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  • 1. AROUND ITALY By: Abhilash Naik
  • 2. Table of Contents Around italy 1-1 Local customs and manners Page 2-3 Traveling around Italy 4-5 Places to visit in Italy 6-7 Safe and healthy life in Italy 8-8 Fashion 9-10 Food’s 11-13 Famous people 14-15
  • 3. [1] AROUND ITALY INTRODUCTION TO ITALY IN THE RENAISSANCE Italy is a beautiful place to visit, there are many places in Florence, Venice and Rome to visit and learn about the history of each place. There are many museums, buildings and other things you can visit in italy This is a map of italy and the main cities are located on the map.
  • 4. [4] There are many ways TRAVELING of italy like lane and water transportation AROUND ITALY system, the most common way of transportation os land transportation. What are the things to consider when you are traveling around Italy? There are many things to consider like safety land there are less dangers then traveling by of and the weather. If you are traveling by water water, the dangers include wild animals, robbers then there one most important thing to focus on and land pirates. if you are traveling through that are the pirates, pirates have always been a forests then you will find lots of animals, robbers problem in water traveling another danger is the and even land pirates otherwise the cities are not weather which is always a problems as a storm as dangerous as the forests but it is always can easily sink a boat or if you and traveling easier to travel through cities as there are people against a strong current the it will take three who will help. times longer than normal. if you are traveling by
  • 5. [5] Traveling by land and water Wagons are a cheap and faster way of transportation and are good BOAT, CARRIAGE AND WAGON Land to travel in if you are traveling in a short distances. Pack mules are a Traveling by is a good way to cheap and slow way of travel if you want to learn and explore more about Italy, the most transportation but it is good to do that if you want to learn and common ways of traveling by land discover more about italy and its are horse back ride, carriages, culture. If you are in a city and wagons, pack mules and if you want to learn more then it is always want to save your money then you can always walk. Horses are a the the best to walk in see new places and meet new people. most fastest way of traveling in italy but it is costly heir a horse and if you are traveling a long distance Water then you will need a fresh horse Traveling by water is a good for eery 12 miles. Carriages are a traveling long distance to save good way of of traveling especially time, There are many ways to if you are in italy to enjoy your time travel by water which are boats, here, it is also very comfortable to ships and sails. Boats are the most travel in carriages and it has a lot cheapest type of type of water of room but it is expensive very transportation in italy but it is also expensive to travel in a carriage. a fast and safe way to travel if the weather is clear. Ships are a best and the fastest way of transportation and it is always a luxurious journey on a ship but there is always a danger of pirates. Sails are a expensive but very fast way to travel long distances as it is always a safe and short journey than other modes of transportation but the most important is always keep an eye on the weather as a storm can easily sink a sail.
  • 6. [6] Places To Visit in Italy The three cities Florence, Venice and Rome Florence florence trades a lot of clothing items and the Florence is one of the mostly gains money by most developed cities in italy producing silk, cotton and and os one of the cities wool, which are also one of where most of the trading the main things that takes place, Florence is also Florence was oa trade of. one of the where the most The most important people important in Florence are the medici people in italy family as they have been the live as ruler of Florence for many florence is in years. the canter of italy. Florence has a also famous its trade as Mauris at suspendisse, In vitae vel, wisi at neque aliquam faucibus Id praesent bibendum libero faucibus porta L ORE M E N IM egestas, quisque praesent ipsum lorem plac. R E A L E S T A T E adi In vitae vel, wisi at.
