US Army COE Wheel vs. Track Study (Corrected)

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US Army COE Wheel vs. Track Study (Corrected)

  1. 1. Wheels/Tracks NRMM StudyUS Army Corpsof Engineers Engineer Research & Development Center
  2. 2. Purpose Demonstrate Mobility Modeling methodologies that assist in assessing vehicle-terrain interaction. Scope Use Mobility Modeling to identify vehicle parameters and terrain features that impede mobility. Forecast mobility over different mission areas of interest.US Army Corpsof Engineers Engineer Research & Development Center
  3. 3. Vehicle Field Testing Mobility Modeling and NRMM Component Level Modeling Swim Obstacle Crossing Concept Vehicle Evaluation TERRAIN DATA VEHICLE DATA –Soil Type –Dimensions –Slope SCENARIO –Power Train –Vegetation Type –Weather –Weight –Obstacle Type DRIVER –Climate –Dynamics/Shock –Urban Code –Visibility –Commander’s Intent –Gap Width –Reaction Time – –Water Depth/VelocityFuture Vehicle Technologies –Shock/Vibration Tolerance – –Road Type – –Snow Depth/Density – •Mobility Factor Inference/Soil Moisture Strength Prediction (SMSP) Surface Roughness Obstacle Geometry Wetness Index Bank Angle/Height/Vegetation Soil Moisture/Strength Road Curvature/Grade Stem-size Spacing Recognition Distance Off-Road On-Road Gap Crossing Stochastic VTI Algorithms - Robust Mobility Modeling (RMM) Agility Mobility Soft Soil NATO Reference Mobility Model (NRMM) Modeling (SMM) Vehicle Performance Information Products US Army Corps of Engineers Engineer Research & Development Center
  4. 4. Mobility Modeling and NRMM Applications • Current Vehicle studies Future Scout Vehicle - PM FSV Medium Brigade Wheels/Track Study - DARPA • Acquisition FMTV HML AAAV HMMWV • Command and Control/ Tactical Systems DTSS CTIS TEM JMTK • Constructive and Virtual M&S JANUS CASTFOREM JWARS CCTT SAFORUS Army Corpsof Engineers Engineer Research & Development Center
  5. 5. Mobility Modeling and NRMM Physics-based concept Tractive Force Speed Curve Maximum Traction From Soil Vehicle Operating Region Tractive Force Maximum Speed Theoretical Obstacle Force Power-Train Curve Vegetation Force Slope Motion Resistance SPEEDUS Army Corpsof Engineers Engineer Research & Development Center
  6. 6. NRMMII Summary NRMMII - A computer-based collection of equations and algorithms designed to predict the maximum steady-state operating capability of a given vehicle in a prescribed terrain. Areas Philippines (Mindanao Island) South Korea (Eastern Coast) Kuwait (Northwestern Border) Germany (Lauterbach) Scenarios Dry Normal Average soil strength and moisture for the 30 driest days in an average rainfall year Wet Slippery Average soil strength and moisture for the 30 wettest days in an average rainfall year, with rainfall occurring within the last 6 hoursUS Army Corpsof Engineers Engineer Research & Development Center
  7. 7. Study Areas Map Code Quad No. Sea of Japan 1 2 1 2 NC51-11 NC51-12 NORTH 3 NC51-14 KOREA 4 NC51-15 5 NC51-16 3 4 5 6 7 NB51-2 NB51-3 8 NB51-4 9 NB52-1 1 Gangneung Mindanao 10 NB51-6 Seoul 6 7 8 9 11 12 NB51-7 NB51-8 Yellow 13 NB51-12 Sea Devao SOUTH 10 11 12 KOREA 13 Hamburg Berlin GERMANY MapCode Quad No. IRAQ 1 5322 1 MapCode 1 1 5449IV KUWAIT Persian NEUTRAL Gulf ZONE Frankfurt SAUDI ARABIA MunichUS Army Corpsof Engineers Engineer Research & Development Center
  8. 8. Slope Distributions for the Four Study Areas 120 > 60% 51 - 60% 26 - 50% 100 16 - 25% 11 - 15% 6 - 10% 80 3 - 5% % Total Area 0 - 2% 60 40 20 0 Germany Philippines Korea Kuwait Distribution of slope changes from region to regionUS Army Corpsof Engineers Engineer Research & Development Center
  9. 9. Surface Roughness (RMS) Distributions for the FourAreas Areas RMS Distributions for the Four Study Study 120 >= 4.0 in. 3.5 - 4.0 in. 3.0 - 3.5 in. 100 2.5 - 3.0 in. 2.0 - 2.5 in. 1.5 - 2.0 in. 80 1.0 - 1.5 in. % Total Area 0.5 - 1.0 in. 0.0 - 0.5 in, 60 40 20 0 Germany Philippines Korea KuwaitUS Army Corpsof Engineers Engineer Research & Development Center
