Bus Rapid Transit System


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Bus Rapid Transit System

  1. 1. Ahmedabad bus Rapid Transit System (ART) Bus Technology Preface BRTS consists of several components designed to function together so as to generate superior services, which are comparable with other mass rapid transit system including metro rail system. Some or all of these elements are integrated to form BRTS, which will ensure fast, reliable, secure, high capacity service, which also has a distinct identity. Elements of BRT System Performance CHARACTERISTICS Travel Identity Safety Time Reliability and and Capacity Savings Image Security RUNNING WAY Running Way Segregation — — — — — Running Way Marking — Running Way Guidance — — — STATIONS Station Type — — — — Platform Height — — — — — Platform Layout — — — Passing Capability — — — Station Access — — VEHICLES Vehicular Configurations — — — — — Aesthetic Enhancement — — Passenger Circulation Enhancement — — — — — Propulsion Systems — — FARE COLLECTION Fare Collection Process — — — — Fare Transaction Media — — — — — Fare Structure — — — INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS Vehicle Prioritization — — — — Driver Assist & Automation Technology — — — — — Operations Management — — — — Passenger Information — — — — Safety and Security Technology — Support Technologies — SERVICE & OPERATING PLANS Route Lengths — Route Structure — — Span of Service — Frequency of Service — — — — Station Spacing — — The system being planned in Ahmedabad will have most of these components. While planning for the system, several issues have to be addressed. These may be with regard to the advantages of inclusion of a component, the way to include the component in terms of its type, magnitude or quality etc., It is necessary that these issues are addressed both at the general principal level as well as at the specific design level for Ahmedabad. As the BRTS concept for Ahmedabad is being developed, for better decisions a wider debate within the planning and design team as well as with the professional circle is necessary. Wider information dissemination is also required. To facilitate this, a series of working papers have been planned. Government of Gujarat GIDB AMC AUDA CEPT University 1
  2. 2. Ahmedabad bus Rapid Transit System (ART) Bus Technology Of this series the Bus Technology is the first working paper. Mr. V.P. Shah, former Transport Manager, AMTS has been the lead technical specialist in preparation of this paper. We would like to thank LASA, New Delhi for their participation in planning and design of the project. ITDP New York is providing technical support to CEPT in preparation of BRTS project. We express our gratitude to Mr. Walter Hook and his colleagues. The team thanks Mr. K. Mukundan, of IL&FS, AMTS, RUBY Coach and AUTOMOTIVE Manufacturers for their inputs. The team welcomes suggestions on the technology choice. Prof. H.M. Shivanand Swamy Team Leader Government of Gujarat GIDB AMC AUDA CEPT University 2
  3. 3. Ahmedabad bus Rapid Transit System (ART) Bus Technology CONTENTS 1. AHMEDABAD BRTS PROJECT OVERVIEW 7 1.1. Background 7 1.2. The Initiatives 7 1.3. BRTS Initiative 7 1.4. The Corridors 7 1.4.1.Phase –I (Year – 2006) Corridor 8 1.5. Roadway Design 9 2. BRTS VEHICLE TECHNOLOGY CHOICE 10 2.1. Decision Elements 10 2.1.1.Travel Demand Assessment and BRTS Solutions 10 2.2. Vehicle Characteristics 13 2.2.1.Vehicle Dimension and Capacities 13 Seating and Standing Area Requirements 14 2.2.2.Access 15 Doors 15 Aisle Width 17 Floor Height 17 2.2.3.Fuel type and Propulsion systems 19 2.2.4.Vehicle Guidance 21 2.2.5.Aesthetics, Identity and Branding 22 2.3. Conclusions 23 3. INDICATIVE TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION 24 3.1. Dimensions, main characteristics and performance 24 3.2. Service life and Maintenance 25 3.2.1.Service Life 25 3.2.2.Maintenance Schedule 25 3.2.3.Accessibility 25 3.2.4.Inter changeability 25 3.2.5.Mechanical System and Running Gear 26 3.3. Propulsion system and performance 26 3.3.1.Top Speed 26 3.3.2.Grade ability 26 3.3.3.Power plant mounting 26 3.3.4.Engine 26 3.3.5.CNG Cylinder 27 3.3.6.Transmission 27 3.3.7.Propeller shafts 27 3.3.8.Rear Axle 27 3.3.9.Front Axle 27 Government of Gujarat GIDB AMC AUDA CEPT University 3
  4. 4. Ahmedabad bus Rapid Transit System (ART) Bus Technology 3.3.10.Steering 27 3.3.11.Suspension 27 3.3.12.Wheels and Tyres 28 3.3.13.Lubrication 28 3.4. Braking System 28 3.4.1.Performance 28 3.4.2.Service Brake/Parking Brake 28 3.5. Electrical System 28 3.5.1.Batteries 28 3.5.2.Alternator/starter 29 3.6. Instrument panel 29 3.7. Body Specification 29 3.7.1.Headroom 29 3.7.2.Noise level and engine cover 29 3.7.3.Entrance and Exit 29 3.7.4.Ventilation 30 3.8. Facilities for physically challenged 30 ANNEXURES Government of Gujarat GIDB AMC AUDA CEPT University 4
  5. 5. Ahmedabad bus Rapid Transit System (ART) Bus Technology List of Maps Map 1 BRTS Network ............................................................................................................8 Map 2 Corridors Identified for BRTS Network......................................................................... 11 List of Tables Table 2-1 Estimated Travel Demand – 2006/7 ........................................................................ 12 Table 2-2 Typical BRTS Solutions.......................................................................................... 12 Table 2-3 Typical U.S. and Canadian BRT vehicle dimensions and capacities .......................... 13 Table 2-4 Capacity and dimension of Vehicles in India ............................................................ 14 Table 3-1 Physical and Performance Characteristics............................................................... 24 List of Figures Fig 1 Proposed Road Section for 60m ROW with exclusive bus lanes and bicycle paths...........9 Fig 2 Proposed Road Section for 40m ROW with exclusive bus lanes and bicycle paths...........9 Fig 3 Bi-fold door (Tata Star Bus)........................................................................................ 15 Fig 4 Swing door (Van Hool-A330) ...................................................................................... 16 Fig 5 Pivot door (Thunder Volt Diesel Hybrid-Electric Drive System TB-40HD) ....................... 16 Fig 6 Front and Middle Door ............................................................................................... 16 Fig 7 Front and End Door ................................................................................................... 17 Fig 8 Middle and End Door ................................................................................................. 17 Fig 9 Three Door Bus ......................................................................................................... 17 Fig 10 High Floor Bus configuration ...................................................................................... 18 Fig 11 Low Floor Bus configuration ....................................................................................... 18 Fig 12 Low Floor Bus configuration ....................................................................................... 19 Fig 13 Normal Floor Chassis ................................................................................................ 19 Fig 14 Low Floor Chassis...................................................................................................... 19 Fig 15 CNG tank on the top of the bus ................................................................................... 21 Fig 16 CNG tank below the floor bottom ................................................................................. 21 Fig 17 Transit Line Diagram .................................................................................................. 22 Fig 18 BRT Logo (Options).................................................................................................... 23 List of Annexure Annexure 1 - Bus Catalogue – Available Options in India Annexure 2 - List of Working Papers Government of Gujarat GIDB AMC AUDA CEPT University 5
