Clinical Medicine Research2013;X(X):XX-XXPublished online MM DD 2013 (http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/j/cmr)doi:10.11648/j.XXXX.2013.XXXX.XXAutoimmunity and non-accidental injury in childrenMichael D InnisRetired Haematologist, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane,AustraliaEmail address:firstname.lastname@example.orgMichael D. InnisTo cite this article:Michael D InnisAutoimmunity and non-Accidental Injury in ChildrenClinical Medicine Research.MM-DD-2013, pp. x-x.doi:10.11648/j.xxx.xxxxxxxx.xxAbstract:Background: The Shaken Baby Syndrome conceived by Guthkeltch to explain bruises, fractures, retinal and cerebralhaemorrhage and encephalopathy in children, called the ―triad‖, can be explained by an autoimmune reaction to antigens ina genetically susceptible child.Method: Children diagnosed as suffering from Non-accidental injuries were investigated for evidence of immune responsereactions following mandated vaccination and childhood illnesses.Results: It was found in all the cases reported here the response to antigenic stimulation damaged the Beta cells in thePancreas causing Hypoinsulinaemia which inhibited the cellular uptake of Vitamin C resulting in liver dysfunction, failureof carboxylation of the Vitamin K dependent proteins resulting in haemorrhages and fractures associated with the ―triad‖.Conclusion: Fractures, retinal and subdural haemorrhages and encephalopathy in children – is an autoimmune response toantigenic stimulation in a genetically susceptible individual. Common antigens are the mandated vaccines, viral bacterialand parasitic infections.Keywords: Shaken Baby Non-accidental Injury Triad1. IntroductionA Psychologist, Ms Lisa Blakemore Brown, was the first todraw attention to the injustice caused by the medicalprofession‘s reliance on the diagnosis ―MunchausenSyndrome by Proxy (MSBP)  when evaluating amother‘s concerns for her child. This diagnosis servedespecially useful when the doctor could not explain achild‘s bruise or fracture and refused to accept the mother‘sversion of events that the injuries followed mandatedimmunization .A 15 year old boy was found dead in his bed a week beforeChristmas in 1994, 10 days after receiving the MR vaccineat school. An inquest held in 1995 concluded that he diedfrom an epileptic fit, even though there had been nopersonal or family history of epilepsy. Northern IrelandAttorney General John Larkin QC, ordered a secondinquest stating, ―I consider it to be of enormous publicimportance that the possible role of the MR vaccine in thedeath of an apparently healthy boy be fully explored.‖Regarding the MMR/MR vaccine Wakefield and hiscolleagues were the first to reportmethylmalonic acid in theurine of autistic children and those with ASD who had beengiven the vaccine. Urinary mehylmalonic acid wassignificantly raised in all eight children who were tested,compared with age matched conrols (p=0.003) .Methymalonic acid in the urine is a marker of Viamin B12deficiency resulting from an autoimmune destruction of theParietal cells of the stomach which produce Intrinsic Factorrequired for the absorption of Vitamin B12 in the food.Vitamin B12 deficiency causes demyelination of theCentral Nervous System and this explains the sensory,motor and psychological symptoms of autism and wouldalso explain the death of the 15 year old boy.Dr Jane Orient stated that mandatory vaccination is theleading edge of the new ethic. The policy to require annualinfluenza vaccination as a condition of working in amedical facility illustrates the dogmatism of the publichealth model and how it trumps individual autonomy, theHippocratic ethic, and also evidence-based medicine  aview further explored here.Dr Archivides ―Archie‖ Kalokerinos, while a GeneralPractitioner in rural Australia, observed that Aboriginalchildren when vaccinated with the mandated vaccinesfrequently developed the signs of scurvy and many died.He reduced the death rate by avoiding immunization ofunwell children and by administering Vitamin C prior tovaccinating them. His book ―Every Second Child‖ 