  • 7. [7] Venice Venice is mainly build on piles sunk into marshy islands at the head of the Adriatic Sea, basically Venice is a city made in water and has hundreds of canals that are used a highways to travel around. Venice is one of the cities the is popular for its sea and because Venice is a city that is build in water Venice has a lot of popular sea views where travelers go and have a nice time. Rome Rome is a place that has a lot of buildings, museums, architectural buildings and other temples. Rome is famous for art, music and architecture and is a very developed city where there have been great contributions form great people like Sixtus IV, Innocent VIII, Alexander VI, Julius II, Leo X, Clement VII, and Paul III who are trying to bring encouraging more studies of art, music and archeology to be developed in Rome
  • 8. [7] [8 Venice Venice is mainly build on piles sunk into marshy islands at the Safe and Healthy head of the Adriatic Sea, basically Venice is a city made in water and has hundreds of canals that are used a highways to travel around. Venice is one of the cities the is popular for its sea and because Venice is a city that is build in water Venice has a lot of popular sea views whereThe second and have a The Wars in italy travelers go attack was nice time. the pazzi conspiracy in The Aftermath and the which the king of Pazzzi conspiracy florence Lorenzo de medici was stabbed and luckily escaped but the The Aftermath was a war that enemies were able to kill his took place in florence and has Romeeffects on the people of brother. great florence as while the attack Romeon a place that has a lot of buildings, museums, architectural buildings and other temples. Rome was is the going on the is famous for art, music and architecture and is a very developed city where there have been great contributions control over popes took form great people like Sixtus IV, Innocent VIII, Alexander VI, Julius II, Leo X, Clement VII, and Paul III who arethe to bring encouraging more studies of art, music and archeology to be Florence and captured trying developed in Rome city. T h e bl ac k Pl ed ge The Black pledge is one of the most deadliest disease The Black Pledge has in italy and has killed many killed a lot of people but people. This disease has now the deaths are caused people to start learning more about the decreasing because science rather than reading studies are being made bibles and religion. and medicines are being developed.
  • 9. [9] FASH ION MEN’S AND WOMEN’S WEAR Keeping up with the latest fashion Keeping up in italy is very hard latest fashion clothes for man and that makes it very hard and women. There are also to know what to wear in changes in the jewelries that special events, there are many women were and those are shops in italy that have all the not often available in all places.
  • 10. [10] Men’s wear C L AS S E S Men in italy wear four essential pieces of clothing. First, is the Tortora and Eubank stated that for upper-class men the camicia was made camicia or shirt, it is usually of silk or soft fine linens. The camicia is worn as an undergarment. never worn alone, for that only Second, is the doublet which is symbolized a working man. Baines observed that lower-class men's worn under the camicia which is camicias were made of heavy coarse a close fitted jacket worn with linen. A gusset is inserted in the camicia to make it stronger and roomier or without sleeves. Third, is Hale that doublets were worn only until the 16th century when the styles became fuller and less form fitting. Lastly, is the Bucknell and Hill stated that the hose is attached to the doublet and seams together at the crotch. Women’s wear Women’s wear Dresses, worn over the chemise or camicia, are worn in either a one or two piece garment. The one piece is a cut from shoulder to hem, with the top cut N EC KL E S S similarly to men's jacket styles and were smooth fitting with yoke-like construction over the the necklines varied in cut and height. Aston (1968) stated shoulder, full pleats or gathers that in the mid 1400s, over the bustline and are usually necklines were rounded with a usually high cut. With the belted. end of the century came lower necklines with a more squared cut or a deep v-neck
  • 11. [11] F OO D S A N D D R I N K S DISHES Where to find delicious foods 1. CRESS IN LENT WITH MILK OF ALMONDS 2. MADIRA There are many restaurants specialty, there are many 3. MAQLUBA AL TIRRIKH in Italy to see, if you want to restaurants that have more 4. CHISAN find good restaurants then than one specialty and are 5. PORTAGE WITH TURNIPS they are all, every restaurant famous around the area. in italy has a special dish of 6. RAPES IN POTAGE its own that they are best 7. ICELANDIC CHICKEN at, if you are lucky then you can find many restaurants that have more than one
  • 12. [12] FOOD’S AND DRINK’S RECIPES 1.Vegetable dishes 2.Islamic dishes 3.Seafood 4.Soups 5.Poultry 6.Meat dishes 7.Meat cheese and egg pies 8.Desserts, appetizer 9.Sauces Best Recipies Mustard Greens Anthimus p. 37 Mustard greens are good, boiled in salt and oil. They should be eaten either cooked on the coals or with bacon, and vinegar to suit the taste should be put in while they are cooking. 1 1/4 lb mustard greens (including smaller stems) 1 t salt 3 T oil 4 slices bacon 4 t vinegar Wash mustard greens. Boil stems two minutes, then add leaves, boil 6 more minutes and drain. Fry bacon (6 minutes in microwave). Heat oil, add greens and stir, then add salt and cook five minutes. Crumble bacon and put over greens with vinegar. Stir it all up and cook another 3 minutes. Icelandic Chicken Icelandic p. 218/D1 (GOOD) One shall cut a young chicken in two and wrap about it whole leaves of salvia, and cut up in it bacon and add salt to suit the taste. Then cover that with dough and bake like bread in the oven. 5 c flour 1/2 lb bacon 3 T dried sage (or sufficient fresh sage leaves to cover) about 1 3/4 c water 3 lb chicken, cut in half Make a stiff dough by kneading together flour and water. Roll it out. Cover the dough with sage leaves and the sage leaves with strips of bacon. Wrap each half chicken in the dough, sealing it. You now have two packages which contain, starting at the outside, dough, sage, bacon, chicken. Put them in the oven and bake like bread (325deg. for 2 hours). We find the bacon adds salt enough. The part of the bread at the bottom is particularly good, because of the bacon fat and chicken fat. You may want to turn the loaves once or twice, or baste the top with the drippings.