  6. 6. Ahmedabad bus Rapid Transit System (ART) Bus Technology Abstract: Bus Rapid Transit system (BRT) has different components and its main component, Bus Technology influences the quality and success of the service. This paper discusses decision process for selection of the BRT vehicle (Bus) and the specifications for the same. Technical requirements in terms of capacity, fuel, bus layout, type of doors, floor height, electronic instrumentation, aesthetics etc., are the core discussion points of this paper, which gives direction for selection of BRT vehicle. Paper identifies the desirable characteristics for Ahmedabad bus Rapid Transit (ART) vehicle. Government of Gujarat GIDB AMC AUDA CEPT University 6
  7. 7. Ahmedabad bus Rapid Transit System (ART) Bus Technology 1. Ahmedabad BRTS Project Overview 1.1. Background The city of Ahmedabad spread over 400 Sq. km of area, accommodates over five million people. The main agencies governing the area are the Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation (AMC) and the Ahmedabad Urban Development Authority (AUDA). There are a host of municipalities and Village Panchayats within the area of AUDA providing limited urban services. The population growth in the city has been moderate. There are about 1.4 million vehicles registered in the city. Of these over 60% are two wheelers. There are about seventy five thousand three wheelers providing intermediary passenger service and about two thousand eight-seat ve hicles operating point-to-point services. The Ahmedabad Municipal Transport Service (AMTS) has been providing public transport service in the city for over five decades. In the eighties, AMTS had been catering to about 40% of the trips performed in the city (about six hundred and fifty thousand trips). Today, the service has shrunk significantly. About 350 buses cater to around two hundred and fifty thousand trips (i.e. 7- 8% of total trips in Ahmedabad). The proportion of Bicycle users in the city is also quite large (i.e. about three hundred thousand). A quarter of the total trips made in the city are walk trips. As a result of the above parameters, congestion; pollution and high rates of accidents are becoming the order of the day. 1.2. The Initiatives The State and local governments have made significant efforts to ameliorate the situation. These include: 1. Integrated Transit Plan for Ahmedabad (IPTS) study initiated by Gujarat Infrastructure Development Board (GIDB) 2. Ahmedabad Metro Feasibility Study initiated by GIDB 3. Suburban Rail Study by AUDA 4. Traffic Management Plans by AMC In addition the Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation has been making attempts to improve the existing road conditions through a comprehensive plan. The Ahmedabad Municipal Transport Service (AMTS) has started operating CNG buses in the city. 1.3. BRTS Initiative Gujarat Infrastructure Development Board (GIDB), recognizing that no single mode would cater to the mobility needs of the city and that ‘Bus’ forms the most critical segment of the public transport system in the city, has decided to develop and implement a ‘Bus Rapid Transit System’ in the City. GIDB has thereby entrusted the system design task to CEPT University. The road infrastructure development tasks will be carried out by a Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV) constituted with the participation of AMC, AUDA and the State Government or directly by AMC and AUDA (in their respective areas). It is presently envisaged that private operators selected through competitive bidding will carry out bus operations. 1.4. The Corridors The patronage towards a public transport system at present is very limited (7-8%). Hence the prime objective of the initiative at this stage is to develop a market for public transport. As of now, capacity is a secondary issue. Hence this project focuses on providing a reliable, affordable and quality service, which is also rapid. Based on an analysis of the socio-economic factors, travel demand patterns, road network characteristics, proposed metro plan and existing AMTS route network as the criterions, a Government of Gujarat GIDB AMC AUDA CEPT University 7
  8. 8. Ahmedabad bus Rapid Transit System (ART) Bus Technology network of roads covering about 155 kilometers in length have been identified for developing the Bus Rapid Transit System within Ahmedabad. The BRTS network has been prioritized for implementation giving due consideration to the factors such as travel demand, ease of implementation and potential of the route to operate as an independent route (operated by the private operator). Integration with other proposals is taken as a key input. Map 1 BRTS Network Exclusive Bus Corridor BRTS Mixed Service / FEEDER NETWORK Metro Rail Regional Rail Network 1.4.1. Phase –I (Year – 2006) Corridor A circular corridor covering a length of about 60 kms has been identified as main corridor to be implemented in the year 2006. Development of other corridors has been scheduled in 4 phases. According to our initial estimates, operation of about 50 buses on the Circular Corridor (for 2006) with a 6 min frequency would suffice and subsequently the number could be raised to 100 and 200 within two year time period. Fifty buses at 1500 passengers per bus/day would carry a number totaling to 75000 passengers Tentatively the composition of the services is expected to be as below: 1. BRTS 2006 (60 kms) – 50, 100 & 200 buses 2. BRTS Mixed Services (90 kms) - 100, 200 & 450 buses 3. AMTS (Balance) - 450,500 & 600 buses Government of Gujarat GIDB AMC AUDA CEPT University 8
  9. 9. Ahmedabad bus Rapid Transit System (ART) Bus Technology The numbers mentioned above indicate buses at the start of operation, after one year and after a two-year period. One may introduce Air Conditioned and other improved type of services on BRTS and other Corridors subsequently. 1.5. Roadway Desi gn Considering the available road widths following median lanes have been proposed. System Design aspects in terms of BRTS Corridor (Circular Route) – Design, BRTS Operations Design, Bus Technology etc., have been dealt with. Initial assessment of the revenue model has been complete. Detailed project report is being prepared. C OF ROAD L Shyness Strip Shyness Strip KERB & KERB & INLET/ OUTLET INLET / OUTLET 1.5% 1.5% 2% 2% 2% 2% 1.5% 1.5% 1.5% 1.5% 1.5% 1.5% 1.5% 1.5% PEDESTRIAN 2000 2500 2250 6000 3000 7000 2500 7000 2500 7000 3000 6000 2250 2500 2000 PEDESTRIAN PATHWAY/ DRAIN CYCLE PARKING SERVICE LANE PARKING CARRIAGEWAY FOOTPATH MEDIAN BUS LANES FOOTPATH CARRIAGEWAY PARKING SERVICE LANE PARKING/ CYCLE DRAIN PATHWAY/ 750 750 250 250 750 750 DRAIN PATH FOR TRUCKS/ FOR TRUCKS/ DRAIN PATH DRAIN Shyness Shyness UTILITIES/ UTILITIES Strip Strip GREEN AREA Fig 1 Proposed Road Section for 60m ROW with exclusive bus lanes and bicycle paths C L OF ROAD Shyness Strip Shyness Strip KERB & KERB & INLET / OUTLET INLET / OUTLET KERB & INLET 1.5% 1.5% 1.5% 1.5% PEDESTRIAN 2000 2000 2500 7000 2500 7000 2500 7000 2500 2000 2000 PEDESTRIAN PATHWAY/ PARKING/ PARALLEL CARRIAGEWAY FOOTPATH MEDIAN BUS LANES FOOTPATH CARRIAGEWAY PARALLEL PARKING/ PATHWAY/ DRAIN DRAIN PARKING/ PARKING/ DRAIN DRAIN UTILITIES UTILITIES Fig 2 Proposed Road Section for 40m ROW with exclusi ve bus lanes and bicycle paths Government of Gujarat GIDB AMC AUDA CEPT University 9
