Biology project

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Biology project

  1. 1. HUMAN DISEASESA disease is a condition of the body or apart of it in which functions are disturbed or arranged.Diseases may also be defined as morphological , physiological , psychological disturbance inthe body or body parts caused by some external agencies which may be non-parasitic e.g.deficiency of nutrients or may be parasitic caused by causes, bacteria , fungi etc. The termdisease means DIS-EASE or discomfort. In short it can be defined as „diseases is disorder ofbody‟. SOURCES OF DISEASESThe reservoir of human diseases are: a)Air: It is reservoir of pathogens of many diseases like, measles, mumps, tuberculosis, diphtheria etc. b)Food and Water: These are reservoir of pathogens of many diseases like, cholera, polio, typhoid, roundworm, tapeworm etc. c)Soil: It is a reservoir of pathogen of tetanus diseases. d)Animals: These are those living organisms which spread the pathogens from an infected person of healthy person. These do not suffer from the diseases so are also called reservoir host. TYPES OF DISEASESDiseases are broadly classified into two categories: A.CONGENITAL DISEASES Diseases present since birth and are caused due to defective development of inheritance e.g. congenital heart diseases, hemophilia, colour blindness etc. B.Acquired diseases Diseases developed after birth. They are further classified as-
  2. 2. a)Communicable diseases b)Non-Communicable diseasesDifferences between Communicable and Non-Communicable DiseasesS.No. Communicable diseases S.No. Non-communicable diseases1. The diseases which spread from one person to 1. The diseases which are not transmitted f another. person to another.2. They are caused by pathogens, e.g. malaria, 2. They are caused by deficiency of nutrients, smallpox etc. abnormal proliferation of cells etc. e.g. kwa cancer etc. MODES OF TRANSMISSION OF COMMUNICABLE DISEASESThe diseases are transmitted from the reservoirs of infection to the healthy persons the followingways:1) Direct transmission: The pathogens are transmitted from an infected person or healthyperson directly without an intermediate agent. It occurs in following ways- a)Contact with infected person e.g., small pox and chicken pox. b)Contact with soil e.g., tetanus.2. Indirect transmission: The pathogens of some diseases are carried through some intermediateagents. It occurs in following ways: a) Air borne diseases. b) By unclean hands and fingers. VIRAL DISEASESINFLUENZA
  3. 3. It is commonly known as “Flu” and is highly infectious. It is commonly caused by influenzavirus (Myxo virus influenzae).Mode of transmission: through direct contact, sneezing, coughing etc. (air–borne diseases).Symptoms: It affects upper respiratory tract.It starts with fever, headache, sore throat, coughing and pain all over the body with restlessness.Control: Antibiotics should be given to prevent secondary complications like pneumonia and ear infections. No vaccine is available which can give protection against all types of influenza viruses.Prevention: The patient should avoid joining parties or gatherings of people. Handkerchief should be used while sneezing and coughing.JAUNDICEJaundice is yellowness of sclera of eyes (White part of eyes) and skin. Yellowness is due toexcessive deposition of bile pigments in these structures.Jaundice is caused by hepatitis virus. Liver is the most important organ in the body caused itsinflammation due to jaundice affects digestion adversely. The types of hepatitis are hepatitis-A,B, C, D, E or G.Modes of transmission: Hepatitis Ais spread mostly by contaminated food and water. Hepatitis B is transmitted by contact with infected body secretions and blood. Symptoms: Fever and loss of appetite. Nausea and vomiting. Yellowness of skin. Dark yellow coloured urine and light-coloured stool after 3 to 10 days.
  4. 4. Control: Adequate bed rest. Carbohydrate rich diet should be given to the patient. Consumption of protein and fat should be limited. Interferon injection should be administered on the advice of the doctor. Prevention: Eating hygienic food and drinking disinfected water. Hepatitis B and Hepatitis A vaccine should be taken to prevent the diseases. Use of disposable syringes and blood should be tested before transfusion. Properly clean hands after handling bed and utensils of the patient.RABIESRabies a fatal viral disease that is transmitted to human beings by bite of rabid dog or cat.A number of wild animals also carry the virus, e.g. Jaundice wolves, foxes, bat, monkeys, rabbitetc. Disease is not expressed after infection up to 1-3 months.Symptoms: Rabies is 100% fatal disease. It is characterized by high fever and pain contraction ofmuscles of throat and chest. The patient feels restless, has choking feet and finds difficulty intaking even liquid food. He is afraid of water, so called hydrophobia. The virus destroys thebrain and spinal cord. So, it causes paralysis and painful death.Prevention: Compulsory immunization of dogs and cats should be done. Pet dogs should be vaccinated with anti-rabies vaccine. Rabid animal should be killed, if it shows excessive salivation and tries seeking isolation.Control: There is no treatment until now.AIDSAids stands for acquired immune deficiency syndrome. It is caused by HIV (Human immune-deficiency virus). It was firstly detected in June 1981 in USA. This virus weakness the human
  5. 5. body‟s immunity or self defense mechanism. Hence the aids virus reduces the natural immunityof the human body; therefore, the body saving AIDS becomes prone to many other infections.Modes of transmission: It spreads though sexual contact with an infected person carrying AIDS virus. It spread though the transfusion of blood infected with AIDS virus. It spread though the use of infected needles for injections, blade or razors and other equipment of barbers. The children of AIDS infected mother get this disease from mother‟s blood. Symptoms: The important symptoms are- Severe brain damage which may lead to loss of memory, ability to speak and think. Swollen lymph nodes. Decreased count of blood platelets causing hemorrhage. Sweating at night and weight loss. AIDS patient also become more susceptible to infections of any body.A full blown AIDS patient dies within three years and mortality is 100%.Prevention: No absolutely satisfactory vaccine is yet available. So, we can prevent AIDS onlypreventive measures like- Use of disposable syringes. Using condoms and adopt clean sex habits. People should be educated about AIDS. Blood test must be done in pregnant woman, blood donor‟s organ donors. Dentists should use sterilized instrument. The common razor at the barber shop should be used.Control: Till today there is no specific therapy against HIV infection. Some medical have beendiscovered which can suppress AIDS virus.
