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How to do research

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  • 1. Writing Research Reports How to do ResearchSlides by Dan Cavanaugh This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program. Background photo source: GoGo Images Corporation/Alamy Royalty Free
  • 2. What is a Valid Sociological Topic?  Macro - Broad Matters  Micro - Individualistic MattersCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 5: How Sociologists Do Research 2
  • 3. Common Sense and the Need for Research  What Everyone Knows May Not Be True  Move Beyond GuessworkCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 5: How Sociologists Do Research 3
  • 4. A Research Model  Selecting a Topic  Defining a Problem  Reviewing the Literature  Formulating a HypothesisCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 5: How Sociologists Do Research 4
  • 5. A Research Model  Choosing a Research Method  Collecting Data  Analyzing ResultsCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 5: How Sociologists Do Research 5
  • 6. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 5: How Sociologists Do Research 6
  • 7. Research Methods Surveys  Selecting a Sample  Random Sample  Stratified Random Sample  Asking Neutral QuestionsCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 5: How Sociologists Do Research 7
  • 8. Research Methods Questionnaires  Self-Administered  Allow the Largest Sample  Low CostCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 5: How Sociologists Do Research 8
  • 9. Research Methods  Interviews  More Researcher Control  Time Consuming  Interviewer Bias  Structured Interviews  Unstructured Interviews  Establishing RapportCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 5: How Sociologists Do Research 9
  • 10. Research Methods Participant Observation  Researcher Participates  Problems with Generalizability  Done for Exploratory Work  Generates HypothesesCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 5: How Sociologists Do Research 10
  • 11. Research Methods Case Studies  Focus on Single  Event  Situation  Individual  Reveals Detail  Problem withCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 5: How Sociologists Do Research 11
  • 12. Research Methods Secondary Analysis  Analyze Data Collected by Others  Researcher Cannot Be Sure of DataCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 5: How Sociologists Do Research 12
  • 13. Research Methods Documents  Examine Books, Newspapers, Diaries, etc.  Limited Scope  Cannot Study TopicCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 5: How Sociologists Do Research 13
  • 14. Research Methods Experiments  Experimental Group  Control Group  Independent Variables  Dependent VariablesCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 5: How Sociologists Do Research 14
  • 15. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 5: How Sociologists Do Research 15
  • 16. Research Methods Unobtrusive Measures  Observe People Without Them Knowing  Question of EthicsCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 5: How Sociologists Do Research 16
  • 17. Deciding Which Method to Use  Access to Resources  Access to Subjects  Purpose of Research  Researcher’s Background and Training Chapter 5: How Sociologists Do ResearchCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 17
  • 18. Deciding Which Method to Use  Quantitative Research Methods  Emphasis on Precise Measurement  Uses Statistics and Numbers  Qualitative Research Methods  Emphasis on Observing, Describing, andCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 5: How Sociologists Do Research 18
  • 19. How Not to do Research  Choose Biased Sample  Ask Biased Questions  List Biased Choices  Discard Undesirable Results  Misunderstand Subjects WorldCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 5: How Sociologists Do Research 19
  • 20. Controversy in Research  Poke into Private Areas of Lives  Threatens Those with a StakeCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 5: How Sociologists Do Research 20
  • 21. Ethics in Sociological Research  Openness, Honesty, and Truthfulness  Forbids Falsifying Results  Condemns Plagiarism  Subjects’ Informed ConsentCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 5: How Sociologists Do Research 21
  • 22. How Research and Theory Work Together  Neither Research nor Theory can Stand Alone  Theories Must Be Tested  Findings Must be Explained with TheoryCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 5: How Sociologists Do Research 22
  • 23. Thank you for your Slides by Dan Cavanaugh Patience. This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program. Background photo source: GoGo Images Corporation/Alamy Royalty FreeCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 5: How Sociologists Do Research 23