  10. 10. Ahmedabad bus Rapid Transit System (ART) Bus Technology 2. BRTS Vehicle Technology Choice Selection of BRT vehicle must be carefully planned as it influences every aspect of transit performance. BRT Vehicle characteristics affect overall levels of service in terms of speed, reliability, capacity and cost. Further, vehicle selection should be matched with the characteristics of the other elements of the system, including running ways, bus station design, service plans, intelligent transport system (ITS) application and fare collection. BRTS systems use specialized vehicles to give a distinct appearance and to create an unique identity. The vehicles are sometimes articulated, environmental friendly and have features, which increase passenger comfort and convenience. Features adopted also enhance operational efficiency. On several dimensions the choice of technology is limited by the governing legislation (Indian Motor Vehicle Act and Gujarat Motor Vehicle Rules). However, there are certain critical decision elements influencing the transit operations where choices exist. These include: • The type of bus (Minibus, Standard Bus, Articulated Bus) determining the capacity of the system • Factors such as number of doors, size of doors, location of doors; floor height (Low Floor, Semi-low Floor and High floor) affecting operating efficiency • Positioning of the Engine (Front or rear) affecting driver comfort, door space, noise and vibration. • Choice of Fuel • Type and level of access to physically challenged, and • Aesthetics, Identity and Branding The choice of vehicle is also going to be determined by the present developments in the automobile sector. In the country, it is known that truck chassis are being modified for use as buses. However, some recent developments in terms of developing semi-low floor buses with aesthetic design are interesting. BRTS development efforts in the country will fasten the process of innovation in this sector. Needless to mention that BRTS buses used in other parts of the world are 8-10 times more expensive than Indian buses and therefore choice of imported buses is ruled out. The section below discusses the decision elements in terms of nature of decision, its impact on operations and suggested course of decision for Ahmedabad Rapid Transit (ART). Subsequent section outlines desirable specifications for the same. 2.1. Decision Elements The vehicle size is a critical element determining the capacity of BRT. Other factors determining to system capacity are dwell time, passenger trip-length/turnover, roadway d esign, frequency etc., 2.1.1. Travel Demand Assessment and BRTS Solutions The decision related to system capacity relates to expected demand the system is likely to serve. Initial travel demand assessment suggests the following requirements. Government of Gujarat GIDB AMC AUDA CEPT University 10
  11. 11. Ahmedabad bus Rapid Transit System (ART) Bus Technology Map 2 Corridors Identified for BRTS Network 13,17 2, 6, 16 1 1 3 5 4b 4a 5,17 7, 12, 15, 18 (Kalupur) 4a,4b,7,10,11,16, 18 10 14 (ST) 2 8, 9,14 2,15 6, 13 3 9 8,12 Government of Gujarat GIDB AMC AUDA CEPT University 11
  12. 12. Ahmedabad bus Rapid Transit System (ART) Bus Technology Table 2-1 Estimated Travel Demand – 2006/7 % Road Length (Feasibility to structure closed Total BRT Trips/day Length system Corridor Name of Corridor (Km) operation) 2000 2007 2015 1 VASNA-SABARMATI - NARODA-NAROL 47.5 96.44 74024 201893 236757 2 VASNA-SABARMATI 15 100.00 67523 127330 151614 3 NARODA-NAROL 18 100.00 46541 74563 85143 4a THALTHEJ TO KALUPUR 9.1 67.48 37112 71782 80810 4b SATTADHAR TO KALUPUR 9.55 82.64 40994 69798 77421 5 GHATLODIA TO VADAJ 4.92 78.90 15352 13628 15192 6 SABARMATI TO SARKHEJ VIA ASHRAM RD 17.63 97.49 42435 94905 105118 7 ISKCON TO KALUPUR 11.09 94.17 46982 94190 104111 8 ST TO NAROL TO LAMBHA 8.44 68.20 17151 32154 37446 ST TO JASODANAGAR CROSSROAD TO 9 HATHIJAN 12.81 83.21 25535 54905 61196 10 KALUPUR TO ODHAV 9.49 100.00 22422 36382 40381 11 KALUPUR TO NARODA 10.29 100.00 30899 50023 54667 12 THALTHEJ TO NAROL TO LAMBHA (UNIV ROAD) 17.15 100.03 61472 50698 60754 13 SARKHEJ TO GOTA 12.45 100.00 27769 27907 37219 PALDI TO ST VIA JAMALPUR (OPTIONAL 14 CONNECTION) 3.25 100.06 8878 12412 13263 15 ISKCON TO VASNA VIA. NEHRU NAGAR CIRCLE 6.35 100.14 27985 12829 15870 16 SABARMATI - KALUPUR 8.98 82.45 31233 66400 72635 17 VADAJ-GOTA 5.75 100.00 22540 19648 22479 SHIVRANJANI-KALUPUR VIA SHREYAS, NEW 18 BRIDGE, ST 11.57 100.00 44383 54197 61069 Given the expected travel demand on each corridor, BRTS solutions are structured. The following are the typical BRT solutions. Table 2-2 Typical BRTS Solutions Transit Passengers per Type of BRT solution hour per direction Less than 2,000 Simple bus priority, normally without physical segregation, possible part-time bus lane. 2,000 to 8,000 Segregated bus way used by direct services reducing the need to transfer. 8,000 to 12,000 Segregated central busway using direct services with fast boarding and operating speeds. Good priority at junctions 12,000 to 20,000 Segregated central bus way, with overtaking at stops; possible use of express and stopping services, some grade separated junctions, possible shifting to trunk and feeder service, others with good priority Government of Gujarat GIDB AMC AUDA CEPT University 12
  13. 13. Ahmedabad bus Rapid Transit System (ART) Bus Technology 20,000 to 40,000 Segregated central bus way with overtaking stops, trunk and feeder system, express and stopping services, priority at intersections, multiple stopping bays per station. Over 40,000 This level of demand is very rare on existing bus systems. It is possible, however, to design a BRT system that would serve up to even 50,000 passengers per hour and direction. This can be achieved with full segregation, double bus way, a high proportion of express services and multiple stops. Consider also spreading the load through two or more close corridors Source: Adopted from ITDP with improvisation From the above it is evident that 8-12 thousand per hour per direction capacity systems are sufficient for Ahmedabad. As suggested in the BRT Guide(GTZ), the best vehicle dimension is the one that permits a cost- effective operation for the given volumes and service frequency. From the point of view of public transport operational flexibility/efficiency, it is generally suggested that bus fleet with a range of capacities rather than a single model is recommended. 2.2. Vehicle Characteristics For selection of BRT vehicles following aspects must be taken into consideration. 1. External Dimension and Capacity 2. Access - Internal Layout - Doors & Aisle width - Floor Height 3. Fuel Choice 4. Vehicle Guidance 5. Aesthetics, Identity and Branding 2.2.1. Vehicle Dimension and Capacities The following are the vehicle types, which are being used as BRT vehicles in US and Europe. Table 2-3 Typical U.S. and Canadian BRT vehicle dimensions and capacities Length Width Floor Height Number of Number of Maximum Door Channels Seats (including Capacity seats in (Seated plus Wheelchair tie - standing) down areas) 40 ft (12.2 m) 96-102 in. 13-36 in. 2-5 35 - 40 50-60 (2.45-2.6 m) (33-92 cm) 45 ft (13.8 m) 96-102 in. 13-36 in. 2-5 35-52 60-70 (2.45-2.6 m) (33-92 cm) 60 ft (18 m) 98-102 in. 13-36 in. 4-7 31-65 80-90 (2.5-2.6 m) (33-92 cm) 80 ft (24 m) 98-102 in. 13-36 in. 7-9 40-70 110-130 (2.5-2.6 m) (33-92 cm) Source: BRT Planning Guide Government of Gujarat GIDB AMC AUDA CEPT University 13