  6. 6. National AIDS control program was started in 1987.World AIDS day: December 1. BACTERIAL DISEASESCHOLERA CHOLERA: It is highly communicable diseases caused by vibrio-cholera it is common during fairs and after floods. Some times it may occur in epidemic form. Modes of transmission: It is transmitted through contaminated food and water flies it is spread rapidly when sanitation is poor.Symptoms: It is characterized by- Rice watery stool, which is generally painless. Rapid loss of large amount of water from the body, which causes dehydrates muscular cramps and weight loss. Repeated effortless vomiting without nausea. Due to excessive loss of water, eye becomes sunken, cheeks hollow subnet temperature etc.Prevention: Use of boiled water and proper cooking of food. The drinking water must disinfect with strong chlorine solution. Underground disposal of human faces. Cholera vaccine should be given during epidemics and fairs. Vaccine immunity for about 6 months.Control: Oral Rehydration Therapy (ORT)- in which fluid and electrolytes (NaCL- 3.5g , Sodium bicarbonate -2.5g, KCL-1.5g, Glucose- 20.0g, Sucrose-40g in one liter of water) are given to patient orally (through mouth).This solution helps in preventing dehydration. Saline drip may be given intravenously. Use ant cholera drugs.
  7. 7. Doctor should be consulted immediately.DIARRHEADIARRHOE:Diarrheas is a group of infection of the intestinal tract, including food poisoning.The main pathogens are bacteria such as Escherichia coil, Salmonella, Shigella, etc. A protozoanGiardia and certain viruses also can cause similar conditions.Modes of transmission: Contaminated food and water. Contamination through fingers, cloths bed sheets and utensils.Symptoms: Frequent passage of stools with blood and mucus. Abdominalcamps, vomiting leading to dehydration. Due to rapid loss of water (dehydration), eyes appear sunken, cheeks hollow; the inner sides of cheeks appear dry, sudden loss of weight, fever, deep breathing etc.Prevention: Proper personal hygiene and community hygiene. Proper coverage of eatables to prevent contamination. Underground disposal of human faces. Use of boiled water and proper cooking of food. The drinking water must be disinfected with strong chlorine solution.Control: Complete bed rest. Oral rehydration therapy or Oral Rehydration Solution (ORS). Saline drip may be given. Isabgol should be given with curd or water, to provide relief. Pulp of unripe banana along with amount of turmeric powder, salt and lime, also helps in controlling diarrhea.
  8. 8. Antibiotics can treat the diseases. Differences between Cholera and DiarrheaS.No. Cholera S.No. Diarrhea1) It is caused by bacteria Vibrio cholera. 1) It is caused by either bacteria or protozoa or viruses. Some common pathogens are Guardia Escherichia coli.2) Passage of rice watery stool. 2) Frequent passage of stool with blood and mucus.3) Vaccine is available which can give 3) Vaccine is not available. immunity of 6 months.TYPHOIDTYPHOID: Typhoid is caused by Salmonella typhoid bacteria, commonly found in interterm ofman. It is most common communicable diseases. This is common is age group of 1-15 years.Every year about 2.5 million people suffer from typhoid.Modes of transmission: Contaminated food and water and house flies.Symptoms: It is characterized by- Headache and rise in body temperature. Lesions of intestinal mucosa. Diarrhea which becomes hemorrhagic. Rose coloured rash on the upper abdomen.Control: Antibiotics can treat the diseases.Prevention: Underground disposal of human faces. Disinfection of water and proper cooking of food. Typhoral oral vaccines also prevent typhoid. TAB- Vaccine provides immunity for 3 years. Typhoid is diagnosed by widal test.
  9. 9. TUBERCULOSISTUBERCULOSIS: TB was first discovered by Robert Koch (1882).It is caused bacteria MyMycobacterium tuberculosis. It most commonly affects the lungs it may alsopeople live in dingy, congested part of large cities. The bacterium releases a toxin called tablet.Modes of transmission: It can be transmitted directly as well as indirectly.Symptoms: The symptoms of tuberculosis vary depending on the site of diseases in the body.Two specific sites of infection are- a)Lymph gland TB: The main symptom is swelling and tender ness of lymph glands often in the leg, whish may discharge secretions though the skin. b)Pulmonary(Lung) TB: The main symptoms are – Fever Coughing Chest pain and breathlessness Sputum containing blood Loss of weight and weakness. Control: Anti-tubercular therapy- Antibiotics can treat the diseases. Proper rest, diet, rehabilitation and surgery help in controlling diseases.Prevention: Isolation of TB patients. Health education e.g. avoiding indiscriminate spitting, use of handkerchief while coughing and sneezing. BCG vaccine provides immunity. Vigorous public health measures are the best method of prevention. PROTOZOAN DISEASES
  10. 10. MALARIAMALARIA: Malaria is more common in tropical and subtropical countries, especially in Africaand Asia. It is estimated that about 300 million people are infected with malaria every year andmore then 2 million people die annually due to this diseases.Causes: Malaria is caused by the toxins produced in the human body by the malarial parasitePlasmodium. Presence of malarial parasite can be checked by blood test.Modes of transmission: Plasmodium of transmitted by female Anopheles mosquito. When thismosquito bites man to suck blood, it introduces its saliva containing the malarial parasite into theblood stream of the man.Symptoms:Malaria attack is preceded by headache, nausea and muscular pain. Total period ofmalarial attack is of 6-10 hour and can be divided into 3 stages: Cold stage- Characterized by chilling and shivering. Hot stage- Characterized by high fever, faster rate of breathing and heart beat, etc. Sweating stage- It is characterized by lowering down of temperature to normal.After the malaria attack, the patient feels weak, exhausted and anemic. The malaria maysecondarily cause engagement of lever and spleen.Prevention: Use of insect repellants to prevent mosquito bite. Wire- gauzing of doors, windows, etc. to check the entry of mosquitoes. Killing of adult mosquitoes by spraying insecticides like D.D.T and B.H.C. All the mosquito breeding places should be destroyed or covered. Kerosene oil should be sprayed on ponds and ditches to kill the larva. Sleeping under mosquito nets. Destroying breeding places of mosquitoes.Control: A number of anti-malarial drugs are available. The commonest anti-malarial drug isquinine. Efforts are being medicine for the development of an anti-malarial vaccine.SOME IMPORTANT DATES ABOUT DISEASES: World TB Day- 24 March.
  11. 11. National TB control program was started in 1962.The incidence of tetanus in India is about 30-50 persons per one lakh.Bubonic Plague is commonest type of plague.Incidence of Diarrhea diseases is highest in Andhra and Orissa states.Hepatitis is more dangerous then AIDS.Macculoch (1827) proposed the name malaria.Laveran (1880) discovered malarial parasites in the blood of a malarial patient.Ronald Ross (1897) proved that malarial parasite is spread by female Anopheles mosquito.August 20 is called Malaria Day.
