Endocrine System
Endocrine Glands
Hormones
Glands that secrete hormones directly into the circulatory system are called
          (a) exocrine (b) endocrine (c) seba...
Steroid Hormones – Gene Level Effect
Protein (non-steroid) Hormones
       Second Messenger Effect
Steroid hormones (a) are protein (b) stimulate production of a second messenger
                  (c) have a gene level ef...
Feedback – regulates hormone release
The level of secretion of hormones is most often controlled by (a) chromosomes
(b) negative feedback loops (c) positive fe...
Prostaglandins – “tissue hormones”
Which type of hormone is not a "systemic hormone"? (a) prostaglandin
     (b) protein hormone (c) steroid hormone (d) sex ...
Pituitary Gland
Pituitary Hormones
The Pituitary gland is (a) attached to the brain (b) the "master gland"
                (c) an endocrine gland (d) all of ...
Anterior Pituitary (Adenohypophysis)
Which is NOT controlled by the anterior pituitary (Adenohypophysis)? (a) growth
               (b) water retention (c) met...
Posterior Pituitary (Neurohypophysis)
Which is controlled by the posterior pituitary gland (Neurohypophysis)? (a) growth
                  (b) water retention (...
Thyroid Gland
Thyroid Hormones
Thyroxin (a) is a pituitary gland hormone (b) is an adrenal gland hormone
 (c) regulates metabolic level (d) is antagonist...
Calcitonin
Calcitonin (a) is produced in the thyroid gland (b) lowers blood calcium level
                   (c) is antagonistic to P...
Parathyroid – Parathyroid Hormone
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) (a) is produced in the parathyroid glands
(b) raises blood calcium level (c) is antagonistic to ...
Adrenal Gland
Adrenal Cortex
• Mineralocorticoids
  – Aldosterone – increases resorption of sodium
    in the kidneys
• Glucocorticoids
...
Adrenal Medulla
• Epinephrine
• Norepinephrine
The adrenal gland produces (a) Thyroxin (b) Melatonin
           (c) masculizing hormone (d) all of these.




Cortisol (a...
The Pancreas
Functions of the Pancreas
Histology of the Pancreas
Pancreatic Hormones
• Insulin – Necessary for uptake of glucose
  by tissue cells throughout the body.
• Glucogon – Stimul...
Insulin is (a) necessary for cells to absorb glucose (b) produced in the pancreas
              (c) produced in the Isles ...
Glycogenolysis
Glucose is produced by (a) glycogenolysis (b) glycogenesis (b) the thyroid gland
                              (d) the mit...
Endocrine function of Ovaries

             Estrogen – Stimulates the growth of
             the inner uterine lining (end...
The ovaries have an endocrine function in producing (a) FSH (b) LH (c) estrogen
                          (d) masculizing ...
Testes




   Testosterone – Stimulates development
   of secondary sexual characteristics in
    males.
The testes have an endocrine function in producing (a) FSH (b) LH (c) Testosterone
                            (d) masculi...
Thymus



         Thymosin – Stimlates
         The maturation of T-cell
         lymphocytes
The Thymus is part of the (a) endocrine system (b) the immune system
                   (c) both of these (d) neither of t...
Placenta




Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin (HCG) – “Pregnancy Hormone” signals brain
and pituitary gland to interrupt the ...
The Placenta has an endocrine function in producing
(a) human chorionic gonadotrophin (b) testosterone
          (c) place...
Pineal Gland




Melatonin – Controls day-night rhythms (Sleepiness).
The Pineal gland controls (a) when you get sleepy (b) when you are wide awake
                  (c) daily rhythms (circadi...
The Heart




Atrial Natriuretic Hormone (ANH) – Lowers blood volume by decreasing water
          resorption in kidneys (...
Atrial Natriuretic Hormone is (a) antagonistic to aldosterone (b) antagonistic to ADH
                    (c) produced by ...
The Blood
Red Blood Cells - Erythrocytes
Red Blood Cells (erythrocytes) (a) have a nucleus (b) contain mostly hemoglobin
           (c) are among the largest of hu...
White Blood Cells - Leucocytes
White Blood Cells (leucocytes) (a) have a nucleus (b) contain mostly hemoglobin
            (c) are among the largest of h...
Platelets
Platelets (a) have a nucleus (b) contain clotting factors
(c) are among the largest of human cells (d) all of these.
Blood Plasma