2 Michael D InnisAutoimmunity and non-Accidental Injury in Childrenrecords his experiences. He was the first to recognize thepart played by vaccines as a cause of infantile scurvy. Hesaid, ―during one trial the prosecution said scurvy was nolonger seen. I replied – Yes it is. But it is not called‗scurvy‘ it is called Shaken Baby Syndrome‖.Professor Alan Clemetson related the signs and symptomsof the ―triad‖ consisting of retinal haemorrhages, subduralhaematoma and encephalopathy to histamineaemiafollowing vaccination  and similar views had beenexpressed by Gardner . These authors have providedalternative explanations for the ―Shaken Baby Syndrome‖theory postulated by Guthkelch and their views areexplored further.2. MethodHere it is shown that vaccines, and other forms of antigenicstress damage the Beta cells of the islets of Langerhans andthe resulting hypoinsulinaemia, manifested in these casesby hyperglycaemia, inhibits the cellular uptake of VitaminC where it functions as an electron donor for importantenzymes .causing ―tissue scurvy‖ – deficientVitamin C in the cells. .Normally insulin binds to its receptor on the cell surfaceand initiates a chain of events that leads to the insertion inthe plasma membrane of a transmembrane glucosetransporter called GLUT 4 which facilitates the transport ofglucose and other nutrients into the cell . It is thefailure of this process, because of the lack of Insulin, whichprevents the entry of Vitamin C into the cell and causes―tissue scurvy.‖ Tissue scurvy, when it involves the cells ofthe liver leads to under carboxylation of the coagulationfactors and osteocalcin resulting in bruises, haemorrhagesand fractures .This report explores the pathogenesis of the ―triad‖ andconcludes infections and antigenic stimulation of theimmune system by vaccines do indeed play a major role inthe pathogenesis of the ―triad‖ by inducing autoimmunediabetes and associated Tissue Scurvy misdiagnosed asShaken Baby Syndrome, Abusive Head Trauma, InflictedBrain Injury and Non-accidental Injury.3. Results3.1. Case 1A five month old infant, vaccinated with the usualmandated vaccines four weeks earlier, was fed by the fatherand put to bed. He was asleep for about 10-15 minutesbefore the father heard the infant gasping for breath. Heimmediately called the Emergency Medical Service.The Ambulance arrived in about 10 minutes after the calland transported the child to the Hospital where a ClinicalInvestigation and Radiological examination revealed thechild had suffered a subdural haematoma.Blood Tests showed:1. Prothrombin Time 17.3 seconds (control 11.9 – 14.2)2. International Normalized Ratio (INR) 1.46 (control0.89 – 1.12)3. Glucose 102 mg/dL (control 65-95)4. Creatinine 0.3 mg/dL (control 0.5 -1.3)5. Lactate 2.3 mmol/L (control 0.5 -1.6)6. BUN/Creatine 35 (control 10-20)7. Total Haemoglobin 6.8 g/dL (control 10.0-14.0)8. Phosphorus 5.4 mg/dL (control 2.5- 4.5mg/dL)Retinal haemorrhages were observed in the infant‘s lefteye and the infant‘s injuries were diagnosed as evidence ofthe Shaken Baby Syndrome and reported by the Surgeon tothe appropriate authority who instituted Legal Proceedings.It is clear from the Blood Tests that this child neededurgent treatment of the Coagulation Disorder, Vitamin KDeficiency, from which he was suffering and Vitamin Kwas administered by intramuscular injection. Surgery wasperformed and the subdural haematoma removed. The childslowly recovered.3.2. Case 2.The second child of a 34 year old mother was born bynormal vaginal delivery and weighed 6lbs 13oz she wasbreast fed and appeared to be progressing satisfactorily andwas immunized with the mandated vaccines at the age of 3weeks. Following this, at the age of 7 weeks the childbegan crying incessantly. The father attempted to comforther but she suddenly became limp, stopped breathing andwas rushed to hospital where resuscitation efforts werecommenced.Investigations included:1.Skeletal survey which showed.a. Right parietal skull fractureb. Right 6th and 7th rib fractures2. CT of braina.5mmright parietal temporal subdural haematomab. Cerebral oedema.3. Blood Testsa. Albumin 2.2 gm/dL control 2.8 – 5.0b. BUN/Creatine 50 5 - 35c. Glucose 347 mg/dL 70 -105d. Amylase 7 U/L 39 -214e. Lipase 13UL 22 - 51f. Haemoglobin 7.9g/dL 9.0 – 12.3g. Platelets 512 K/UL 295 – 465h. Prothrombin Time 15.4 sec 11.5 – 14.0i. Fibrinogen 148 mg/dL 180 – 4904. Urine Testsa. Specific gravity 1.023 control 1.005 -1.03b. Glucose >1000mg/dL 0.00Resuscitation efforts included mechanical ventilation andendotracheal intubation but the infant expired after aperiod of 11days.
