebben, wekt dat de indruk dat die partij belangrijk is. Tijdens deverzuiling werden veel verkiezingsposters gebruikt, vertelt Walter, ook bij burgers thuis. Nu komen mensenminder uit voor hun politieke voorkeur. Velen weten ook nog niet wat ze gaan stemmen. Deverkiezingscampagne was vroeger ook heel anders, aldus Walter. Toen hadden politici veel directer contactmet kiezers. Nu wordt het debat vooral via de media gespeeld. De geringe rol die verkiezingsposters inNederland hebben, heeft niet zo veel met de poster zelf te maken, zegt de universitair docent. In de landen omons heen, maar ook in Amerika, speelt de poster nog een grote rol tijdens verkiezingen. Ze vermoedt datdoordat posters in Nederland minder prominent aanwezig zijn, de invloed op de kiezer afgenomen is. Voorrelatief onbekende partijen zijn posters overigens van groter belang. En als het ontwerp in de media besprokenwordt, groeit de invloed eveneens. De kans dat dit gebeurt, is niet zo groot. Walter vindt de posters van nu vrijsaai. Je ziet een lijsttrekker en het logo van zijn partij. Vroeger waren posters echte kunstwerken en stonden zebol van de symboliek. plicht Begin deze week heeft fractievoorzitter Blik schriftelijke vragen aan het collegevan Winsum gesteld. Ik vraag mij af of gemeenten überhaupt een wettelijke plicht hebben om posters op tehangen. En als dat het geval is, ben ik benieuwd of er alternatieven zijn om posters op te hangen, zegt hij.Volgens een woordvoerder van de Vereniging Nederlandse Gemeenten bestaat die plicht niet. Gemeenten zijnvrij een eigen vorm te kiezen, aldus een woordvoerder. Veel hangt af van de eigen ambities en doelstellingenvan een gemeente, soms bestaat er opkomstbevorderend beleid. Gemeenten moeten overigens wel deverkiezingen aankondigen. Het is nog steeds populair om verkiezingsposters te plakken.Het Algemeen Dagbladbecijferde dat er deze campagne in totaal ruim 400.000 posters zijn gedrukt door de verschillende politiekepartijen. Er bestaat ook een alternatief: politieke partijen leveren hun posters voor de campagne digitaal bij degemeente. Die drukt ze - allemaal even groot - op spandoeken van stevig materiaal. Onder andere Soest enCapelle aan den IJssel hebben daar deze verkiezingen mee geëxperimenteerd. Hiermee wordt vandalisme enscheefplakken tegengaan. Of er echt een trend is, vindt de VNG-woordvoerder lastig te zeggen. Veelgemeenten hebben nu die houten borden. Die gaan nog wel even mee. De alternatieve posterdoeken makenpolitieke partijen niet minder zichtbaar, denkt Blik. Ik kan mij ook niet voorstellen dat stemgedrag beïnvloedwordt door de posters. Maar zolang de huidige borden er nog zijn, willen partijen niet achterblijven, denkt defractievoorzitter van de ChristenUnie. Wij hebben natuurlijk ook onze posters opgehangen. < Jan PieterRottier nd.nl/binnenland beeld novum / Dirk Hol Het verkiezingsbord op het Buitenhof in DenHaag Verkiezingsposters plakken blijft populair. 18
  19. 19. Appendix C. ‘Ranking the parties’ 19
  20. 20. Appendix D. Verkiezingsposter achter het raam verdwijntBYLINE: Door Willem DekkerSECTION: Dagblad van het Noorden: In het Nieuws; Blz. 2LENGTH: 730 woordenREPORTAGE VERKIEZINGSPOSTERS3 Televisie heeft de raamposter in verkiezingsstrijd verdrongenAssen/Groningen Je moet goed zoeken. Wie heeft vandaag de dag nog een verkiezingsposter achter het raam?Bijna niemand meer. De televisie heeft de poster verdrongen. "Het beeldscherm is het hoofdtoneel van deverkiezingsstrijd", zegt Gerrit Voerman van het Documentatiecentrum Nederlandse Politieke Partijen inGroningen. Hij deed onderzoek naar de verkiezingsposter en schreef er boeken over.Politieke partijen hebben minder leden dan vroeger. "En de kiezerstrouw neemt af. Het is niet meer zo dat alsje eens PvdA stemt, je altijd PvdA stemt", zegt Voerman. Afnemende politieke