  10. 10. Soil Type Distributions for the Four Study Areas Soil-Type Distributions for the Four Study Areas 120 Inland Water Evaporites Rock 100 Pt - Peat OH - Organic Clays CH - Inorganic (fat) clays MH - Inorganic elastic Silts OL - Organic Silts and Clays 80 CLML - Silty Clay/Clayey Silt % Total Area CL - Inorganic (lean) Clays ML - Inorganic Silts SC - Clayey Sands 60 SM - Silty Sands SP - Poorly-graded Sands SW - Well-graded Sands GC - Clayey Gravels GM - Silty Gravels 40 GP - Poorly-graded Gravels GW - Well-graded Gravels 20 0 Germany Philippines Korea KuwaitUS Army Corpsof Engineers Engineer Research & Development Center
  11. 11. Speed Profiles for the MTVL and LAVIII in Germany Speed Limiting Reasons in Germany 50 120 MTVL Tipping NOGO (Dry Normal) Sliding NOGO Soil NOGO 40 MTVL 100 Obs Override NOGO Veg Override NOGO Percent Total Area (Wet Slippery) Obs Belly Interference NOGO Speed, mph Obs Clearance Interference NOGO LAVIII 80 Soil & Slope Resistance NOGO 30 (Dry Normal) Inability to Brake NOGO Dry 60 Unknown NOGO Tipping on Curves LAVIII Sliding on Curves 20 (Wet Slippery) AASHO Curvature Spd Limit External Limit 40 Driver Prudence Over Veg Obs Override Force 10 Obs Impact Speed Wet Slippery Mnvr Around Veg 20 Mnvr Around Obs & Veg Visibility 0 Soil,Slope,Veg Resistance Tire Speed Limit 0 20 40 60 80 100 0 Ride Dynamics Limit MTVL (Dry) MTVL (Wet) LAVIII (Dry) LAVIII (Wet) No Prediction Percent Total Area The tracked vehicle can operate on Vehicle (Scenario) significantly more terrain in both a wet and dry conditionUS Army Corpsof Engineers Engineer Research & Development Center
  12. 12. Speed Profiles for the MTVL and LAVIII in Philippines Speed Limiting Reasons in Philippines 50 MTVL 120 (Dry Normal) Tipping NOGO Sliding NOGO 40 MTVL 100 Soil NOGO Obs Override NOGO Both vehicles have similar (Wet Slippery) Veg Override NOGO Percent Total Area Obs Belly Interference NOGO Speed, mph performance in the dry Obs Clearance Interference NOGO 30 LAVIII 80 Soil & Slope Resistance NOGO condition (Dry Normal) Inability to Brake NOGO Unknown NOGO LAVIII 20 (Wet Slippery) 60 Tipping on Curves Sliding on Curves AASHO Curvature Spd Limit External Limit 40 Driver Prudence Over Veg 10 Obs Override Force Obs Impact Speed Mnvr Around Veg 20 Mnvr Around Obs & Veg Visibility 0 Soil,Slope,Veg Resistance 0 20 40 60 80 100 Tire Speed Limit 0 Ride Dynamics Limit Percent Total Area MTVL (Dry) MTVL (Wet) LAVIII (Dry) LAVIII (Wet) No Prediction Vehicle (Scenario) The tracked vehicle can operate on significantly more terrain in a wet condition. Soft soil performance is an issue.US Army Corpsof Engineers Engineer Research & Development Center
  13. 13. Speed Profiles for the MTVL and LAVIII in Korea Speed Limiting Reasons in Korea 50 MTVL 120 (Dry Normal) Tipping NOGO Sliding NOGO Soil NOGO 40 MTVL 100 Obs Override NOGO Both vehicles have similar (Wet Slippery) Veg Override NOGO Percent Total Area Obs Belly Interference NOGO performance in the dry Speed, mph Obs Clearance Interference NOGO 30 LAVIII 80 Soil & Slope Resistance NOGO condition (Dry Normal) Inability to Brake NOGO Unknown NOGO 20 LAVIII (Wet Slippery) 60 Tipping on Curves Sliding on Curves AASHO Curvature Spd Limit External Limit 40 Driver Prudence Over Veg 10 Obs Override Force Obs Impact Speed Mnvr Around Veg 20 Mnvr Around Obs & Veg Visibility 0 Soil,Slope,Veg Resistance 0 20 40 60 80 100 Tire Speed Limit 0 Ride Dynamics Limit Percent Total Area MTVL (Dry) MTVL (Wet) LAVIII (Dry) LAVIII (Wet) No Prediction Vehicle (Scenario) The tracked vehicle can operate on significantly more terrain in a wet condition. Soft soil performance is an issue.US Army Corpsof Engineers Engineer Research & Development Center
  14. 14. Speed Profiles for the MTVL and LAVIII in Kuwait Speed Limiting Reasons in Kuwait 50 120 MTVL Tipping NOGO The wheeled vehicle had (Dry Normal) Sliding NOGO Soil NOGO 40 better performance in both MTVL 100 Obs Override NOGO Veg Override NOGO Percent Total Area wet and dry conditions. (Wet Slippery) Obs Belly Interference NOGOSpeed, mph Obs Clearance Interference NOGO 80 Soil & Slope Resistance NOGO 30 LAVIII (Dry Normal) Inability to Brake NOGO Unknown NOGO LAVIII 60 Tipping on Curves Sliding on Curves 20 (Wet Slippery) AASHO Curvature Spd Limit External Limit 40 Driver Prudence Over Veg Obs Override Force 10 Obs Impact Speed Mnvr Around Veg 20 Mnvr Around Obs & Veg Visibility Soil,Slope,Veg Resistance 0 Tire Speed Limit 0 20 40 60 80 100 0 Ride Dynamics Limit MTVL (Dry) MTVL (Wet) LAVIII (Dry) LAVIII (Wet) No Prediction Percent Total Area Vehicle (Scenario)US Army Corpsof Engineers Engineer Research & Development Center