Clinical Medicine Research 2013;X(X):XX-XX 3An autopsy was performed and the result reads:―OPINION: It is our opinion that ----- , a 71/2week old white female infant, died as a result ofCraniocerebral Injuries. At autopsy injuriesincluded a skull fracture with an overlying scalpcontusion. There was evidence of subduralhaemorrhages, subarachnoid haemorrhages as wellas brain parenchymal injuries.A complete autopsy to include NeoGen studies,toxicology studies, microscopic tissueexamination, and x-rays was performed.The manner of death is to be determined by theJustice of the Peace‖.The document is signed by 5 doctors.3.3. Case 3The child was one of triplets born after a 32 week gestationand weighed 1560 gm. He was kept in the Intensive CareUnit, suffered from Respiratory Distress Syndrome andwas placed on a respirator for three weeks. He was givenan injection of Vitamin K shortly after birth.He was Formula fed and his progress was satisfactory andat the age of 4 months he was given the routine vaccines.Eight days following his vaccination he became irritableand began crying and by the tenth day he was inconsolableand refused his feeds.That evening the mother noticed him struggling for breathand he became limp, No time was lost in taking him to thenearest Hospital where a CT scan showed a right subduralhaematoma.A Blood Report showed:1.Prothrombin Time 14.4 seconds Normal Range 10.8-13.72.PartialThromboplastinTime44.6seconds 26.1 – 35.03.Platelets491K/mm3 150 – 4504.Glucose153mg/dL 70 – 110,B. Ophthalmoscopic ExaminationBilateral Retinal HaemorrhagesC. Skeletal SurveyNo definite fractures either acute or old. However slightirregularity of the distal left ulnar metaphysis as well as asmall lucancy through the lateral aspect of the distal righttibia.According to the father the possibility of the child having aNon-accidental Injury was discussed because of thesubdural haematoma, bilateral retinal haemorrhages and theirregular left ulnar metaphysis but it was not pursued as thechild slowly recovered,3.4. Case 4Birth RecordThis child was born via vaginal delivery after a gestationperiod of 31 weeks. She was placed in the NeonatalIntensive Care Unit and required Continuous PositiveAirway Pressure. Her birth weight was 1300 grams.ProgressProgress was satisfactory until at the age of 3 months, when18 days following her routine immunizations, her mothernoticed her mouth was bleeding and on looking into theinfant‘s mouth saw a lesion under the tongue which shethought was due to Thrush. The mother gave her a dose ofTylenol but the child continued to be ―fussy‖, had difficultyin breathing, and was taken to the hospital EmergencyRoom.On examination she had an Oxygen saturation of 100%on room air, mild retractions, shallow breathing,tachypnoea, 6mm tear distal to the frenulum without activebleeding, andpetechiae on the left arm and right thigh.Investigations1. A pediagram showed multiple rib fractures, left tibialand left femur fractures.2. Blood Chemistrya. Creatinine 0.1 mg/dLControl 0.4 – 1.2b. Glucose 113 mg/dL 70 – 99c. Total Protein 5.7 g/dL 6.4 – 8.4d. Albumin 3.4 g/dL 3.8 – 5.4?e. ALT 140 unit/L 0 – 65f. AST 46 unit/L 0 – 373.5. Case 5Birth HistoryThe birth was a difficult vaginal delivery and the child wasadmitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit for a period of6 days because of breathing difficulties.ProgressJudy –not her real name-was Formula fed and appeared tobe a happy contented infant. She was taken regularly to theclinic for the routine ―well baby‖ visits and found to havethe appropriate weight gain for her age.At the age of 2 months Judy was vaccinated. On27/11/2012, 3 weeks following her vaccination, she wasbathed and placed on the lounge from which she accidentalrolled off. Both parents