  • 13. [13] Roast Chicken You will roast a chicken after it has been well plucked, cleaned and washed; and after roasting it, put it into a dish before it cools off and pour over it either orange juice or verjuice with rosewater, sugar and well-ground cinnamon, and serve it to your guests. large chicken 1/3 c orange juice 1 T rosewater 2 T sugar plus 1 t cinnamon Chawettys Take buttys of Vele, and mynce hem smal, or Porke, and put on a potte; take Wyne, and caste + er-to pouder of Gyngere, Pepir, and Safroun, and Salt, and a lytel ver+ ous, and do hem in a cofyn with yolks of Eyroun, and kutte Datys and Roysonys of Coraunce, Clowys, Maces, and + en ceuere + in cofyn, and lat it bake tyl it be y-now. 3 cups chopped pork or veal (about 18 oz) 3/4 c red wine 5 threads saffron 3/4 t ginger 3/4 t pepper 3/4 t salt 1 t wine vinegar 9 egg yolks 3/8 c dates 3/8 c currants 1/4 t cloves 1/2 t mace double 9" pie crust Cut the meat up fine (1/2" cubes or so). Simmer it in a cup and a half of water for about 20 minutes. Make pie crust, fill with meat, chopped dates and currents. Mix spices, wine, vinegar and egg yolks and pour over. Put on a top crust. Bake in a 350deg. oven for 50 minutes, then 400deg. for 20 minutes or until the crust looks done. Pork Doucetty Take pork, and hack it small, and eyroun y-mellyd together, and a little milk, and melle him together with honey and pepper, and bake him in a coffin, and serve forth. 1/2 to 2/3 lb of pork chops 6 eggs 3 T milk 2 t honey pinch of pepper 1 9" pie crust Cook pork in the oven or boil it about 20 minutes. Make a pie crust, prick it, and put it in a 400deg. degree oven for about 10 minutes. Mix remaining ingredients. Cut pork into small pieces and add to mixture. Put it in the pie crust and bake at 350deg. for about 40 minutes. Hais Take fine dry bread, or biscuit, and grind up well. Take a ratl of this, and three quarters of a ratl of fresh or preserved dates with the stones removed, together with three uqiya of ground almonds and pistachios. Knead all together very well with the hands. Refine two uqiya of sesame-oil, and pour over, working with the hand until it is mixed in. Make into cabobs, and dust with fine-ground sugar. If desired, instead of sesame-oil use butter. This is excellent for travellers. 2 2/3 c bread crumbs 2 c (about one lb) pitted dates 1/3 c ground almonds 1/3 c ground pistachios 7 T melted butter or sesame oil enough sugar We usually mix dates, bread crumbs, and nuts in a food processor or blender. For "cabobs," roll into one inch balls. Good as caravan food (or for taking to wars). They last forever if you do not eat them, but you do so they don't.