  12. 12. Malaria - Project Report | EssayProject Report | Essay - MalariaMalaria is one of the major diseases which iscaused by Protozoan. Protozoan causes many diseases in human beings. Malaria hasbeen for thousands of years a very serious disease of the tropical and temperateregions. Prevalence of malaria continues to be one of the major health problems ofdeveloping countries. It was almost eliminated a few years back with the efforts ofWHO and our National Malaria Eradication Programme (NMEP), but unfortunately ithas appeared again. Plasmodium is a genus of Protozoa belonging to subphylumSporozoa, class Telosporidea, includes causative agent of malaria in man and loweranimals. Members of the genus plasmodium are collectively known as Malariaparasite, because they cause a horrible diseases called malaria. History of MalariaHistory of Malaria - Malaria means - Mala - bad area - air, malaria term was given by"Macculoch" in 1872. Ronalol Ross established mosquito-malaria relationship onAug. 29, 1897. Since this day is celebrated as Mosquito Day. Malaria - Position in WorldMalaria Position in World - Malaria more common in developing countries ascompared to developed countries. It is generally present in Kenya, Uganda, South-Africa, India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Srilanka where the temperature are high. Hypothesis1. Parasite posses various forms and complete their life cycle through alternative hostand Reservoir.2. Parasite acquire Resistant to pesticides like D.D.T.EvidencesThere are four species of plasmodium which causes different kinds of human malaria.a) P.Vivax - It causes benign tertian malaria, which attacks every third day i.e. after48 hours. The fever is mild and seldom fatal.b) P.Ovale - It also causes benign tertian malaria, which recurs every 48 years.
  13. 13. c) P.Malaria - It causes quartia malaria which recurs every fourth day i.e. after 72hours.d) P. Falciparum - It alone is capable of causing three types of malaria, quotidianmalaria, which attacks almost daily, malignant tertian malaria but which occurs every48 hours, but is very severe and often fatal ; and irregular malaria.e) It reserve in some animals in normal condition of animal like, Monkey.f) Resistant of Mosquito against D.D.T. Life Cycle of Plasmodium VivaxIt is the causative organism of tertian or benign tertian malaria, which is characterizedby 48 hours cycle between the first malarial fever and subsequent recurrence of chilland fever. Life cycle of "Plasmodium Vivax" is being digenetic,it is completed intwo hosts. The asexual cycle is passed in man by a process termed schizogony. Thesexual cycle is completed in the final hosts or vector, the female Anopheles mosquito,involving gametogony and sporogony. These process results in the formation ofinfective stage the sporozoites. Vaccine for MalariaPre manual pat arroyo produced a vaccine against malaria in 1987 but it provedeffective upto 60 to 70% cases. Incubation Period of MalariaThe incubation period for malaria caused by Plasmodium Vivax is about 10-14 days. Malaria SymptomsMalaria Symptoms - The attack of malaria is preceded by Yawning tiredness,headache and muscular pain. During the fever, the patient feels chilly and shivers andhigh temperature. After a few hours the body freely and the temperature becomesnormal. The cycle is repeated if no medicine is taken. This is also accompanied byenlargement of spleen and liver. Control of MalariaWe control the malaria from :
  14. 14. 1. Drain off or fill up all ditches, ponds etc.2. Cover the drains.3. Clear the sluggish.4. The adult mosquitoes can also be avoided by removing unnecessary thing aroundthe house.
  15. 15. BIOLOGY SYLABUSBIOLOGYTheory Paper Time : 3 Hours Max. Marks: 70Practical Paper Time : 3 Hours Max. Marks 30Total Marks : 100THEORYSTRUCTURE OF QUESTION PAPER1. There will be one theory paper comprising of 30 questions. All questions will be compulsory.2. Marks for each question are indicated against it.3. Q Nos. 1-10 are very short answer type questions carrying 1 mark each. Answer to each question will be in oneline or few words only.4. Q.Nos. 11-18 are short answer type questions carrying 2 marks each. Answer to each question will be in 20 to 30words.5. Q. No. 19-26 are short answer type questions carrying 3 marks each. Answer to each question will be in 40 to 50words.6. Q. No. 27to 30 are long answer type questions carrying 5 marks each. Answer to each qustion will be in 80 to 100words.7. In Q. No. 27 to 30, there will be 100% internal choice.8. Distribution of marks to cover different dimensions of question paper will be as under:Learning outcomes Marks Percentage of MarksKnowledge 20 29%Understanding 30 42%Application 20 29%9. There will be no objective type questions such as yes/no, tick/cross, fill in the blanks multiple choice, true/falseetc.10. The question paper should be strictly from the prescribed syllabus based inabove mentioned guidelines.
  16. 16. The unit wise distribution of marks will be as follows:Unit - I Sexual Reproduction 12 MarksUnit - II Genetics and Evolution 20 MarksUnit - III Biology and Human Welfare 12 MarksUnit -IV Biotechnology and Its Applications 12 MarksUnit - V Ecology and Environment 14 MarksUnit I : Sexual ReproductionPollination and fertilization in flowering plants.Development of seeds and fruits.Human reproduction : reproductive system in male and female, menstrual cycle, production of gametes,fertilization,implantation, embryo development, pregnancy and parturition.Reproductive health:birth control, contraception and sexually transmitted diseases.Unit II : Genetics and EvolutionMendelian inheritance.
  17. 17. Chromosome theory of inheritance, deviations from Mendelian ratio (gene interactionincomplete dominance, co-dominance, complementary genes, multiple alleles).Sex determination in human beings : XX, XY.Linkage and crossing over.Inheritance pattern of haemophilia and blood groups in human beings.DNA: replication, transcription, translation.Gene expression and regulation.Genome and Human Genome Project.DNA fingerprinting.Evolution : Theories and evidences.Unit III Biology and Human WelfareAnimal husbandry.Basic concepts of immunology, vaccines.
  18. 18. Pathogens and parasites.Plant breeding, tissue culture, food production.Microbes in houshold food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment and energy generation.Cancer and AIDS.Adolescence, drugs and alcohol abuse.Unit IV Biotechnology and Its ApplicationsRecombinant DNA technology.Applications in Health, Agriculture and Industry.Genetically modified (GM) organizms; biosafety issues.Insulin and Bt cotton.Unit V Ecology and EnvironmentEcosystems components, types and energy flow.