  14. 14. Ahmedabad bus Rapid Transit System (ART) Bus Technology There are also bi-articulated buses which provide capacities in the range of 240-270 persons. Box 1 US and European Systems Using Ultra-Modern buses Fancy buses are only about marketing. Main point is large doors and platform boarding. Source: CBRT It is also observed that there is a growing tendency to adopt ultra-modern looking long articulated buses for operation. The purpose in these cases is to project image of the bus as an alternative to rail. The capacity and dimensions of available range of buses in India have been summarized below. Table 2-4 Capacity and dimension of Vehicles in India Bus types Vehicle Vehicle Capacity Capacity Total Length (m) width (m) (seating) (standees) Capacity Tata starbus 79 12 2.6 44 35 low floor Tata starbus 70 Ultra low floor 12 2.6 35 35 CNG Volvo 7700 12 2.55 30 40 70 Volvo 8500 city 80 12 2.55 40 40 bus low floor Volvo 8500 80 13.69 2.55 40 40 intercity bus Ashok Leyland 60-65 10.325 2.60 40 20-25 Viking BS-II Ashok leyland 65-70 11.80 2.60 40 25-30 12 M bus Ashok leyland 70 10.891 2.60 50 20 222 CNG Bus Swaraj Mazda 47 7.348 2.10 32 15 Wt-50 LWB Note: 1. For detailed specifications of vehicles please see annexure –1, Bus Catalouge. Seating and Standing Area Requirements1 1 A typical transit seat occupies approximately 0.5 m2 (5.4 sq ft, 18 inch width by 27 inch pitch)1. Four people can stand in one meter square area or approximately 2.7 square feet per person1. At density of three people per square meter, no standees will be touching another standee anywhere1. Three standees per square meter shrink dwell time at stop, as well as save time and capital Government of Gujarat GIDB AMC AUDA CEPT University 14
  15. 15. Ahmedabad bus Rapid Transit System (ART) Bus Technology Seating and standing area of BRT vehicle should be a function of the characteristics of the market being served. If average trip of customers is generally less then 15-20 minutes and passenger turnover is significantly high. Then more space should be given to standees. In that case seating space will be same or less than standing area. By that way capacity of the vehicle may be increased and provide open interior with better circulation characteristics. On BRTS Corridors in Ahmedabad average trip length ranges between 4 to 6. Hence seating space may be kept same as standing area. 2.2.2. Access Doors in terms of number, width and placement, and floor height determine the boarding and alighting time i.e dwell time at the bus stop. Doors With stops every 500 mts it is important that bus dwell time at the bus stops are kept to the minimum so that overall vehicle utilization is increased and system capacity enhanced. While dealing with this it has been assumed that the driver will not do ticket issue. Following are the guidelines recommended as a practice (BT Guide-GTZ). • One door per 10 ft of bus length should be provided • Preferably two doors • In terms of width it is recommended that door should be wider than 75 cm. • Doors should be positioned to divide BRT vehicles into sections of roughly equal capacity and circulation distances. • Position of boarding door should be at center or at the end of rear wheel and alighting door should come at the front. • Door width also depends on the fare collection system, off board or on board. If system is off board fare collection then at a time more passengers will come, for that larger door width required. • Door should be less complex and maintenance free with safety. Door Types: There are five basic types of doors available. They are swing door, Bi-fold door, Plug door, Pivot door and Sliding door. Of these first three are recommended as the other two are complex and generally riddled with maintenance problems. Bi-fold Doors: • Used where wide opening is required. • Ideal for BRT application • Door panels are one quarter the width of opening Fig 3 Bi-fold door (Tata Star Bus) Government of Gujarat GIDB AMC AUDA CEPT University 15
  16. 16. Ahmedabad bus Rapid Transit System (ART) Bus Technology Swing Doors: • Simple and easy to deploy • Safely operated and bus can be stop close to station platform edges Fig 4 Swing door (Van Hool-A330) Pivot Doors: • Relatively simple • Difficult to use for wide opening because they intrude into the vehicle when open • Creating potential safety issue. Fig 5 Pivot door (Thunder Volt Diesel Hybrid-Electric Drive System TB-40HD) Door Positioning: Door positioning has two dimensions. First decision is with regard to placing of bus stops in the middle of at the verge. This will determine the positioning of the doors. In case of Ahmedabad, the decision is to keep the bus stops on the side. (more detailed discussion on this is presented in working Paper on Bus Stop Design). Hence doors will remain on the left side. Further placing of the doors in the front, or middle or rear is also an issue. Two doors, one in the middle and second in the front is suitable way of placing the doors. CNG Cylinders are placed under the bus. This may create obstruction for placing the door in the middle. Please note that some of the pictures below have doors on the right side. These are shown to illustrate the placing of doors in terms of middle or front or rear and not left or right side of the bus. Fig 6 Front and Middle Door • Front door is for alighting minimum 650 – 800 mm wide. • Middle door is for boarding minimum 1200 – 1500 mm wide • Most suitable position of the public transport vehicle Government of Gujarat GIDB AMC AUDA CEPT University 16
  17. 17. Ahmedabad bus Rapid Transit System (ART) Bus Technology Fig 7 Front and End Door • Front door is for alighting minimum 650 – 800 mm wide. • End door is for boarding minimum 650 – 800 mm wide. • Suitable position of the public transport vehicle Fig 8 Middle and End Door • Middle door is for alighting minimum 650 – 800 mm wide. • End door is for boarding minimum 1200 – 1500 mm wide. • Not suitable door position for public transport vehicle • Control on alighting and boarding is very difficult Fig 9 Three Door Bus • Front door is for alighting minimum 650 – 800 mm wide. • Middle door is for boarding minimum 1200 – 1500 mm wide. • End door is for boarding of wheel chairs • Not Suitable position of door for public transport vehicle because it reduces the seating capacity of the bus Aisle Width Aisle width influences the vehicle capacity, passenger circulation inside the bus and dwell time. Boarding time increases by 20% when standees are present in the bus 2. Aisle width cannot be wider than 60 cm if 2+2 perpendicular seats are there in 2.6 m wide bus. Floor Height Floor height influences boarding and alighting speed, simplicity and safety. There are three options available in floor height; High floor, Low floor and Semi-low floor. 2 Kittelson and Associates, Inc., 2002 Government of Gujarat GIDB AMC AUDA CEPT University 17