  • 14. [14] Famous People in Italy DANTE ALIGHIERI Durante Alighieri (Dante being a nickname) was born in Florence in May or June 1265, into a low- aristocracy family, who were not very wealthy, of the Guelfo party. Dante himself went onto become a white guelfo. In about 1285 he married Gemma di Manetto Donati, and they had three or maybe four children. Dante’s first studies were mainly in rhetoric, grammar, philosophy, literature and theology. He was a disciple of Brunetto Latini, who strongly influenced Dante’s cultural growth. In his youth, he was a Stilnovo poet and had many friends among the other members of the Stilnovo Poetical School, especially Guido Cavalcanti. After the death of Bice di Folco Portinari, with whom Dante was in love, he began studying philosophy and theology in depth, also attending some of the Florentine cultural associations, which provided lessons mainly about Aristotle and St. Thomas. His political career began when Dante joined a Medical Corporation in 1295. In the following five years his career grew quickly and culminated in his becoming a priore, a type of governor, in 1300. However, due to serious internal struggles between the white and black guelfi Dante made some hard-line political decisions, which resulted in him being sentenced to death. From this moment on, Dante roamed many Italian courts never again to return to Florence, He died in Ravenna, in 1321 and was buried in San Pier Maggiore’s Church where his tomb still exists today. Dante wrote many works including the Vita Nuova, Convivio and De Vulgari Eloquentia. However the Divina Commedia (Italian for "divine comedy") is Dante’s masterpiece and is the best literal expression of medieval culture. The Dante’s original title of the work was simply Commedia, but then Giovanni Boccaccio suggested adding the adjective Divina ("divine") in order both to explain the kind of content and to celebrate the greatness and beauty of the work. Dante’s main purpose in writing the Commedia was to preach the necessity of a moral and religious renewal for everybody, in order to get ready for the after-life and to ascend to Heaven, eternally saved. Dante acts as a prophet who speaks on behalf of God to the whole mankind. GIOVANNI BOCCACCIO Boccaccio’s father, a wealthy bank merchant from Certaldo and a man of some prominence in Florence, had gone into business in Paris although he soon abandoned Boccaccio’s mother and returned to Florence where he sent Boccaccio to school until he was ten and then took him into business. In 1327 Giovanni was sent to Naples to study law, but he gave himself up almost entirely to literature, and became intimately acquainted with some of the most prominent men and women of the court of Anjou. In 1340 ha came back to Florence and on the death of his father in 1348, he became the guardian of a younger brother. He held certain public offices in Florence and was entrusted with diplomatic missions to Padua, the Romagna, Avignon, and elsewhere. After 1350 began his friendship with Petrarch, which lasted until the latter's death in 1374. In spite of his advanced age and the political dissensions in Florence which afflicted him sorely, in 1373 he began his course of lectures in Florence on the poems of Dante. He died two years later at his ancestral home in Certaldo. Boccaccio's works include the "Filocolo", his first work written in about 1340, the "Ameto", "Amorosa Visione", the "Teseide", probably of the year 1341, is the first artistic work in ottava rima. The "Ninfale Fiesolano", a short poem in ottava rima, is the best, in style and invention, of the minor works of Boccaccio. The "Vita di Dante" (about 1364), based chiefly on information furnished by contemporaries of Dante, remains one of the best lives of the poet. The book with which Boccaccio's name is inseparably linked is the "Decameron", which was finished in 1353, but part of which had probably been written before the Black Death reached its height in 1348. The "Decameron" opens with a masterly description of the terrors of the pest, and we are then introduced to a gay company of seven ladies and three young men who have come together at a villa outside Naples to while away the time and to escape the epidemic. Each in turn presides for a day over the company and on each of the ten days each of the company tells a story, so that at the end one hundred stories have been told. FILIPPO BRUNELLESCHI Brunelleschi was born in Florence in 1377 and received his early training as an artisan in silver and gold. In 1401 he entered, and lost to Ghiberti, the famous design competition for the bronze doors of the Florence Baptistery. He then turned to architecture and in 1418 received the commission to execute the dome of the unfinished Gothic Cathedral of Florence, also known as the Duomo. The dome, a great innovation both artistically and technically, consists of two octagonal vaults, one inside the other. Its shape was dictated by its structural needs—one of the first examples of architectural functionalism. This was the first time that a dome created the same strong effect on the exterior as it did on the interior. In other buildings in Florence, such as the Medici Church of San Lorenzo and the "Spedale degli Innocenti", Brunelleschi devised an austere, geometric style inspired by ancient Rome. Brunelleschi's style of “wall architecture,” with its flat facades, set the tone for