  19. 19. Species, population and community.Ecological adaptations.Centers of diversity and conservation of biodiversity, National Parks and Wild Life Sanctuaries.Environmental issues.PRACTICALOne Practical Paper Time : 3 Hours Max. Marks 30STRUCTURE OF QUESTION PAPERDistribution of marks.1. Two experiments four marks each 4 + 4 Marks 8 Marks2. Two slide indentification with reasons 2 + 2 Marks 4 Marks3. Spotting of two animals and two plants. Comment upon their adaptations 8 Marks4. Investigatory project and Viva based on the project 5 Marks
  20. 20. 5. Record and Viva based on the experiments 5 MarksNote :1. The maximum number of students to be examined by the practical examiner should not be more than 20 studentsper group.2. The project report duly signed by the teacher should be kept in record and sent to the board on demand.SYLLABUSList of Experiments :1. Study of pollen grain on a slide.2. Collect and study soil from different sites and study them for texture and moisture content.3. Study the pH and Water holding capacity of soil. Correlate with the kinds of plants found in them.4. Collect water from different water bodies around you and study them for pH clarity and presence of any livingorganisms.5. Study the presence of suspended particulate matter in air at the two widely different sites.6. Study of plant population density by quadrat method.7. Study of plant population frequency by quadrat method.
  21. 21. 8. Study of flowers adapted to pollination by different agencies (wind, insect).9. Study of pollen germination on a slide.10. Study and identify stages of gamete development i.e. T.S. of testis and T.S. of ovary through permanent slide.11. Study meiosis in onion bud cell or grasshopper testis through permanent slide.12. Study of T.S. of blastula through permanent slide.13. Study mendelian inheritance using seeds of different colour/size of any plant.14. Study prepared pedigree charts of genetic traits such as rolling of tongue,blood groups, widows peak, colourblindness.15. Exercise on controlled pollination-Emasculation, tagging and bagging.16. To identify common diseases causing organisms like Ascaris, Entamoeba, Plasmodium, ringworm. Comment onsymptoms of diseases that they cause through permanent slides or specimens.17. Study plants and animals found in xerophyte conditions. Comment upon their adaptation ecosystem.18. Study plants and animals found in aquatic conditions. Comment upon their adaptation ecosystem.19. Study analogous and homologous organs in various plants and animals.
  22. 22. PHYSICSPHYSICS SYLLABUS (10+2)Theory Paper Time : 3 Hours Max. Marks: 70Practical Paper Time : 3 Hours Max. Marks 30Total Marks : 100THEORYSTRUCTURE OF QUESTION PAPER1. There will be one Theory Paper comprising of 30 questions. All questions will be compulsory.2. Q Nos. 1-10 will be of 1 mark, Q.Nos. 11-18 will be of 2 marks each Q. No. 19-26 will be of 3-marks each, Q-Nos.27 to 30 will be of 5 marks each.3. In questions No. 27-30 there will be internal choice in all the four questions4. Distribution of marks over different of the paper will be as follows:Learning Marks Percentage of MarksOutcomesi) Knowledge 20 29%ii) 30 42%Understandingiii) Application 20 29%5. There will be no question of the type Write short note on or objective type such as yes/no, tick, (x) cross, fill in theblanks, multiple choice, true/false etc.6. Weightage to units in the question paper can vary by one mark.7. Use of unprogrammable calculator is allowed. The log tables can also be used.8. Numerical problems can be et many type of questions but the total weightage willbe in the range of 25% to 30%.CLASS XII (THEORY)One Paper Time : 3 Hours70 marksUnit No. Title WeightageUnit I Electrostatics 08Unit II Current Electricity 07Unit III Magnetic effect of currem& Magnetism 08Unit IV Electromagnetic induction and Alternating current 08
  23. 23. Unit V Electromagnetic Waves 03Unit VI Optics 14Unit VII Deal Nature of Matter 04Unit VIII Atoms and Nuclei 06Unit IX Electronic Devices 07Unit X Communication Systems 05 Total : ............................................................................................................70Unit I: ElectrostaticsElectric Charges; Conservation of charge, Coulombs law-force between two point charges, forces between multiplecharges; superposition principle and continuous charge distribution.Electrical field, electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines; electric dipole, electric field due to a dipole;torque on a dipolein uniform electric field.Electric flux, statement of Gaussss theorem and its applications to find field due to infinitely long straight wire,uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell (Field inside and outside).Electric potential, potential difference, electric potential due to a point charge, a dipole and system of charges;equipotential surfaces, electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges and of electric dipole in anelectrostatic field.Conductors and insulators, free charges and bound charges inside a conductor. Dielectrics and electric polarisation,capacitors and capacitance, combination of capacitors in series and in paralle, capacitance of a parallel platecapacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates, energy stored in a capacitor Van deGraaffgenerataor.Unit II: Current ElectricityElectric current, flow of electric charges in a metillic conductor, drift velocity, mobility and their relation with electriccurrent; Onms law, electrical resistance. V-I characteristics (linear and non lineart), electrical energy and power,electrical resistivity and conductivity. Carbon resistors, colour code for carbon resistors; series and parallelcombinations of reastors; temperature dependence of resistance.Internal resistance of a cell, potential difference and emf of a cell,combination of cells in series and in parallel.Kirchhoffs laws and simple applications. Wheatstone bridge, metre bridge. Poentiometer - principle and itsapplications to measure potential difference and forcomparing emf of two cells; measurement of internal reistance of a cell.