tried to prevent her fall but wereunsuccessful and the parents immediately took her to theHospital thinking she may have hurt herself in falling.X-Rays taken on 29th and 30th November 2012 showed aspiral fracture of the right femur and some metaphsysalcornering on the left knee and ankle. A further X-Ray on11th December 2012 showed an old fracture of the 9th riband was diagnosed as a Non-accidental Injury. Thisresulted in removal of the infant from the care of theparents and placed in the care of the Social Service.Laboratory Investigations showed1. Prothrombin Time Prolonged2. Serum Albumin Reduced3. Liver Function Tests – AST, ALT and Gamma GTAbnormalThese Laboratory tests, which clearly support a metaboliccause for Judy‘s problems were not taking intoconsideration before placing her in the custody of theSocial Services.
4 Michael D InnisAutoimmunity and non-Accidental Injury in Children3.6 Case 6Birth RecordCarol, not her real name, the second child of a 24 year oldmother who smoked throughout her pregnancy was born byspontaneous vaginal delivery at full term. Her Apgar scoreswere 8 at 1 minute, 10 at 5 minutes and 10 at 10 minutesand she weighed 2.79 kg and was given an intramuscularinjection of Vitamin KCarol was Formula fed and appeared to be progressingsatisfactorily when seen at her 6 week assessment whereshe received her 1st immunizations of DTaP andMeningitis vaccine.ProgressThree days after these immunizations she started vomitingand refused her feeds. The parents were concerned at theappearance of two small finger-tip bruises on her arm andtook her to her GP who assured the parents there was nocause for alarm.Carol continued to be sickly and was fed with difficultyand a visiting nursing note says, ―feeding well with firmhandling‖. Small frequent feeds were advised.At the age of 6 weeks she was being fed by her father whenshe suddenly ―spluttered some droplets of milk out of hermouth, made a strange wheezing noise as if she was bothblowing and sucking at the same time. Her eyes started toshut and rolled back and she went limp and stoppedbreathing‖.The Emergency Service were alerted and arrived within afew minutes and artificial respiration restored normalbreathing. She was taken to the local Hospital where shewas intubated and a series of investigations commenced.Radiology1. X-ray upper abdomen, chest and both obliques of thechest.a. Displaced healing fracture of the right clavicleb. Fractures of the 6th, 7th, 8th and 9th ribs next tothe spine.2. Skull X-Ray Widening of the sutures. No fracture seen.3. Brain Scan. Moderate parafalcine subdural haemorrhageBlood CountHaemoglobin 9.1 g/dL Normal Range 10.0 – 13.5Platelets 741 x109 /L 150 ---450Coagulation ScreenProthrombin Time 15.1 secs 8.2—14.1Fibrinogen 1.6 g/L 1.70----4.0Blood ChemistryAlbumin 28 g/L 35 –55Alkaline Phosphatase 321 U/L 65---265Alanine Transaminase 59 U/L 5----45Lactate 6.6 mmol/L 1.1---2.2UrineProtein Trace by MultistixGlucose + by MultistixBlood Trace by MultistixAttempts at resuscitation failed. A Post-mortemexamination was carried out and death was attributed toNon-accidental Injury and the father was arrested andcharged with the murder of the child.The TrialProsecution Witnesses1st Consultant Radiologist (Expert witness for theProsecution)‘This child has suffered multiple episodes of physical injuryincluding Rib fractures of three different ages in multiplesites due to squeezing. Metaphyseal limb fractures inmultiple sites of at least two different ages due to grippingand twisting (or flailing) injuries.An old clavicular fracture probably due to direct trauma.A subdural haematoma due to shaking (and/or impact iffracture is proven) in the day prior to collapse at homeA final event leading to cardiorespiratory arrest at home,leading to death.’2nd Consultant Radiologist‘In my opinion, the total constellation of the injuries isentirely typical of non-accidental injury and that is takinginto account the mechanism of causation of most of theinjuries’Consultant Haematologist.