  18. 18. Ahmedabad bus Rapid Transit System (ART) Bus Technology High Floor Bus Floor height is generally near to, 1000 mm to 1050 mm above the pavement. The advantages are: - Engine can be accommodated under the floor along with fuel tank and other electrical equipments. - This would increase the onboard 1000 mm passenger capacity (more space is available on the floor) 800 mm - However as boarding and alighting 600 mm time would be more. 380 mm 0.00 mm Fig 10 High Floor Bus configuration Low Floor Floor height is around 380 – 400 mm above the pavement. The basic advantages are: • Easy and speedy boarding and alighting. • Low floor bus can have door behind the rear axle. Following are the concerns with the of the low 380 mm floor buses: • No space under the floor to accommodate the engine, fuel tanks and electrical equipments. • These will have to be adjusted behind the bus or else it will take space (4-8 seats area) inside the bus. • Placing fuel tank or CNG Cylinders on top of the bus. Refueling would be difficult and will require higher specifications for body. Maintenance and operating cost is normally higher than the high floor bus. • Low floor bus’ driveways should be designed and smooth, without interruptions because it may harm bus floor. Fig 11 Low Floor Bus configuration Government of Gujarat GIDB AMC AUDA CEPT University 18
  19. 19. Ahmedabad bus Rapid Transit System (ART) Bus Technology Semi-Low floor Semi low floor buses have floor height around 800 – 850 mm above the pavement. Basic advantage of this type of bus are: • The fuel tank and electrical equipments come under the floor, so service problems would be reduced • Internal space loss is prevented. Semi- low floor buses have engine in back side and have 2 steps inside the bus. Concerns are: 800 mm • Semi-low floor bus has steps inside so 600 mm accidental falls may occur. • Floor height is higher than low floor so 400 mm boarding and alighting time increases 0.00 mm and therefore dwell time affects. • There is a loss of 2 to 3 seats due to engine in backside. Fig 12 Low Floor Bus configuration In terms of operations and maintenance costs, low floor buses are more expensive. In terms of capital costs too low floor buses would be higher. In India, efforts have been made to build semi-low floor buses with slight modification in chassis. Fig 13 Normal Floor Chassis Fig 14 Low Floor Chassis Though, high-floor bus can be equipped with bridge, rapidly deployed ramp, door flap or high platform to reduce conjunction and dwell time, simultaneous operation of the same bus on exclusive corridors (with high platforms) and on other corridors (without platform) would be problematic. However, resale value for vehicle owner would also be an issue if non-standard vehicles were prescribed. On the whole semi-low floor bus is most suitable because it gives almost all the benefits of low floor and high floor bus, in terms of capacity, dwell time, safety and economy. 2.2.3. Fuel type and Propulsion systems Fuel type and Propulsion systems affects the performance, ride quality, environmental impacts, overall cost, financial feasibility and service reliability. Local availability of fuel plays major roles in selection of the type of the fuel. There are different types of fuels like clean diesel; Standard diesel, Compressed Natural Gas (CNG), Hybrid –electric and Electricity are available which may use as a fuel of BRT vehicle. Government of Gujarat GIDB AMC AUDA CEPT University 19
  20. 20. Ahmedabad bus Rapid Transit System (ART) Bus Technology CNG is the best option for internal combustion engines because of the no sulphur and quite cleanly which emit lower emission. Storage of the CNG is done in on board cylinders. Normally refueling takes more time in CNG around 15 – 30 minutes. It is near to same as clean diesel as far as emission level is concern. With high speed compressor the filling time would come down to 5-8 minutes. One of the disadvantages is that CNG vehicle emits greenhouse gases, which are higher than clean diesel. Although CNG vehicles require different maintenance skill, the same is not an issue as over 200 buses are already operating in the city. In Ahmedabad, as per the recommendation of the Supreme Court, AMTS has been operating CNG buses. Gujarat state also has an advantage of CNG resource state and hence use of CNG would be an automatic choice for BRTS buses. Box 2 Features of CNG CNG reduces: § Benzene emissions by 97% compared to diesel and 99% compared to gasoline § Nitrogen oxides by 87% compared to diesel and 35-60% compared to gasoline § Carbon dioxide by 10% compared to diesel and 25% compared to gasoline § Carbon monoxide by 90-97% compared to gasoline § Non-methane hydrocarbons by 50-75% compared to gasoline § Lead and sulfur emissions by 100% compared to both diesel and gasoline § Smoke and particulate matter (PM10) significantly Advantages of CNG § Very easy on the engine, giving longer service life and lower maintenance costs. § Reduces the demand for finite petroleum supply § Reduces exhaust emission pollution § Improves fuel consumption and engine efficiency. When CNG and air in the right proportions are brought together, they mix thoroughly and rapidly, thereby improving the combustion efficiency, while the engine stays clean internally § Dry gaseous fuel does not dilute the lubricating oil, thus saving on oil filters and oil chargers Disadvantages of CNG § Driving complaints due to loss of power with CNG. Dynamometer tests indicate that CNG- fuelled vehicles have 10-15% lower power output than petrol engines. § Increased exhaust-valve wear in CNG-operated vehicles are anticipated due to the drying effect of the gaseous fuel § Limited service availability § High cost of conversion § The additional weight of CNG cylinders does pose a problem (Sources: Natural Gas Vehicle Coalition, EPA Office of Transportation and Air Quality, Natural Gas Vehicle Association) Number of Cylinders: Number of CNG Cylinders to be placed on board is an issue. For an urban bus with less than 300 kms of vehicle utilization, 8 cylinders would be sufficient. Government of Gujarat GIDB AMC AUDA CEPT University 20