  24. 24. Unit III : Magnetic Effects of Current and MagnetismConcept of magnetic field. Oersteds experiment; Biot-Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop.Amperes law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire, straight and toroidal solenoids.Force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields. Cyclotron. Force on a current-carrying conductor ina uniform magnetic field. Force between two parallel current-carrying conductors, definition of ampere. Torqueexperienced by a currentloop in uniform magnetic field; moving coil gal galvanometaits current sensitivity andconversion to ammeter and voltmeter.Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment. Magnetic depole moment of a revolving electron.Magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole (Bar magnet) along its axis and perpendicular to its axis. Torque ona magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field; bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic fieldlines; Earths magnetic field and magnetic elements. Para-, dia-and ferro-magnetic substances, with examples.Electromagnets and factors affecting their strengths. Permanent magnets.Unit IV : Electromagnetic induction and Alternating CurrentsElectromagnetic induction; Faradays law, induced emf and current; Lenzs Law, Eddy currents. Self and mutualinductance.Need for displacement current.Alternating currents, peak and rms value of alternating current/voltage; reactance and impedances; LC oscillations(qualitative treatment only), LCR series circuit, resonance; power in AC circuits, wattless current.AC generator and transformer.Unit V : Electromagnetics wavesElectromagnetic waves and their characteristics (qualitative ideas only). Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves.Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, Xrays, gamma rays) includingelementary facts about their uses.Unit VI: OpticsReflection of light, spherical mirrors, mirror formula. Refraction of light, total internal reflection and its applications,optical fibres, refraction at spherical surfaces, lenses,thin lens formula, lens-makers formula. Magnification, power ofa lens, combination of thin lenses in contact. Refraction and dispersion of light through a prism.Scattering of light-blue colour of the sky and reddish appearance of the sun at sunrise and sunset.Optical instruments: Human eye, image formation and accommodation, correction of eye defects (myopia,hypermetropia, presbyopia and astigmatism) using lenses. Microscopes and astronomical telescopes (reflecting andrefracting) and their magnifying powers.Waves optics: wave front and Huygens Principle, reflection and refraction of plane wave at a plane surface usingwave fronts. Proof of laws of reflectionand refraction using Huygens principle. Interference, Youngs double slitexperiment and expression for fringe width, coherent sources and sustained interference of light. Diffraction due to a
  25. 25. single slit, width of central maximum. Desolving power of microscopes and astronomical telescopes. Polarisation,plane polarised light; Brewsters law, uses of plane polarised light and pointed.Unit VII: Dual nature of Matter and RadiationDual nature ratiation Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenards observations; Einsteins photoelectic equation-particlenature of light.Matter waves-wave nature of particles, de Broglic relation. Davission-Germer experiment.Unit VIII; Atoms & NucleiAlpha-particle seating experiment; Rutherfords model of atom;Bohr model, energy levels. hydrogen spectrum.Composition and size of nucleus, atomic masses, isotopes, isobars; isotones. Radioactivity-alpha, beta and gammaparticles/rays and their properties; radioactive decay law. Mass-energy relation, mass defect; binding energy pernucleon and its variation with mass number; nuclear fission and fusion.Unit IX: Electronic DevicesSemiconductors; semiconductor diode-I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias, diode as a rectifier, I-Vcharacteristics of LED, photodiode, solar cell and Zener diode, Zener diode as a voltage regulator, Junctiontransistor, transistor action, characteristics of a transistor: transistor as an amplifier (common emitter configuration)and oscillator, Logic gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND and NOR). Transistor as a switch .Unit X : Communication SystemsElements of a communication system (block diagram only); bandwidth of signals (speech, TV and digital data);bandwidth of transmission medium. Propagation of electromagnetic waves in the atmosphere, sky and space wavepropagation. Need for modulation. Production and detection of an amplitude-modulated wave.(PRACTICALS)ONE PRACTICAL PAPERTime : 3 Hours30 marksNotes : All experiments are compulsory. The question paper will contain 8 experiments in all, 4 from each section.The examinee will have to mark three experiments from each section and the examiner will allot one experiment fromeach section.2. Records of experiments are to be maintained.
  26. 26. 3. Records of activities are to be maintained.PRACTICALSNote: Every student will perform 10 experiments 15 from each section and 6 activities (3 from each section) duringthe academic year.SECTION AExperiments :1. To determine resistance per cm of a given wire by plotting a graph of potential difference versus current.2. To find resistance of a given wire using metre bridge and hence determine the specifie resistance of its material.3. To verify the laws of combination (series/parallel) of resistances using a metre bridge.4. To compare the emf of two given primary cells using potentiometer.5. To determine the internal resistance of given primary cell using potentiometer.6. To determine reistance of a galvanometer by half-deflection method and to find its figure of merit.7. To convert the given galvanometer (of known resistance and figure of meno into an ammeter and voltmeter ofdesired range and to verify the same.8. To find the frequency of the a.c. mains with a sonometer.Activities1. To measure the resistance and impedance of an inductor with or without iron core.2. To measure resistance, voltage (AC/DC), current (AC) and check continuity of a given circuit using multimeter.3. To assemble a household circuit comprising three bulbs, three (on/off) switches, as fuse and a power source.4. To assemble the components of a given electrical circuit.5. To study the variation in potential drop with length of a wire for a steady current.6. To draw the diagram of a given open circuit comprising at least a battery, resistor theostar, key ammeter andvoltmeter. Mark the components that are not connected in proper order and correct the circuit and also the circuitdiagram.SECTION BExperiments1. To find the value of v for different values of u in case of a concave mirror and ........the local length.2. To find the focal length of a convex lens by plotting graphs between u and v or between I/a and I/v.3. To find the focal length of a convex mirror, using a convex lends.4. To find the focal length of a concave lens, using a convex lens.5. To determine angle of minimum deviationfor a given prism by plotting a graph between angle of incidence andangle of deviation.6. To draw the I-V characteristic curve of a p-n junctionin forward bias and reverse bias.7. To draw the characteristic curve of a zener diode and to determine its reverse breakdown voltage.
  27. 27. 8. To study the characteristics of a common-emitter npn or pnp transistor and to find out the values of current andvoltage gains.Activities1. To study effect of intensity of light (by varying distance of the source) on and L.D.R.2. To identify a diode, an LED, a transistor, and IC, a resistor and a capacitor from mixed collection of such items.3. Use of multimeter to (i) identify base of transistor. (ii) distinguish between npn and pnp type transistors. (iii) see theunidirectional flow of current in case of a diode and an LED. (iv) Check whether a given electronic component (e.g.diode, transistor or IC) is in working order.4. To observe refraction and laterial deviation of a beam of light incident obliquely on a glass slab.5. To observe polarization of light using two Polaroids.6. To observe diffraction of light due to a thin slit.7. To study the nature and size of the image formed by (i) convex lens (ii) concave mirror, on a screen by using acandle and a screen (for different distances of the candle from the lens/mirror).8. To obtain a lens combination with the specified focal length by using two lenses from the given set of lenses.