‘There are no haematological disorders which wouldexplain the bony abnormalities in this child.’Defence WitnessesReduced levels of Albumin and Fibrinogen together withIncreased Alanine Transaminase is evidence of Liverdysfunction and the Increase in ProthrombinTime issupportive evidence of a deficiency of Vitamin K and thefractures and the haemorrhages are attributable to VitaminK DeficiencyVerdictThe Judge recognized the father as a loving caringhonourable man who would never injury anyone; least ofall his own child and he dismissed the charge and recordeda verdict of Not Guilty.In cases such as this, when the Judge is presented withopposing ―Expert‖ opinions, it would seem fair to acceptthe evidence of the accused as it is impossible for anyoneuntrained in the subtleties of differential diagnosis to assessthe relevance of either the argument of the prosecution orthat of the defence.This is a classic example of the current ―main stream‖Radiological and Haematological views which ignore thepossibility of a deficiency of Vitamin C or K as the causeof both fractures and haemorrhage in a child in spite of theclear evidence of a nutritional defect.4. Interpretation
Clinical Medicine Research 2013;X(X):XX-XX 5In all four cases shown here there is evidence thathyperglycaemia followed vaccination and hyperglycaemiaimplies hypoinsulinism, an autoimmune disorder resultingfrom the destruction of the Beta cells of the pancreas. Sinceinsulin is required for the transfer of vitamin C into thecells the intracellular vitamin C is reduced . Theresulting ―tissue scurvy‖ compromises the function of theLiver by inhibiting carboxylation of the clotting and boneforming factors and is manifested as the signs andsymptoms of the ―triad‖.Both Dr Kalokerinos and Professor Clemetsonrecommended giving the infant Vitamin C beforevaccination but it would seem more appropriate to do anintradermal skin test to test for sensitivity in every case.Both were firmly of the view that a metabolic abnormalityof Vitamin C was the essential cause of the signs andsymptoms of the alleged ―Non-accidental injuries‖.Contrary views have recently been expressed by Sheets, L.K. et al 2013.Sentinel Injuries in Infants Evaluated forChild Physical Abuse, Pediatrics,11thMarch.http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/early/2013/op03/06/peds.2012-2780and by Dr Angelo P Giardino in Medscape April 1 2013.Both these reports repeat the arguments of theirpredecessors without providing any scientific evidence fortheir opinions. At a meeting of the Royal Collage ofPathologists it was agreed that when the following featuresare all present at a paediatric post mortem:widespread bilateral retinal haemorrhages andlarge macular foldsthin-film subdural haemorrhageencephalopathy(i.e. the triad in characteristic form) then, considering thecase in the absence of other evidence, there should be aprima facie suspicion that the injuries are due tomechanical trauma, potentially including vigorous shaking.The crucial terms here are ―considering the case in theabsence of other evidence‖.Seldom or never is the (other) evidence of the accusedaccepted. In the cases reported here the clear biochemicalevidence of an Autoimmune Reaction compromising thefunction of the Liver and resulting in a failure of thecarboxylation of Intrinsic Coagulation Factors and ofOsteocalcin have been ignored by doctors who fail tounderstand the significance of these changes.This failure of mainstream medicine to understand anddenounce new concepts