  21. 21. Ahmedabad bus Rapid Transit System (ART) Bus Technology CNG Cylinder position Fig 15 CNG tank on the top of the bus CNG cylinders may be placed on the top of the bus. Though this is a safe option, bus body structure becomes very heavy due to cylinder’s load. Hence the cost of structure will increase. Further, refueling at height is difficult. Fuel pipes are at outer surface of the bus may create safety problems. Fig 16 CNG tank below the floor bottom CNG Cylinders are generally placed under the floor. In this case, refueling is very easy. Space inside the bus gets affected slightly. In case of leakage of gas safety problems may arise. Fuel pipes are below the bus and hence safe. At time of accident, cylinders below the floor are unsafe. 2.2.4. Vehicle Guidance No-step, no-gap boarding and alighting can make the boarding and alighting faster and easier. It also help customers carrying packages, having disabilities, and/or with children in strollers to board and alight from BRT vehicles quickly and comfortably. This would necessitate following three conditions. 1. Operate low floor buses, or equip high-floor or semi-low floor buses with bridge or rapidly deployed ramp 2. Create a high platform to the level of step/bus floor, and 3. Provide a vehicle guidance system There are mechanical, electronic and optical vehicle guidance systems available. The mechanical guidance system for buses utilize a pre-cast, concrete track with low vertical side rails or curbs that are contacted by laterally mounted guide wheels that, in turn, are connected to the vehicle steering system’s idler arm. More recent guidance systems use a light duty track embedded in the pavement to provide guidance and to serve as an electric return for the vehicle’s electric power system. The mechanical systems using curbs provide positive guidance and are safe at relatively high operating speeds (For details see BT Planning Guide) Advanced electronic technologies (ITS) provide lateral and even longitudinal vehicle guidance. These systems, as distinct from mechanical guidance technologies, replace physical infrastructure with inexpensive-to-implement magnetic or optical markers on or in the running way. Because of their ease of driver-steered vehicle entry and extraction, the operator can take over at any time and they are compatible with operating plans that feature mixed local and express operations on a single guide way. There are two types of electronic guidance systems Government of Gujarat GIDB AMC AUDA CEPT University 21
  22. 22. Ahmedabad bus Rapid Transit System (ART) Bus Technology currently in BRT operation: (1) optical, in which a video camera detects the position of a vehicle relative to painted lines on the pavement and steers via a servo motor in the steering mechanism, and (2) magnetic, that works essentially the same way as optical, but uses magnets buried in the pavement. (For details see BT Planning Guide). Optical systems can also be manually operated. A manual optical system is simply a visual target for the driver to focus upon while nearing the station. To prevent collision and damage to the platform rubber padding on the platform sides can be done. Feasibility of use of these in our condition needs further exploration. 2.2.5. Aesthetics, Identity and Branding A unique vehicle identity for a particular BRT service, achieved through paint schemes, colors, icons and/or design is a necessity. System branding and identity convey important customer information such as routing and stations served. Vehicle design can complement maps, signs, and other information sources, further enhancing transit Rider-ship. These aspects are being dealt with separately. Fig 17 Transit Line Diagram Government of Gujarat GIDB AMC AUDA CEPT University 22
  23. 23. Ahmedabad bus Rapid Transit System (ART) Bus Technology Fig 18 BRT Logo (Options) Ahmedabad bus Rapid Transit (ART) Name 2.3. Conclusions Based on the demand, technology assessment and current development in the industry following conclusions have been arrived at. a. The moderate demand levels estimated on the corridors can easily be handled by operating ‘Standard Bus’ with a capacity ranging from 65 to 80 in segregated bus-ways. From the operational point of view following appear reasonable to adopt. • Operate standard bus (60-80 person capacity) on BRTS. Make it special with design and comfort features • Operate a mixed fleet of standard bus (60-80 person capacity) and mini-bus (35- 40) on other AMTS routes to have flexibility in services. b. A Semi-low floor and low floor bus would suit the needs in Ahmedabad. c. Multiple wide doors (center and front) are recommended. d. At present CNG buses are in operation. Supreme Court directive, Gujarat’s advantage with CNG leads us to conclusion that CNG should be the fuel for BRTS Bus. e. A combination of AC and Non-AC buses will have to be operated on the Corridor. f. It is important to have a classy look that will give the public a good marketing image. Design aspects need more focus. g. Specifications, since buses are to be procured by private, need to be such that more than one manufacturer should be able to supply. Government of Gujarat GIDB AMC AUDA CEPT University 23
  24. 24. Ahmedabad bus Rapid Transit System (ART) Bus Technology 3. Indicative Technical specification Based on a review of various aspects related to d emand and technology, following 3 specification details have been arrived at for further discussion and decision. The specifications details below are in accordance with relevant Indian Standards, but conformity with relevant internationally recognized standards will be acceptable. These specifications cover requirements for single deck passenger buses which will be used on BRTS exclusive and BRTS mixed service routes in the city and suburban sections having a scheduled stop density of 2 stops per Km. The b uses shall be in accordance with the provisions in the Central Motor Vehicle Rules 2000 and Gujarat M.V. Rules 1989 or their latest revision applicable at the time of delivery as amended from time to time. The supplier shall get his vehicle type approved from the Competent Authority notified under Central Motor Vehicle Rule 126 (CMVR). 3.1. Dimensions, main characteristics and performance A summary of the general physical and performance characteristics are shown in the table below. The Technical specifications take precedence over summary information. Table 3-1 Physical and Performance Characteristics Characteristics Specification Remarks Physical standards Length (m) 11.5 +/- 0.5 Width (m) 2.6 Height (m) 3.25 Maximum Wheel base (m) 6.2 Maximum Front axle weight (t) 6 Minimum Rear axle weight (t) 10.2 Minimum Turning clearance circle Dia. 24 Maximum (outer) (m) Gross Vehicle Weight (t) 16.2 Minimum Un laden Curb Weight (t) 9.2 Maximum Maximum geared speed km/h 80 + or – 5 Torque Kgm/Nm 42 Kgm Minimum Engine speed at maximum torque 1600-1800 RPM Engine will be able to take load of AC, if attached Grade ability 2nd gear (%) 12.5 % Passenger Standards Number of passenger door 2 Minimum (A) Centre door: 1.5 m wide with folding double door Maximum (B) Exit door: 800 mm wide with folding double door Maximum Floor height unladen (mm) 780 First step from ground un laden 380 Maximum 3 Definitions: Gross Vehicle Weight (GVW) means technically permissible maximum weight declared by the manufacturer of the vehicle and certified by the test agency. Un laden Curb Weight means the weight of the vehicle in running order, unoccupied and un laden but complete with fuel, coolant, lubricant and tools. Turning Clearance Circle Diameter (outer) is the diameter of the largest circle beyond which are located the projections onto the supporting plane of all the points of the vehicle. (Ref. IS : 9435 – 1980) Passenger means a person other than driver or a member of the crew. CMVR means Central Motor Vehicle Rules Government of Gujarat GIDB AMC AUDA CEPT University 24