  28. 28. MATHSMATHEMATICS SYLLABUS (10+2)GENERAL INSTRUCTION FOR +1 AND +2STRUCTURE OF QUESTION PAPERi. All questions are compulsory.ii. Questions number 1 to 12 one of 3 marks each.Questions number 13 to 22 one of 4 marks each.Questions number 23 to 26 one of 6 marks each.iii. There will be no over all choice. There will be internal choices in any two questions of 3 marks each, any twoquestions of 4 marks and any two questions of 6 marks each (Total of six internal choices).iv. Use of calculator is not permitted. However each your may ask for logarithmic and statistical tables, if required.QUESTIONWISE DISTRIBUTION OF MARKS (XII CLASS) FOR 2008 3 4 6 Total Unit Unit Topic Sub-Topic Marks Marks Marks Marks Total - 6 Relations and Functions Inverse 2 - I Relations and Functions 10 Trigonometric Functions - 1 4 - - 7 1 1 II Algebra Matrices Determinants 13 - - 1 6 Continuity and differentiability 2 1 - 10 Applications of derivatives 1 1 - 7 III Calculus Integrals 2 2 - 14 44 Applications ofintegrals - - 1 6 Differential equations 1 1 - 7 7 IV Vectors and three Vector... 1 1 - 17 dimensional geometry Three dimensional geometry - 1 10 1 V Linear Programming Linear Programming - - 1 6 6 VI Probability Probability 2 2 - 10 10 Total no. of ques. 12 10 4 100 100 Total Marks. 36 40 24 100 100
  29. 29. CLASS XIIOne Paper Time : 3 Hours100 marksUnit I: Relations and Functions1. Relations and Functions :Types of relations: reflexive, symmetric, transitive and equivalence relations. One to one and on to functions,composite functions, inverse of a function. Binaryoperations.2. Inverse Trigonometric Functions:Defination, range, domain, principal value branches. Graphs of inverse trigonometric functions. Elementary propertiesof inverse trigonometric functions.Unit II: Algebra1. Matrices:
  30. 30. Concept notation, order, equality, types of matrices, zero matrix, transpose of a matrix, symmetric and skewsymmetric matrices. Addition, multiplication and scalar multiplication of matrices, simple properties of addition,multiplication of matrices and existence of non-zero matrices whose product is the/zero matrix (restrict to squarematrices of order 2). Concept of elementary row and column operations. Invertible matrices and proof of theuniqueness of inverse, if it exists; (Here all matrices will have real entries).2. Determinants :Determinant of a square matrix (up to 3 (X) 3 matrices), properties of determinants, minors cofactors and applicationsof determinants in finding the area of a triangle. Adjoint and inverse of a square matrix. Consistency, inconsistencyand number of solutions of system of linear equations by examples, solving system of linear equations in two or threevariables (having unique solution) using inverse of a matrix.Unit-III: Calculus1. Continuity and Differentiability:(Periods 18)Continutiy and differentiability, derivative of composite functions, chain rule, derivatives of inverse trigonometricfunctions, derivative of implicit function. Conceptof exponential and logarithmic functions, and their derivative.Logarithmic differentiation. Derivative of functionsexpressed in parametric forms, Second orderderivatives. Rolles and Lagrange Mean Value Theorems (without proof) and their geometric interpretations.2. Applications of Derivatives:
  31. 31. (Periods 10)Applications of derivatives: rate of change, increasing/decreasing functions, tangents&normals, approximation,maxima and minima (first derivative test motivatedgeometrically and second derivative test given as a provable tool). Simple problems (that illustrate basic principlesand understanding of the subject as well as real-life situations).3. Integrals :(Periods 20)Integration as inverse process of differentiation. Intergration of a variaty of functions by subsitution, by partial fractionsand by parts, only simple integrals of the typeto be evaluated.Definite intergrals as a limit of a sum. Fundamental Theorem of Calculus (without proof). Basic properties of definiteintergrals and evaluation of definte integrals.
  32. 32. 4. Applications of the Integrals:Applications in finding the area under simple curves, especially lines, areas of circles/ parabolas/ellipses (in standardform only), area between the two above said curves (the region should be clearly identifiable).5. Differential Equations :Defination, order and degree, general and particular solutions of a differential equation. Formation of differentialequation whose general solution is given. Solution of differential equations by method of separation of variables,homogeneous differential equations of first order and first degree. Solutions of linear differential equation of the type:dy = p(x) y = q(x), where p(x) and q(x) are functions of x. dxUnit -IV : Vectors and Three-Dimensional Geometry1. Vectors:Vectors and scalars, maguitude and direction of a vector. Direction cosines/ratios of vectors. Types of vectors(equal,unit, zero, parallel and collinear vectors), position vector of a point, negative of a vector, components of avector, addition of vectors, multiplication of a vector by a scalar, position vector of a point dividing a line segment in agiven ratio. Scalar (dot) product of vectors, projection of a vector on a line. Vector (cross) product of vectors.2. Three - dimensional Geometry :Direction cosines/ratios of a line joining two points. Cartesian and vector equation of a line, coplanar and skew lines,shortest distance between two lines. Cartesian and vector equation of a plane. Angle between (i) two lines (ii) twoplanes. (iii) a line and a plane. Distance of a point from a plane.Unit-V: Linear Programming
  33. 33. 1. Linear Programming:Introduction, definition of related terminology such as constraints, objective function, optimization,different types oflinear programming (L.P.) problems, mathematical formulation of L.P. problems, graphical method of solution forproblems in two variables, feasible and infeasible regions, feasible and infeasible solutions, optional feasible solutions(up to three non-trivial constrain:)Unit VI Probability1. Probability :Multiplication theorem on probability. Conditional probability, independent events, total probability, Bayes theorem,Random variable and its probability distribution, mean and variance of haphazard variable. Repeated independent(Bernoulli) trials and Binomial distribution. CHEMISTRYCHEMISTRY SYLLABUS (10+2)Theory Paper Time : 3 Hours Max. Marks: 70Practical Paper Time : 3 Hours Max. Marks 30Total Marks : 100THEORYSTRUCTURE OF QUESTION PAPER1. There will be one Theory Paper comprising of 30 questions. All questions will be compulsory.2. Q Nos. 1-10 will be of 1 marks, Q.Nos. 11-18 will be of 2 marks each Q. No. 19-26 will be of 3-marks each, Q-Nos.27 to 30 will be of 5 marks each.3. In questions No. 27-30 there will be 100% choice.4. Distribution of approximate percentage over different dimension in the question paper will be as follows:i) Knowledge 30%ii) Understanding 40%iii) Application 30%
  34. 34. 5. Numerical problem will be set in any type of question, however the total weightage to numerical problem will bearound 20%.6. There will be no question of the type. "Write short note on", and objective type questions such as "Yes/No", tick (P) cross (x) fill in blanks, multiple choice," true/false etc.7. Use of log tables/unprogrammable calculator is allowed.8. A candidate will be provided with one answer book of 32 pages only. No extra contineous sheet will be provided.Unit wise distribution of marks is as follows:CLASS XII (THEORY)One Paper Time : 3 Hours 70 marksUnit No. ......................................................Title................................................................................MarksUnit I............................................................ SolidState............................................................................ 