  • 15. Chapel, he moved away from this linear, geometric style to a somewhat more sculptural, rhythmic style. This style, with its expressive interplay of solids and voids, was the first step toward an architecture that led eventually to the baroque. Brunelleschi was also an important innovator in other areas. Along with the painter Masaccio, he was one of the first Renaissance masters to rediscover the laws of scientific perspective. He executed two perspective paintings (now lost), probably between 1415 and 1420, and he is also credited with having painted the architectural background in one of Masaccio's early works. His influence on his contemporaries and immediate followers was very strong and has been felt even in the 20th century, when modern architects came to revere him as the first great exponent of rational architecture. Brunelleschi died in Florence in 1446. His revival of classical forms and his championing of an architecture based on mathematics, proportion, and perspective make him a key artistic figure in the transition from the Middle Ages to the modern era. CENNI DI PEPO, ALIAS "PIETRO CIMABUE" Florentine painter, born 1240; died after 1301; the legendary founder of Italian painting and reputed master of Giotto. According to Vasari some Greeks who had settled in Florence were Cimabue’s masters, but he soon surpassed them. When he completed his famous "Madonna", the people bore it in triumph to Santa Maria Novella, with such jubilation that the area where the painter lived was afterwards called the Borgo Allegri. All this has since been proved untrue, and is attributed to the zeal of Vasari, the Italian historian of art, for the glory of Florence, his native city. It needed all the patience of the modern critic to right these wrongs. It is now established that the famous "Madonna" of Santa Maria NovelIa, called the "Madonna Ruccellai", is the work of Siena Duccio di Buoninsegna, who painted it in 1285 and is proved by the discovery of a contract preserved in the records of Florence. Also, it has been discovered that the triumphal procession to which Vasari refers in his account of Cimabue was held not in Florence, but in Siena, in honour of another masterpiece of this same Duccio, the great Maestà, or "Madonna of Majesty", which may now be seen at the Opera del Duomo in Siena. Therefore it can be seen that all the elements of Cimabue’s biography are untrue. Duccio was forgotten, and his acheivements remained attached to the name of Cimabue, which explains his mention in a verse of Dante’s, which preserved the name of Cimabue for posterity. There was nothing more to do but create a biography and a list of works and let legend do the rest. However, it can be seen from Dante’s verses that Cimabue was a renowned master in his time. A recently discovered text tells us that Cimabove, pictore de Florencia, resided at Rome in 1272. In 1301 he received ten "livres" from the Opera del Duomo of Pisa for "St. John the Baptist" in mosaic, which accompanies the "Christ" in the cathedral. Here our certitude ends. Aside from the "St. John" of Pisa, a mosaic which has been much repaired, we have not a single work of Cimabue. Some critics ascribe several paintings to him, but it rnust be admitted that in the absence of documents these surmises were without ground. LEONARDO DA VINCI Born on April 15, 1452, in Vinci, just outside Florence, Leonardo was the illegitimate son of a 25-year- old notary, Ser Piero, and a peasant girl, Caterina. Growing up in his father's Vinci home, Leonardo had access to scholarly texts and was also exposed to Vinci's longstanding painting tradition, and when he was about 15 his father apprenticed him to the renowned workshop of Andrea del Verrochio in Florence, where he was an apprentice until 1477 when he set up a shingle for himself. In search of new challenges and money, he entered the service of the Duke of Milan in 1482, abandoning his first commission in Florence, "The Adoration of the Magi". He spent 17 years in Milan, leaving only after Duke Ludovico Sforza's fall from power in 1499. It was during these years that Leonardo reached new heights of scientific and artistic achievement, painting and sculpting and designing elaborate court festivals and designing weapons, buildings and machinery. His studies from this period contain designs for advanced weapons, including a tank and other war vehicles, various combat devices, and submarines. Also during this period, Leonardo produced his first anatomical studies. After the invasion by the French and Ludovico Sforza's fall from power in 1499, Leonardo was left to search for a new patron
  • 16. and over the next 16 years, Leonardo worked and traveled throughout Italy for a number of employers. About 1503, Leonardo reportedly began work on the "Mona Lisa". From 1513 to 1516, he worked in Rome, maintaining a workshop and undertaking a variety of projects for the Pope. He continued his studies of human anatomy and physiology, but the Pope forbade him from dissecting cadavers. Following the death of his patron Giuliano de' Medici in March 1516, he was offered the title of Premier Painter and Engineer and Architect of the King by Francis I in France. Although suffering from a paralysis of the right hand, Leonardo was still able to draw and teach. He produced studies for the Virgin Mary from "The Virgin and Child with St. Anne", studies of cats, horses, dragons, St. George, anatomical studies, studies on the nature of water, drawings of the Deluge, and of various machines. Leonardo died on May 2, 1519 in Cloux, France. Legend has it that King Francis was at his side when he died, cradling Leonardo's head in his arms.