     Water
     Clotting Factors
     Blood Sugar
     Blood Proteins
     Minerals (electrolytes)
     Ho...
Which is NOT a component of blood plasma? (a) minerals (b) nutrients
                 (c) hemoglobin (d) clotting factors.
Clotting Factors
Which is NOT a clotting factor? (a) fibrinogen (b) gamma globulin (c) prothrombin
                                  (d) th...
Hematocrit
A hematocrit measures relative (a) percentage of RBC in whole blood
(b) hemoglobin level in RBC (c) percentage of clotting...
Blood Types
A universal blood donor would have which blood type? (a) O negative (b) O positive
                         (c) AB positiv...
The Heart
Chambers of the Heart
Heart Tissue Layers
Heart muscle is called (a) pericardium (b) myocardium (c) endocardium (d) epicardium.
Heart Valves
Heart Circulation
The valve between the left atrium and the left ventricle is called the (a) tricuspid valve
(b) pulmonary valve (c) mitral ...
Circulatory Loops
The right ventricle pumps blood to the (a) systemic loop (b) pulmonary loop (c) heart
                                   (...
Heart Innervation
The sino-atrial node (SA node) is also called the (a) pacemaker (b) ectopic pacemaker
                       (c) extrinsic...
Coronary Arteries and Cardiac Veins
Blood supply to the right ventricular myocardium is provided by
(a) the left coronary artery (b) the right coronary artery...
Blood Vessels
The inner lining of a blood vessel is (a) called tunica intima (b) smooth
         (c) continuous with the endocardium (d)...
Arteries
Aorta   Aortic Arch




                     Descending
Ascending
Arteries of the head and neck
Thorax and upper arm
Abdominal and Pelvic


      Celiac
Superior Mesenteric
       Renal
Inferior Mesenteric



 Common Iliac

  Internal Ilia...
Arteries of the leg
Veins
Veins
Head and Neck
Veins of the upper thorax
Shoulder and Arm
Hepatic Vein and Hepatic Portal
Renal Veins
Pelvic Veins
Leg Veins
Blood Pressure
The pressure of blood in an artery during a compression wave (systole) is called
               (a) systolic (b) diastolic...
Pulse
Lymphatic System
Lymph Vessels
Lymph Node
Efferent lymph ducts lead (a) toward lymph nodes (b) away from lymph nodes
               (b) toward the spleen (d) away f...
Tonsils
Tonsils contain mostly (a) T-cell lymphocytes (b) B-cell lymphocytes (c) macrophages
                                    (...
Spleen
The spleens function is (a) fetal hemopoesis (b) recycling of red blood cells
          (d) destroying enemy cells in the ...
Immunity
• Inherited or acquired?
• Non-specific
• Specific
Immunity to tuberculosis infections is (a) inherited (b) specific (c) both of these
                              (d) neit...
Immune System Cells
T -cells mature in the (a) lymph nodes (b) brain (c) thymus gland (d) spleen.
Antigens/Antibodies
Antibodies bond to (a) blood cells (b) B-cells (c) antigens (d) toxins.
Antibody
Antibody Binding Sites
Complement
Complement is used to (a) truss up enemy cells (b) explode bacteria
       (c) stimulate the immune system (d) rally B-cel...
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Bio112 Module Iii

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great description of bones, muscles, ect..