has been given the nameSemmelweis Reflex and attached is a typical example ofthis:―I find your endless speculations about alternativeexplanations for what most observers regard as childhoodinjury to be tiresome and increasingly deranged.Your latest rapid response is a classic example of the genre,largely dependent on references to previous outpourings ofyours. Reading it is like being trapped in an echo chamber.So we wont be publishing it, nor will we be entering intoany further correspondence about our decision.Tony DelamotheDeputyEditor (BMJ)No Tony Delamothe I am not going away till doctorsunderstand that the cause of the so-called ―Triad‖ is anAutoimmune Response to a vaccine or other antigen andthey stop accusing innocent parents for murdering orinjuring their children.Both these reports repeat the arguments of theirpredecessors without providing any scientific evidence fortheir opinions.While the only antigen examined in these findings islimited to mandated vaccines it is clear that numerous viral,bacterial, parasitic and chemical antigens could generate anautoimmune response and affect other tissues such as thenervous system and cause Autism.I conclude the warnings of Ms Lisa Blakemore Brown toignore the Munchausen Syndrome By Proxy is soundadvice and the views of Dr Archie Kalokerinos andProfessor Alan Clemetson on the subject of ―unexplainedinjuries‖ are valid and it is time the governments of theUK, USA, Canada and Australia ban the diagnoses ShakenBaby Syndrome and any of its ―morphs‖ and restore Justiceto the Legal Systems of the Country.________________________________________References.Medows R. ―Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy theHinterland of Child Abuse‖Lancet, Volume 310, Issue8033, Pages 343 - 345, 13 August 1977.Lisa Blakemore-Brown, ―Consultation document onMSBP‖http://bmj.bmjjournals.com/cgi/eletters/323/7308/296#16022.Struthers M A ―Foolish faith in authority is the worst enemyof truth‖. BMJ 2013:346; 12830.Wakefield AJ, Murch SH, Anthony A, LinnellJ,Casson DM,Malik M, et al;‖Ileal-lymphoid-nodular hyperplasia,nonspecific colitis, and pervasive developmental disorder inchildren‖ Lancet vol 351. Feb 28 1998. (Retracted).Orient JM. ―Mandatory Influenza Vaccination for MedicalWorkers a Critique‖. Jour AmerPhys&Surg; 2012; 111-117.Kalokerinos A. ―Every Second Child‖ Thomas Nelson(Australia) Limited 1974.Clemetson CAB. ―Vaccinations, Inoculations and AscorbicAcid‖. Jour Ortho Mol Med 1999; 14:137 –142.Gardener HB. ―Immunizations, retinal and subduralhemorrhages: are they related?‖ Med Hypotheses 2005:64;663-664.Guthkelth AN. ―Infantile subdural haematoma and itsrelationship to whiplash injuries.‖ BMJ 1971; ii: 430-1.Levine M, Rumsey SC, Wang Y, Park JB, Daruwala R(2000). "Vitamin C. In Stipanuk MH.Biochemical andphysiological aspects of human nutrition. Philadelphia:‖W.B. Saunders. pp. 541–67. ISBN 0-7216-4452-X.
6 Michael D InnisAutoimmunity and non-Accidental Injury in Children.Cunningham JJ. ―The Glucose/Insulin System and VitaminC: Implications in Insulin-dependent Diabetes Mellitus.‖ JAm CollNutr; 1998: vol 17 p105-108.Innis MD. ―Vitamin K Deficiency Disease‖. Jour ofOrthomol Med 2008; vol 23; 15-20.Cunningham JJ, Ellis SL, McVeigh KL, Levine RE, JorgeCaliesEscandon―Reduced mononuclear leucocyte ascorbicacid content in adults with insulin-dependent diabetesmellitus consuming adequate dietary vitamin C.‖ Metabolism1981; vol 40; 148-149.AcknowledgmentsI wish to acknowledge the help I received from the late ProfessorAlan Clemetson and the late Dr Archie Kalokerinos both of whomsent me copies of their publications. I also wish to thank theparents of the children reported here who provided me with theinformation recorded.Michael D Innis MBBS;DTM&H;FRCPA;FRCPath