4Unit II............................................................Solutions...............................................................................5Unit III ..........................................................Electrochemistry....................................................................5Unit IV ..........................................................Chemical kinetics...................................................................5Unit V ...........................................................Surface Chemistry..................................................................4Unit VI ..........................................................General principles and processes ofIsolation of Elements ........3Unit VII......................................................... p-Block Elements..................................................................8Unit VIII .......................................................d-and f-Block Elements......................................................... 5Unit IX.......................................................... Coordination Compounds.......................................................3Unit X ...........................................................Haloalkanes and Haloarenes.................................................. 4Unit XI .........................................................Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers...................................................4Unit XII ........................................................Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylicacids ...............................6Unit XIII .......................................................Organic Compounds containing Nitrogen................................4Unit XIV .......................................................Biomolecules.........................................................................4Unit XV .........................................................Polymers
  35. 35. ...............................................................................3Unit XVI ........................................................Chemistry in Everyday life......................................................3............................................................................Total :..............................................................................70Unit I: Solid State(Periods 12)Classification of solids based on different binding forces: molecular, ionic, covalent and metallic solids, amorphousand crystalline solids (elementary idea), unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices, calculation ofdensity of unit cell, packing in solids, voids, number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell, points defects, electricaland magnetic properties.Unit II: Solutions(Periods 12)Types of solutions, expression of concentration of solutions of solids in liquids, solubility of gases in liquids, solidsolutions, colligative properties - relative lowering of vapour pressure, elevation of B.P., depression of freezing point,osmotic pressure, determination of molecular masses using colligative properties, abnormal molecular mass.Unit III: Electrochemistry(Periods 14)Redox reactions, conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar conductivity variations of conductivity withconcentration, Kohlrauschs Law, electrolysis and laws of electrolysis (elementary idea), dry cell electrolytie cells andGalvanic cells; lead accumulator, EMF of a cell, standard electrode potential, Nernst equation and its application tochemical cells, fuel cells; corrosion.
  36. 36. Unit IV: Chemical Kinetic(Periods 12)Rate of a reacation (average and instantaneous), factors affecting rates of reaction; concentration, temperature,catalyst; order and molecularity of a reaction; rate law and specific rate constant, intergrated rate equations and halflife (only for zero and first order reactions); concept of collision theory (elementary idea, no mathematical treatment)Unit V: Surface Chemistry(Periods 8)Adsorption - physisorption and chemisorption; factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids; catalysis; homogenousand heterogeneous, activity and selectivity; enzyme catalysis; colloidal state: distinction between true solutions,colloids and suspensions; lyophilic, lyophobic, multimolecular and macromolecular colloids; properties of colloids;Tyndall effect, Brounianmovenment, electrophoresia, coagulation; emulsion types of emulsions.Unit VI: General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements(Periods 8)Principles and methods of extraction - concentration, oxidation, reduction electrolytic method and refining; occurrenceand principles of extraction of aluminium, copper, zinc and Iron.Unit VII: p-Block Elements
  37. 37. (Periods 14)Group 15 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, oxidation states, trends in physicaland chemical properties; nitrogen - preparation, properties and uses; compounds of nitrogen: preparation andproperties of ammonia and nitric acid, oxides of nitrogen (structure only); Phosphorous-allotropic forms; compoundsof phosphorous: preparation and properties of phosphine, halides (PCI3, PCI5) and oxoacids (elementary idea only).Group 16 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemicalproperties; dioxygen; reparation, properties and uses; simple oxides; Ozone, Sulphur - allotropic forms; compoundsof sulphur; preparation, properties and uses of sulphur dioxide sulphuric acid: industral process of manofacture,properties and uses, oxoacids of sulphur (structures only).Group 17 elements :General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemicalproperties; compounds of halogens; preparation, properties and uses of chlorine and hydrochloric acid, interhalogencompounds, oxoacids of halogens (structures only).Group 18 elements:(General introduction, electronic configuration. Occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties, uses.Unit VIII: d and f Block Elements(Periods 14)
  38. 38. General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence and characteristics of transition metals, general trends inproperties of the first row transition metals metalli c character, ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, ionic radii, colourcatalytic property, magnetic propertics, interstitial compounds, alloy formation. Preparation and propertics ofK2Cr2O7 and KMnO4.Lanthanoids-electronic configuration, oxidation states, chemical reactivity and lanthanoid contraction.Actionoids -Electronic configuration, oxidation states.Unit IX: Coordination Compounds(Periods 12)Coordination compounds - introduction, ligands, coordination number, colour, magnetic properties and shapes,IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds bonding; isomerism, importance of coordinationcompounds (in qualitative analysis, extraction of metals and biological systems).Unit X: Haloalkanesa and Haloarenes.(Periods 12)
  39. 39. Haloalkanes:Nomenclature, natuer of C-X bond, physical and chemical properties, mechanism of substitution reactions.Haloarenes:Nature of C-X bond, substitution reactions (directive influence of halogen for monosubstitutedcompunds only)Uses and environmental effects of - dichloro methane, trichloromethane, tetrachloromethane, iodoform, freons, DDT.Unit XI: Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers(Periods 12)Alcohols:Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties (of primary alcohols only); identification ofprimary, secondary and teritary alcohols; mechanism of dehydration, uses, some important compounds - methanoland ethanol.Phenols:Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, acidic nature of phenol, electrophillicsubstitution reactions, uses of phenols.Ethers:Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses.
  40. 40. Unit XII: Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids(Periods 12)Aldehydes and Ketones:Numenclature, nature of carbonyl group, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, and mechanismof nuclcophilicaddition,reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes; uses.Carboxylic Acids:Nomenclature, acidic nature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties; uses.Unit XIII: Organic compounds containing Nitrogen(Periods 10)Amines:Nomenclature, classification, structure, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses, identificationof primary, secondary and teritary amines.Cyanides and Isocyanides -will be mentioned at relevant places in context.Diazonium salts:Preparation, chemical reactions and importance in synthetic organic chemistry.