  • 17. Beijing BISS International School Italian Renaissance – Travel Guide Grade 9 Assessment Criteria September ‘09 Criterion A: Knowledge Maximum 10 Achievement level Level descriptor 0 The student does not reach a standard described by any of the descriptors given below. The use of terminology is inconsistent or incorrect. 1–2 Facts and examples are either absent, or those used are irrelevant or do not show understanding. The use of terminology is mostly accurate and usually appropriate, though some errors remain. 3–4 Facts and examples used are mostly relevant, and usually show understanding. Terminology is used accurately and appropriately. 5–6 Relevant facts and examples are used to show understanding. The student provides accurate descriptions; explanations are adequate but not well developed. A range of terminology is used accurately and appropriately. 7–8 A range of relevant facts and examples are used to show understanding. The student shows an excellent command of a wide range of terminology, and uses it appropriately. An 9–10 extensive range of relevant facts and examples are used to show understanding. Criterion C: Skills Maximum 10 Achievement level Level descriptor 0 The student does not reach a standard described by any of the descriptors given below. The student can select and use some relevant information.. 1–2 The student attempts to carry out investigations, demonstrating few skills. The student selects and uses mostly relevant information. 3–4 The student demonstrates basic investigative skills. The student selects and uses relevant information. 5–6 The student demonstrates adequate investigative skills. The student selects and uses a range of relevant information. 7–8 The student demonstrates effective investigative skills. The student selects and uses a wide range of relevant information. 9–10 The student demonstrates sophisticated investigative skills.
  • 18. Criterion D: Organization and presentation Maximum 8 Achievement level Level descriptor 0 The student does not reach a standard described by any of the descriptors given below. The student communicates information that may not always be relevant. The student attempts to structure the work, but it may be unclear and/or inappropriate to the format 1–2 required. Presentation is unclear and imprecise. There may be some evidence of documentation. The student communicates information that is mostly relevant. The student attempts to structure and sequence the work but is not always successful. 3–4 Presentation is occasionally unclear. Sources of information are documented, though there may be omissions or consistent errors in adhering to conventions. The student communicates information that is relevant. The student uses a structure appropriate to the task and sequences the content logically. 5–6 Presentation is clear; attention is paid to the audience and purpose in terms of appropriate language, style and visual representation. Sources of information are documented, with occasional errors in adhering to conventions. The student communicates information that is always relevant. The student organizes information into a well-developed and logical sequence, appropriate to the format required. 7–8 Presentation is clear, concise and effective, and the language, style and visual representation used are always appropriate to the audience and purpose. All sources of information are documented according to a recognized convention. Modified from the IBO MYP Humanities guide
  • 19. My Travel Guide – Final Checklist Name: __________________ Date: __________ Use this checklist before you hand in your travel guide! □ Does your travel guide have a cover page? □ Does your travel have an introduction with basic information about the renaissance (Who? What? Where? When? Why?)? □ Have you included detailed information on a) which cities to visit (Florence, Rome, and Venice) b) how to get around (by land and by water) c) local customs and manners d) what to wear e) what to see and do f) what to eat and drink g) how to stay safe and healthy h) who’s who in the Renaissance (4 PEOPLE) □ Did you write your information in paragraphs? □ Does each paragraph have a topic sentence? □ Does each paragraph have supporting sentences? □ Are all the supporting sentences relevant (important)? □ Did you use connectors to connect your ideas? (e.g., First, in addition, furthermore, etc) □ Did you include a correct bibliography? See homework diary for help. □ Does each section of your travel guide have a heading? □ Does your travel guide have useful pictures or graphics that help us understand the Renaissance period better? □ Did you use the same font for similar points? □ Did you revise and edit your travel guide? □ Will other people be interested in reading your travel guide?