  25. 25. Ahmedabad bus Rapid Transit System (ART) Bus Technology (mm) Number of riser inside bus 2 Maximum Height of riser (mm) 200 – 225 Depth of first step (mm) 400 Minimum Depth of second step ( mm) 300 Minimum Saloon head room (mm) 1900 Minimum Gangway width (mm) 730 Minimum Seat width (mm) / per passenger 400 Seat Depth (mm) 400 Passenger carrying capacity 43 Minimum Power Plan and Systems Location Preferably Rear Fuel CNG Emission Standards Bharat stage III (Euro-III) Fuel tank Capacity (kg) 8 to 9 cylinders Minimum 100 kg gas at 200 bar. Fuel tank location Under Chassis Frame Turning Circle The turning circle diameter (outer) shall not exceed 24 m. Gross Vehicle Weight Shall be designed for 16,200 kgs. Minimum. Un laden curb weight Shall not exceed 9,200 kgs 3.2. Service life and Maintenance 3.2.1. Service Life The bus shall be designed to operate as a heavy-duty urban transit bus for at least fifteen years, under Ahmedabad operating conditions. It shall be capable of operating at least 80,000 kms per year, up till the fifteenth year. 3.2.2. Maintenance Schedule The maintenance tasks shall be related to Kilometer intervals and should, as far as possible, be in multiples of 4000 kms. (Higher intervals shall be preferred). These intervals shall be, as far as possible, consistent with the requirement of the mean kilometers to failure. The mean kilometers shall be greater than 45,000 kms for any type of failure may interrupt the service and cause discomfort to the passengers. However, for the failure which leads directly to the passenger’s or driver’s injury i.e. total loss of vehicle brakes, steering etc. the mean kilometers shall be greater than 10,00,000 kms. No maintenance tasks shall require any special skill. 3.2.3. Accessibility Assemblies/units shall be so mounted that they are easily accessible and can be removed without disturbing other components. Particular attention shall be given to easy accessibility of units such as fuel injection pump, injectors, water pump, fuel, and lubrication filter, inlet and exhaust manifolds, air compressor, radiator, CNG cylinder, starter, alternator, gear box, rear axle, propeller shaft, springs, brake valves etc. 3.2.4. Inter changeability Components with identical functions shall be interchangeable to the extent practicable. These components shall include, but not be limited to, passenger windows, window hardware, and interior, lamps, lenses, wheels and seat assemblies. Components with non-identical functions shall not be, or appear to be, interchangeable. Government of Gujarat GIDB AMC AUDA CEPT University 25
  26. 26. Ahmedabad bus Rapid Transit System (ART) Bus Technology 3.2.5. Mechanical System and Running Gear The bus under-frame shall be of robust construction, treated with anticorrosive coating. A sturdy towing eye rigidly fastened on the near side shall be provided at the front. The vehicle identification number shall be punched properly in such a manner that its pencil impression on paper is clearly visible even in 15th year, as it is required to be produced to Regional Transport Officer for fitness renewal every year. 3.3. Propulsion system and performance 3.3.1. Top Speed The bus shall have a top speed of 80 + 5 km/h on a straight level road at GVW and with all accessories operating. 3.3.2. Grade ability The bus shall be capable of climbing a gradient of minimum 12.5% in second gear at GVW with a grade ability of 15% preferred. Sufficient excess power shall be available to maintain a speed of about 50 km/h while climbing a 2.5% grade at GVW and with all accessories operating. 3.3.3. Power plant mounting The engine mounting shall be such as to minimize transmission of vibration to the bus structure. The engine foundation and mounting shall be so located as to facilitate easy accessibility and replacements. 3.3.4. Engine The bus shall be powered by a CNG engine mounted preferably at the rear of the vehicle having following specification. § Four-stroke CNG engine with rated gross power of 95 kW +/- 20 kW. § Peak torque 400 Nm minimum at less than 65% of max. engine speed. 60% preferred. § Emissions level to meet Bharat Stage- III (Euro-III). § Drive past noise level under full power and load to be limited to 78 dB (A). § Equipped with pre-cleaner and efficient dry type air filter, latter fitted with a depression indicator to indicate when servicing is required. § The engine shall be cooled by a water based, closed type cooling system that when properly maintained does not permit boiling or coolant loss during the most severe operations possible with the bus loaded to GVW and with ambient temperature upto 430. Good quality thermostat shall be fitted and it shall be easily accessible for replacement. Equipped with temperature controlled cooling fan operated with electrical or hydrostatic clutch. Coolant system shall have a header/de - aeration tank and top up shall only be possible from inside the bus. § Equipped with sensors for electrical engine oil pressure and coolant temperature gauges. § Equipped with heavy-duty replaceable, filters for efficient operation. The engine oil filter shall be dual type i.e. full flow filter coupled, with by-pass filter. Government of Gujarat GIDB AMC AUDA CEPT University 26
  27. 27. Ahmedabad bus Rapid Transit System (ART) Bus Technology 3.3.5. CNG Cylinder Eight to nine cylinders of CNG will be provided below the chassis frame. Each has about 12 kg gas at 200 Bar. 3.3.6. Transmission Transmission shall be through a single plate dry clutch of minimum 350 mm dia and with non-asbestos facings. Clutch pedal release load shall be 20 kg. + 5 kg. Gearbox shall be synchromesh with at least five forward speeds (six speeds optional) of suitable ratios. 3.3.7. Propeller shafts The propeller shafts shall be of minimum 4500 Nm torque capacity. Each propeller shaft shall be replaceable without disturbing the other propeller shafts, cross members or companion flange. Provision for easy replacement of worn out universal joints and bearings shall be preferred. 3.3.8. Rear Axle Rear Axle shall be fully floating, single reduction pinion and bevel hypoid drive type. The axle capacity shall be 10.2 tonnes minimum. The differential gear assembly shall preferably be such that it can be removed from front as a unit. Air pressure brake pipes shall be located in such a way that they are not fouling with other parts and are not susceptible to damage due to failure of other components. 3.3.9. Front Axle Front Axle shall be heavy "I" Section alloy steel forging of minimum 6 tonnes capacity with reverse Elliot design. King pins shall be of robust design. The front axle geometry shall be so designed as to facilitate easy steering and avoid excessive/uneven wear on tyres. 3.3.10. Steering The steering position shall be on the right hand of the bus. The steering system shall be integral type power assisted and sufficiently rugged in design to withstand peak road shocks without risk of component failure or inadvertent alteration of steering geometry. Fatigue life of all steering components shall be designed to exceed the vehicle life. The steering column shall be provided with at least one universal joint to allow rake adjustment of the steering wheel. 3.3.11. Suspension Bus suspension shall be pneumatic type and shall have a load rating compatible with that of axles. The front suspension may be by taper-leaf springs having Weveller type ends, or an equivalent low maintenance design, only on a front-engine bus. The mounting elements of the suspension system shall last the life of the bus without major overhaul or replacement, when properly operated, serviced and maintained as prescribed by the supplier. Hydraulic type double acting shock absorbers shall be fitted on both the axles to take vertical damping. Shock absorber mountings shall be such as to facilitate easy removal/fitment and maintenance. Progressive bump rubbers and rebound straps shall be fitted to restrict axle travel under extreme dynamic loads. Government of Gujarat GIDB AMC AUDA CEPT University 27