  15. 15. Example of Evaluation of enhanced System •NRMM allows for the evaluation of impact of new technologies •What is the advantage of increasing the engineer power by 100% •What is the advantage of increasing the ride performance by 100% Speed Profiles for the MTVL on Dry Condition in Philippines Speed Limiting Reasons in Philippines 60 120 MTVL PowerX2 Tipping NOGO (Original) Sliding NOGO Original PowerX2 Ride/ShockX2 Ride/ShockX2 50 100 Soil NOGO Obs Override NOGO MTVL (Power X 2) Veg Override NOGO Percent Total Area Obs Belly Interference NOGO 40 Speed, mph Obs Clearance Interference NOGO MTVL 80 Soil & Slope Resistance NOGO (Ride/Shock X 2) Inability to Brake NOGO Unknown NOGO 30 MTVL 60 Tipping on Curves Sliding on Curves (Power/Ride/ShockX2) AASHO Curvature Spd Limit 20 External Limit 40 Driver Prudence Over Veg Obs Override Force Obs Impact Speed 10 Mnvr Around Veg 20 Mnvr Around Obs & Veg Visibility 0 Soil,Slope,Veg Resistance 0 20 40 60 80 100 0 Tire Speed Limit Ride Dynamics Limit MTVL MTVL MTVL MTVL Percent Total Area Vehicle (Scenario)US Army Corpsof Engineers Engineer Research & Development Center
  16. 16. Off-Road Performance Summary Wheel Track Traction Traction Dry Wet /Slippery Linear Features Dry Wet /Slippery Linear Features Philippines Even Even (tropical forest land) Korea E E (eastern coastal plain) Kuwait (level rocky soil) (sand) Germany E E (vegetated coastal highlands)US Army Corpsof Engineers Engineer Research & Development Center
  17. 17. On-Road Performance Summary Wheel Track Paved/Secondary Trails Paved/Secondary Trails Philippines Korea Kuwait GermanyUS Army Corpsof Engineers Engineer Research & Development Center
  18. 18. Tactical/Battlefield - Terrain Accessibility 2.5% NoGo 97.5 % terrain accessibility doesn’t mean much if the 2.5% NoGo is between where you are and where you want to be!US Army Corpsof Engineers Engineer Research & Development Center
  19. 19. Tactical and Operational Difference Between 4 and 11% NRMM No Go (West Germany Dry) MTVL (4%) 14.6 Kilometers 21 Minutes LAV III (11%) 14.9 Kilometers 23 Minutes Surface Condition Low Average Monthly (Mar) Rainfall and surface is dry (i.e. It has not rained within the past six hours). Tactics Cross Country and Trails. Minimal Tactical or Operational Difference in Dry Cross CountryUS Army Corpsof Engineers Engineer Research & Development Center
  20. 20. Tactical and Operational Difference Between 6 and 23% NRMM No Go (West Germany Wet) MTVL (6%) 15.2 Kilometers 28 Minutes LAV III (23%) 30.4 Kilometers 42 Minutes Surface Condition High Average Monthly (Mar) Rainfall and surface is slippery (i.e. it has rained within the past 6 hours) Tactics Cross Country, Trails, and Paved Roads. Paved Roads required since LAV III was Unable to complete the mission using only trails and cross country. The LAV III could not get to 4A and 6A. Significant Tactical and Operational Impact on Wet Terrain.US Army Corpsof Engineers Engineer Research & Development Center
  21. 21. Tactical and Operational Difference Between MTVL and LAVIII Iran/Iraq Dry MTVL 37.7Kilometers 4:41 Hours LAV III 45.8Kilometers 3:38 Hours Surface Condition Low Average Monthly (Jan) Rainfall and surface is dry (i.e. it has not rained within the past 6 hours) Tactics Cross Country, Trails Minor Tactical and Operational Impact.US Army Corpsof Engineers Engineer Research & Development Center
  22. 22. Tactical and Operational Difference Between MTVL and LAVIII Iran/Iraq Wet MTVL 51.0Kilometers 7:45 Hours LAV III 43.7Kilometers Route included NOGO, Mission was not completed Surface Condition High Average Monthly (Jan) Rainfall and surface is Slippery (i.e. it has rained within the past 6 hours) Tactics Cross Country, Trails, Roads Significant Tactical and Operational ImpactUS Army Corpsof Engineers Engineer Research & Development Center

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