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Bio112 Module Iii

  1. 1. Endocrine System
  2. 2. Endocrine Glands
  3. 3. Hormones
  4. 4. Glands that secrete hormones directly into the circulatory system are called (a) exocrine (b) endocrine (c) sebaceous (d) secretory Hormones have an effect on (a) all cells of the body (b) growing cells (c) stem cells (d) target cells.
  5. 5. Steroid Hormones – Gene Level Effect
  6. 6. Protein (non-steroid) Hormones Second Messenger Effect
  7. 7. Steroid hormones (a) are protein (b) stimulate production of a second messenger (c) have a gene level effect (d) all of these. Protein hormones (a) are not protein (b) stimulate production of a second messenger (c) have a gene level effect (d) none of these.
  8. 8. Feedback – regulates hormone release
  9. 9. The level of secretion of hormones is most often controlled by (a) chromosomes (b) negative feedback loops (c) positive feedback loops (d) neutral feedback loops.
  10. 10. Prostaglandins – “tissue hormones”
  11. 11. Which type of hormone is not a "systemic hormone"? (a) prostaglandin (b) protein hormone (c) steroid hormone (d) sex hormone.
  12. 12. Pituitary Gland
  13. 13. Pituitary Hormones
  14. 14. The Pituitary gland is (a) attached to the brain (b) the "master gland" (c) an endocrine gland (d) all of these.
  15. 15. Anterior Pituitary (Adenohypophysis)
  16. 16. Which is NOT controlled by the anterior pituitary (Adenohypophysis)? (a) growth (b) water retention (c) metabolism (d) sexuality.
  17. 17. Posterior Pituitary (Neurohypophysis)
  18. 18. Which is controlled by the posterior pituitary gland (Neurohypophysis)? (a) growth (b) water retention (c) metabolism (d) sexuality.
  19. 19. Thyroid Gland
  20. 20. Thyroid Hormones
  21. 21. Thyroxin (a) is a pituitary gland hormone (b) is an adrenal gland hormone (c) regulates metabolic level (d) is antagonistic to parathyroid hormone.
  22. 22. Calcitonin
  23. 23. Calcitonin (a) is produced in the thyroid gland (b) lowers blood calcium level (c) is antagonistic to PTH (d) all of these.
  24. 24. Parathyroid – Parathyroid Hormone
  25. 25. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) (a) is produced in the parathyroid glands (b) raises blood calcium level (c) is antagonistic to calcitonin (d) all of these.
  26. 26. Adrenal Gland
  27. 27. Adrenal Cortex • Mineralocorticoids – Aldosterone – increases resorption of sodium in the kidneys • Glucocorticoids – Gluconeogenesis – Anti-alergy hormones – Cortisol • Androgens – Masculizing Hormone
  28. 28. Adrenal Medulla • Epinephrine • Norepinephrine
  29. 29. The adrenal gland produces (a) Thyroxin (b) Melatonin (c) masculizing hormone (d) all of these. Cortisol (a) is antagonistic to epinephrine (b) is synergistic to ADH (c) suppresses inflammation (d) none of these. Epinephrine is also know as (a) adrenalin (b) growth hormone (c) a trophic hormone (d) masculizing hormone.
  30. 30. The Pancreas
  31. 31. Functions of the Pancreas
  32. 32. Histology of the Pancreas
  33. 33. Pancreatic Hormones • Insulin – Necessary for uptake of glucose by tissue cells throughout the body. • Glucogon – Stimulates glycogenolysis which is the conversion of starch (glycogen) to blood sugar
  34. 34. Insulin is (a) necessary for cells to absorb glucose (b) produced in the pancreas (c) produced in the Isles of Langerhans (d) all of these.
  35. 35. Glycogenolysis
  36. 36. Glucose is produced by (a) glycogenolysis (b) glycogenesis (b) the thyroid gland (d) the mitochondria.
  37. 37. Endocrine function of Ovaries Estrogen – Stimulates the growth of the inner uterine lining (endometrium) during proliferative phase. Stimulates development of secondary sexual characteristics in the female. Progesterone – Stimulates thickening of the uterine lining during the secretory phase.
  38. 38. The ovaries have an endocrine function in producing (a) FSH (b) LH (c) estrogen (d) masculizing hormone.
  39. 39. Testes Testosterone – Stimulates development of secondary sexual characteristics in males.
  40. 40. The testes have an endocrine function in producing (a) FSH (b) LH (c) Testosterone (d) masculizing hormone.
  41. 41. Thymus Thymosin – Stimlates The maturation of T-cell lymphocytes
  42. 42. The Thymus is part of the (a) endocrine system (b) the immune system (c) both of these (d) neither of these. Thymosin stimulates (a) the growth of the Thyroid (b) metabolism (c) the growth of the Thymus gland (d) the maturation of T-cell lymphocytes.
  43. 43. Placenta Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin (HCG) – “Pregnancy Hormone” signals brain and pituitary gland to interrupt the menstrual cycle.
  44. 44. The Placenta has an endocrine function in producing (a) human chorionic gonadotrophin (b) testosterone (c) placentone (d) all of these.
  45. 45. Pineal Gland Melatonin – Controls day-night rhythms (Sleepiness).