  28. 28. Ahmedabad bus Rapid Transit System (ART) Bus Technology 3.3.12. Wheels and Tyres Radial tyres (of adequate load capacity) shall be fitted on the front and rear axles. The tyres shall be fresh from factory and shall not be more than six months old at the time of delivery. Tyres of size 10.00 x 20, 16 ply rating, shall be preferred. Wheels shall be 10 stud types with spigot location. 3.3.13. Lubrication Lubricating points shall be provided for all relevant elements of the steering, transmission and suspension systems. These points shall be easily accessible for lubricating with power-operated machines. "Hydraulic" type grease nipples shall be provided. 3.4. Braking System 3.4.1. Performance The foundation braking system shall provide a minimum retardation for a full laden bus of 0.5 g. under emergency application without assistance from any retarder or exhaust brake. The emergency brake shall provide a minimum retardation for a fully laden bus of 0.25 g. The parking brake shall be able to hold the bus stationary on a gradient of 16%, irrespective of its load or the direction it is facing. 3.4.2. Service Brake/Parking Brake Fully compressed air brake system with drum type foundation brakes shall be provided for all four wheels. Vertically split dual-line system with spring brake actuators on rear axle only, shall be incorporated. Pressure gauges for both circuits, and low-pressure audiovisual warning indicators shall be provided in the driver's cab. § Hand brake shall be of graduated hand control type operating with the brake actuators on rear wheels. § Effective air dryer shall be provided to enhance the life of brake units. § Manual drain valves shall be provided on the air reservoirs. § The foundation brake assemblies shall be fitted with proven automatic slack adjusters. § Air pressure line shall be treated for corrosion resistance inside & outside. § The system shall also include quick release valve for rear spring brakes. 3.5. Electrical System The system shall be 24 volt DC double pole wiring type proffered but single pole negative ground accepted and suitably by means of circuit breakers. The battery main cable and bridge connection shall be enclosed in high density PVC sleeves. The junction box shall be protected to prevent ingress o water. A battery-isolating switch (main f switch) shall be provided near driver seat. 3.5.1. Batteries Four nos. of 6 V low maintenance batteries of min. 150 AH capacity at 20 hour rate of discharge shall be supplied. Government of Gujarat GIDB AMC AUDA CEPT University 28
  29. 29. Ahmedabad bus Rapid Transit System (ART) Bus Technology 3.5.2. Alternator/starter An alternator dynamically balanced of minimum 45 amps. Shall be fitted. The starter motor shall be axial type flange mounted with minimum rating of 3.5 KW both theses units shall be so located as to minimize ingress of oil or rain water into them. 3.6. Instrument panel The panel should be easily accessible to the driver and should consist of: 1. speedometer with kilometer counter 2. twin air pressure gauge 3. flashing/direction indicator with breakdown switch 4. Audible buzzer or warning lamp for low air pressure. 5. A warming lamp for charging rate if batteries. 6. dipper switch 7. Temp. gauge 8. Engine oil pressure gauge. (Electrical) 9. Tachometer to indicator engine RPM 3.7. Body Specification Specifications for Body shell, Interior are to be evolved keeping in view the special service identity 3.7.1. Headroom Headroom in the gangway shall be no less than 1900 mm. and shall not exceed 2100 mm. 3.7.2. Noise level and engine cover § The noise level at any seating position in the bus shall not exceed 82 dB (A) during maximum acceleration. § The design of the engine cover shall be such as to minimize the transmission of noise and heat insofar as that is practicable. It shall be sufficiently sealed to minimize leakage of hot air and gases. Engine cover insulation shall not absorb oil or hydraulic fluid and shall be frame retardant. 3.7.3. Entrance and Exit § Entrance doorway shall be in the centre of bus and exit doorway shall be in front of front axle. Bi - Fold doors are required to be fitted in the doorways. § Exit doorway openings' width shall be minimum 650 but preferably up to 800 mm. Entrance doorway openings width shall be around 1500 mm. § The height of the first step in the doorway above ground level in the un laden condition shall be 380mm (+ 0 mm - 10 mm.). Two further step risers may be provided to reach the floor of the b us, each being of no more than 225 mm. height with 200 mm. preferred. The depth of exit door of these steps shall be no less than 300 mm. and for entrance door depth of first step at least 400 mm and for 2nd step at least 300 mm. § Step edges shall be clearly marked in a contrasting and durable finish. Step surfaces shall be angled to shed water and have a durable non-slip finish. Government of Gujarat GIDB AMC AUDA CEPT University 29
  30. 30. Ahmedabad bus Rapid Transit System (ART) Bus Technology 3.7.4. Ventilation Primary ventilation of the bus shall be by means of opening windows. Primary ventilation shall be supplemented by a passive means of air extraction from a moving bus located towards the rear of the roof or in the rear dome. The Forced ventilation system can capable of changing the air in the bus 20 times per hour shall be provided. 3.8. Facilities for physically challenged Facilities for the physically challenged needs to be planned as part of BRTS design. In case of Mumbai, BEST in its undertaking to Honorable Bombay High Court, had agreed and adopted the provisions as presented in Box-3. Box 3 Provisions by BEST for Physically Challenged • Three left side seats are exclusively reserved for as priority seats for handicapped persons. • Boarding and alighting for disabled persons is permitted by the front door. • The priority reserved seats are prominently labeled as being reserved for disabled persons. • Adequate hand rails and stanchions are provided at the entrance for disabled persons in a configuration which allows disabled persons to grab such assist from outside the vehicle while starting to board and to continue using such assists throughout the boarding/alighting process until the handicapped persons reach the designated seating area. • The first step height at the front is lowered to 400 mm. • Ring bracket and Velcro Rexine belt is provided for keeping crutches properly secured. • Foot steps are colored. • Additional stanchion is provided on the seat frame of single seat reserved for handicapped. BRTS Ahmedabad will at least have the above mentioned as minimum provisions. Conclusions: The specifications above are indicative and made based on the current developments in the automobile industry. The interaction with the industry planned on October 28, 2005 is expected to bring forth some additional information on several aspects. Based on the discussions final specifications will be arrived at. Government of Gujarat GIDB AMC AUDA CEPT University 30