betrokkenheid is ook een redendat de postermet het hoofd van de partijleider achter het raam verdwijnt. Daarbij komt dat mensen zich lijkente generen een biljet op te hangen.Vroeger kleurden hele straten rood, zoals na de oorlog in Amsterdam waar de communistische CPN en PvdA ineen felle verkiezingsstrijd verwikkeld waren. De CPN drukte de affiches door papierschaarste op de achterkantvan Amerikaanse legerkaarten. Nu is het affiche verhuisd naar de zijkant van het bushokje of naar de enormereclamepilaren. Zoals in Hoogeveen waar CDA-leider Sybrand Buma je vanaf de snelweg levensgroot begroet.Gemeenten plaatsen nog wel verkiezingsborden met affiches. Die houden de politieke poster kunstmatig instand. Dit jaar laten veel gemeenten de borden voorbedrukken met posters, waardoor partijleden zelf nietmeer hoeven te plakken. "Het is zo steriel geworden. De romantiek van het plakken en het overplakken isverdwenen. Stond er weer een berichtje in krant dat de ene partij de poster van de andere had overgeplakt."Het politieke affiche wacht volgens Voerman uiteindelijk hetzelfde lot als de vaandels van linkse partijen. Diezijn er ook niet meer. "Wat wel blijft zijn posters tegen concrete projecten, als de No Way-posters tegen detram in Groningen en de raambiljetten tegen de windmolenparken in Oost-Groningen en Drenthe."Teije Staal (74), Bedum. Poster CDA¦ "Ik heb twee posters opgehangen, een grote en een kleine. Op de bovenverdieping. Dan hoeven we er zelfniet tegenaan te kijken, haha. Zolang we in Bedum wonen, twaalf jaar nu, hebben we met de verkiezingeneen posterhangen. Ik ben lid van het CDA. Van het partijbureau hebben we een poster gekregen, de andere isvan het CDA-Bedum. Ik zie niet veel posters in het dorp hangen. Ik stem al jaren CDA. Vanwege het geloof,maar ook vanwege de principes. Of de posters het CDA aan stemmen helpen? Ik heb geen idee."Bert Garssen (66), Groningen. Poster Partij voor de Dieren¦ "Het is voor het eerst dat ik een poster van een politieke partij ophang. Ik kreeg deze een week geleden in debus. Als je de partij steunt, moet je het affiche ook ophangen. Of mensen naar de poster kijken, weet ik niet. Ikheb er niet op gelet. Ik ben geen lid van de Partij van de Dieren. Ze komt ook niet in de regering, maar heeft welveel bereikt. In de campagne gaat het bijna alleen over mensen en niet over dieren en planten. Volgens dekieswijzer moet ik op een andere partij stemmen. Ik heb liever kernenergie dan een kolencentrale."Mimoun Berkan (27), Zuidlaren. Poster SP¦ "De SP is tegen de wietpas. Ik werk in coffeeshop Illusion in Zuidlaren en woon boven de zaak. Ik denk bij deverkiezingen aan mezelf. Als de wietpas wordt ingevoerd, krijgen we problemen in Zuidlaren. Dan wordt er opstraa gedeald en zo ontstaat criminaliteit. Kijk, binnen hangt nog een poster en daar staat een opblaasbare 20
  21. 21. tomaat. Op de bar liggen flyers. Zo hopen we steun en aandacht te krijgen voor onze zaak. We hadden onlangsleden van SP-Tynaarlo op bezoek. Die vroegen of ik lid wilde worden. Daar wacht ik nog even mee."Kees Dijkstra, Assen. Poster D66Ð "Ik ben inderdaad vrijwel de enige in de wijk Peelo met een poster voor het raam. Mijn vriendin moet er ookaan wennen, die is niet zo met politiek bezig. Ik begrijp volkomen dat mensen tegenwoordig niet zo snel eenaffiche voor hunraam hangen. Er zijn om de paar jaar verkiezingen en mensen zien door de bomen het bos nietmeer. Voor mijzelf geldt dat ik lid ben van D66 en plaatsvervangend raadslid in Assen. Ik wil wel wat uitdragenen dit is een manier om dat te doen. Ik help ook mee met folderen op het Koopmansplein. Het zal toch wel ietsvan invloed hebben."Mensen lijken zich te generen 21
  22. 22. Appendix E. Presentationhttp://prezi.com/sqgdzm5i28uc/tic_presentation/ 22

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