  46. 46. The Pineal gland controls (a) when you get sleepy (b) when you are wide awake (c) daily rhythms (circadian) (d) all of these.
  47. 47. The Heart Atrial Natriuretic Hormone (ANH) – Lowers blood volume by decreasing water resorption in kidneys (makes urine hypotonic).
  48. 48. Atrial Natriuretic Hormone is (a) antagonistic to aldosterone (b) antagonistic to ADH (c) produced by heart muscle (d) all of these.
  49. 49. The Blood
  50. 50. Red Blood Cells - Erythrocytes
  51. 51. Red Blood Cells (erythrocytes) (a) have a nucleus (b) contain mostly hemoglobin (c) are among the largest of human cells (d) all of these.
  52. 52. White Blood Cells - Leucocytes
  53. 53. White Blood Cells (leucocytes) (a) have a nucleus (b) contain mostly hemoglobin (c) are among the largest of human cells (d) all of these.
  54. 54. Platelets
  55. 55. Platelets (a) have a nucleus (b) contain clotting factors (c) are among the largest of human cells (d) all of these.
  56. 56. Blood Plasma Water Clotting Factors Blood Sugar Blood Proteins Minerals (electrolytes) Hormones Nutrients Dissolved gasses Waste products
  57. 57. Which is NOT a component of blood plasma? (a) minerals (b) nutrients (c) hemoglobin (d) clotting factors.
  58. 58. Clotting Factors
  59. 59. Which is NOT a clotting factor? (a) fibrinogen (b) gamma globulin (c) prothrombin (d) thrombin.
  60. 60. Hematocrit
  61. 61. A hematocrit measures relative (a) percentage of RBC in whole blood (b) hemoglobin level in RBC (c) percentage of clotting factors in whole blood (d) all of these.
  62. 62. Blood Types
  63. 63. A universal blood donor would have which blood type? (a) O negative (b) O positive (c) AB positive (d) AB negative.
  64. 64. The Heart
  65. 65. Chambers of the Heart
  66. 66. Heart Tissue Layers
  67. 67. Heart muscle is called (a) pericardium (b) myocardium (c) endocardium (d) epicardium.
  68. 68. Heart Valves
  69. 69. Heart Circulation
  70. 70. The valve between the left atrium and the left ventricle is called the (a) tricuspid valve (b) pulmonary valve (c) mitral valve (d) aortic valve.
  71. 71. Circulatory Loops
  72. 72. The right ventricle pumps blood to the (a) systemic loop (b) pulmonary loop (c) heart (d) all of these.
  73. 73. Heart Innervation
  74. 74. The sino-atrial node (SA node) is also called the (a) pacemaker (b) ectopic pacemaker (c) extrinsic pacemaker (d) none of these. Contraction of ventricular myocardium is controlled by (a) the SA node (b) the AV node (c) the AV bundle (d) all of these.
  75. 75. Coronary Arteries and Cardiac Veins
  76. 76. Blood supply to the right ventricular myocardium is provided by (a) the left coronary artery (b) the right coronary artery (c) pulmonary artery (d) all of these.
  77. 77. Blood Vessels
  78. 78. The inner lining of a blood vessel is (a) called tunica intima (b) smooth (c) continuous with the endocardium (d) all of these.
  79. 79. Arteries
  80. 80. Aorta Aortic Arch Descending Ascending
  81. 81. Arteries of the head and neck
  82. 82. Thorax and upper arm
  83. 83. Abdominal and Pelvic Celiac Superior Mesenteric Renal Inferior Mesenteric Common Iliac Internal Iliac External Iliac
  84. 84. Arteries of the leg
  85. 85. Veins
  86. 86. Veins
  87. 87. Head and Neck
  88. 88. Veins of the upper thorax
  89. 89. Shoulder and Arm
  90. 90. Hepatic Vein and Hepatic Portal
  91. 91. Renal Veins
  92. 92. Pelvic Veins
  93. 93. Leg Veins
  94. 94. Blood Pressure
  95. 95. The pressure of blood in an artery during a compression wave (systole) is called (a) systolic (b) diastolic (c) peristolic (d) epistolic.
  96. 96. Pulse
  97. 97. Lymphatic System
  98. 98. Lymph Vessels
  99. 99. Lymph Node
  100. 100. Efferent lymph ducts lead (a) toward lymph nodes (b) away from lymph nodes (b) toward the spleen (d) away from the spleen.
  101. 101. Tonsils
  102. 102. Tonsils contain mostly (a) T-cell lymphocytes (b) B-cell lymphocytes (c) macrophages (d) erythrocytes.
  103. 103. Spleen
  104. 104. The spleens function is (a) fetal hemopoesis (b) recycling of red blood cells (d) destroying enemy cells in the blood (d) all of these.
  105. 105. Immunity • Inherited or acquired? • Non-specific • Specific
  106. 106. Immunity to tuberculosis infections is (a) inherited (b) specific (c) both of these (d) neither of these.
  107. 107. Immune System Cells
  108. 108. T -cells mature in the (a) lymph nodes (b) brain (c) thymus gland (d) spleen.
  109. 109. Antigens/Antibodies
  110. 110. Antibodies bond to (a) blood cells (b) B-cells (c) antigens (d) toxins.
  111. 111. Antibody
  112. 112. Antibody Binding Sites
  113. 113. Complement
  114. 114. Complement is used to (a) truss up enemy cells (b) explode bacteria (c) stimulate the immune system (d) rally B-cells.
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