  41. 41. Unit XIV: Biomolecules(Periods 8)Carbohydrates -Classification (aldoses and keloses), monosaccahrides (glucose and fructose), oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose,maltose), polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen); importance.Proteins -Elementary idea of a-amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides proteins, primary structure, secondary structure,teritary structure and quaternary structure (qualitative idea only), denaturation of proteins; enzymes.Vitamins -Classification and functions.Nucleic Acids:DNA & RNA.Unit XV: Polymers(Periods 8)Classification - natural and synthetic, methods of polymerization (addition and condensation), copolymerization.Some importance polymers; natural and synthetic like polythene, nylon, polyesters, bakelite, rubber.
  42. 42. Unit XVI: Chemistry in everyday life :(Period 8)1. Chemicals in medicines- annalgesica, tranquilizers, antisecptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids,antihistamines.2. Chemicals in food-preservatives, artificial sweetening agents.3. Cleansing agents -soaps and detergents, cleansing action.CLASS XII (PRACTICALS)STRUCTURE OF QUESTIONS PAPEROne Practical Paper Time : 3 Hours30 marksExperimentsVolumetric Analysis....................... 10 MarksMixture Analysis .............................8 MarksContent Based Experiment ..............4 Marks
  43. 43. Project ...........................................4 MarksClass record & Viva....................... 4 MarksNOTE :-Brief write up carrying 2 marks (If in the Question paper) question on preparation of crystals (Time for write up 5minutes).Stepevise distribution of marks of questions on salt analysis.(i) Physical nature .......................1/2(ii) Dry heating test..................... 1/2(iii) Flame test ............................1/2(iv) Charcoal cavity test ..............1/2(v) dil H2SO4.............................1
  44. 44. (vi) conc. H2SO4test................ 1/2(If anion is detected under dil H2SO4test full credit of 11/2 marks is to be given there and then)Confirmalory test (any two ) 11/2 marks each 3.(vii) Preparation of original solution .............1/2(viii) Correct group detection .......................1(ix) Systematic detection of ion .....................1
  45. 45. (x) Any two confirmatory tests of cation........ 2( 1 marks each)Step wise distribution of marks of questions on volumetric analysis.Full credit of
  46. 46. 2 % variation and deduct 1/2 mark for additional 0.1 ml variation.PRACTICALSPracticals Syllabus(Periods 6)A. Surface Chemistry(a) Preparation of one lyophilic and one lyophobic sol.Lyophelic sol - starch, egg albumin and gum.Lyophobic sol - aluminium hydroxide, ferric hydroxide, arsenioussulphide.(b) Study of the role of emulsifying in stabilizing the emulsions of different oils.
  47. 47. B. Chemical Kinetics(a) Effect of concentration and temperature on the rate of reaction between sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloricacid.(b) Study of reaction rates of any one of the following:(i) Reaction of iodide ion with hydrogen peroxide at room temperature using different concentration of iodide ions.(ii) Reaction between potassium iodate, KlO3and sodium sulphite :(Na2SO3) using starch solution as indicator (clock reaction).C. Thermochemistry(Periods 6)Any one of the following experiments
  48. 48. i) Enthalphy of dissolution of copper sulphate or potassium nitrate.ii) Enthalphy of neutralization of strong acid (HCl) and strong base (NaOH)iii) Determination of enthalpy change during interaction (Hydrogen bond formation) between acetone and chloroform.D. Electrochemistry (Periods 2)Variation of cell potential in Zn/Zn2+llCU2+/Cu with change in concentration of electrolytes (CuSO4orZnSO4) at room temperature.E. Chromatography(Periods 2)i) Separation of pigments from extracts of leaves and flowers by paper chromatography and determination of R
  49. 49. fvalues.ii) Separation of constituents present in an inorganic mixture containing two cations only (constituents having widedifference in Rfvalues to be provided).F. Preparation of Inorganic Compounds(Periods 4)i) Preparation of double salt of ferrous ammonium sulphate or potash almum.ii) Preparation of potassium ferric oxalate.G. Preparation of Organic Compounds(Periods 4)Preparation of any two of the following compoundsi) Acetanilideii) Di-benzalaccetone
  50. 50. iii) p-Nitroacetanilide.iv) Aniline yellow or 2-Napthol aniline dye.v) Iodoform.H. Test for the functional groups present in organic compounds:(Periods 6)Unsaturation, alcoholic, phenolic, aldehydic, ketonic, carboxylic and amino (primary) groups.I. Study of carbohydrates, fats and proteins in pure form and detection of their presence in given food stuffs. (Periods4)J. Determination of concentration/molarity of KMnO4 solution by titrating it against a standard solution of : (Periods 8)(i) Oxalic acid.(ii) Ferrous ammonium sulphate.(Students will be required to prepare standard solutions by weighing themselves).
  51. 51. K. Qualitative analysis(Periods 14)Determination of one cation and one anion in a given salt.(Note: Insoluble salts excluded)Few Suggested ProjectsStudy of diffusion of a solid into a liquid.Determination of the minimum quantity of manganese dioxide required as a catalyst for the preparation of oxygengas.Determination of rate of flow of solution and liquids horizontally.Investigation of the foaming capacity of different washing soaps and the effect of addition of soduim carbonate onthera.Study of the acidity of different samples of the tea leaves and reasons for the variation in their tests.Determination of rate of evaporation of different liquids.Study of effect of metal coupling on die corrosion of iron.Study of the effect of acids and bases on the tensile strength of fibres.Analysis of fruit and vegetable prices for the content (acids and mineral a present in them).Preparation of rayon threads from various cellulose sources.Study of dyeing fabries under various conditions.Determination of the dosage of bleaching powder required for disipfections of different ..............of water (taken fromdifferent sources).Study of presence of oxalate ions in guava fruit at different stages of riperings.Study of the setting of mixtures of cement with lime, sand of different qualities, rice husk, etc (with respect to time,volume and stremyth).Study of the presence of inseeticide/presicide (nitrogen contining) in vegetables and fruits.Study of the dialysis of different sewage water sample and identification of different ions in rsulting solutions.Study on quantity of casein present in different samples of milk.Preparation of soyabean milk and its comparision with the natural milk with respect to curd formation, effect oftemperature, taste etc.Study of the effect poStudy of digestion of starclity salivary anylase and effect of pH and temperature on it.Compasitive study of the rate of formation on following materials wheat, flour, gram flour, patato juice, carrot juice andor ..........juice.Extraction of essential oils present in Su
  52. 52. Study of ............ foods..................................Note :Any other investigatory project can be performed I which involves about S periods of work with the approval ofthe teacher.

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