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Senior Grad Project
 

Senior Grad Project

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  • Enthusiasts can learn to become healthy and stay fit without wasting the time and money it costs to join a gym.
  • Throughout my presentation, I will review all of the following topics including physical activity and exercise, BMI, your daily intake, recovery days, stretching and finally my application.
  • In the words of Medline Plus, “Physical activity includes any activity that causes your body to work harder than normal. It describes activities that are beyond your daily routine of sitting, standing, and walking up stairs.” This is one of the most important factors to staying healthy, in or out of the gym.
  • 30minutes per day-,2-3 times per week, is the minimum amount of physical activity everyone should get per week. Bumping the time up to 60 minutes per day is the amount recommended for weight loss.
  • Why is physical activity so important for us. Physical activity plays many important roles in our lives such asIncreasing our fitness level-Helping us manage our weight-Burning unwanted calories-Increasing fitness level decreases the risk of being diagnosed with heart disease, colon cancers and type 2 diabetes. It also improves our self esteem as well as reduces feelings of depression and anxiety.
  • As well as us prevent unwanted weight gain, physical activity also improves our self esteem as well as reduces feelings of depression and anxiety, and lets us live a longer, happier life.
  • Here are some simpleeffective exercises that can be done at home. This is a basic understanding of what parts of the body are worked on the most. In upcoming slides, I will show you pictures of how each exercise is performed and a diagram of the muscles that are effected the most.Pushups workout your.Chest, triceps (arms), and shouldersChin UpsBiceps (arms), back musclesReverse Chin UpsLatissimusdorsi (back), Biceps (arms)CrunchesAbdominalsSit UpsAbdominals, quadriceps (core)Triceps DipsTriceps (arms)
  • For pushups, Lay facedown with your feet together. Lift your weight until your elbows are locked. Lower your body until your chest almost touches the floor. Raise your body back until your elbows are locked again. Repeat.
  • To perform chin ups, with your hands facing away from you, grip the bar and lift until your chin is above the bar. Lower yourself down slowly and repeat.
  • Reverse chin ups areExactlylike chin ups except your hands should be facing you as you grab the bar. (point out the latissimusdorsi) remember this muscle.
  • When you are performing crunches, you want to lay on your back with your legs bent at least 90 degrees to the floor. Without touching your legs, raise your body, trying to touch your knees with your chest.
  • Sit ups are almost identical to crunches. The only difference for sit ups is that you want to keep your feet placed on the ground. Lay on your back with your legs bent but your feet still on the ground. Lift your body and touch your chest to your knees.
  • Finally, to do triceps dips, Holdyour weight above a gap with your hands supporting one end and your ankles supporting the other. Lower your body by bending your elbows until they are about 90 degrees. Raise your weight back up until your elbows are locked and repeat.
  • The official definition of isometrics is “exercise or a program of exercises to strengthen specific muscles or shape the figure by pitting one muscle or part of the body against another or against an immovable object in a strong but motionless action, as by pressing the fist of one hand against the palm of the other or against a desk.”In my own words, isometrics is developing muscles from simply holding a flex.
  • This is a perfect example of an isometric workout. Everybody together, follow the directions. Bend your arm at the elbow at a 45 degree angle.From the shoulder to the elbow your arm should be straight along the side of your body.Imagine you are holding a large weight in your hand.Now with your arm flexed, tense your bicep as hard as you can-WITHOUT MOVING YOUR ARM!You’ll feel the blood rushing to the muscle and feel it getting warm and tired.You’ve just completed an isometric exercise!
  • These two very famous actors, Arnold Schwarzenegger and Bruce Lee both used isometrics as a way to exercise. Do you remember the back muscles I showed you earlier? Check out Bruce Lee’s!
  • BMI. BMI is a measure thatindicates a healthy height to weight ratio. Under 25 percent is normal, over 35 percent is overweight, and over 35 percent is considered obese.
  • This is the formula for calculating your BMI. First multiply your weight by 4.88. Then divide your answer by your height squared. The decimal you get will determine if you are considered an average healthy weight for your height. (show example)
  • This is a BMI chart. I am sure you have all seen this in health class. Weight runs along the top and height runs down the side. All your have to do is match up both your squares and it will skip the math for you and immediately give you a ballpark estimate of your BMI. Although this chart is a good average for a comparison, it may not always be accurate.Athletes sometimes fall under the overweight category.Because athletes have more muscle and muscle is heavier than fat, the ratio becomes offset and the athletes are considered overweight according to a standard BMI chart.
  • I read about this in a news article shortly after choosing my topic. It is an article about how french women stay in shape without the gym. 1. “Don’t save your steps, multiply them!”They say instead of parking real close to your destination, park far away in an easy to find spot so the walk will help you burn some calories.2. “Incorporate simple resistance movements into your daily routine.”Simple isometrics while your caught in traffic is definitely better for you than road rage.3. “Take care of your core.”It is important to take care of your abdominals. This holds all of your vital organs, gives you posture, and a healthy spine.4. “Acquaint yourself with small to moderate free weights. (3-5 lbs.)”“Short but focused movements with small weights is a good way to preserve upper body tone and bone density and supplement the cardiovascular benefits of an active lifestyle.”
  • Average DietThese are the decisions of what and when to eat for everyday people, not professional body builders.A healthy intake for an average male is about 2,000 to 2,500 calories per day.These calories should be paced throughout the day and taken all in one sitting.The average of what a male really eats is 2,450 to 2,618.This shows that the low average of what a male eats and the high average of what he should eat are almost equal. This only leaves room for unwanted weight gain.
  • The same situation applies for women. Women are suggested to eat 1,800 to 2,000 calories however, the low average for what they really eat is 2,000. The average high for what women actually eat is 2,500 so again this weight gain is completely unnecessary.
  • Here are some alternative methods to working out that still burn plenty of calories.Jumping RopeYou can burn 1,000 calories from jumping rope for an hourIt is Inexpensive equipment. You Only a few feet of open space to use itWith StairsWalking or running up and down flights of stairs works your leg muscles as well as strengthens your heart and respiratory systemBurns caloriesRunning the vacuum-running the vacuum can burn up to 165 calories per hour. Rumor has it, for women, if you wear high heels while vacuuming, it burns more calories however I was not able to find information to back this up
  • Mowing your lawnBurns 325 calories per hour as long as it is a push mower!Shoveling your drivewayBurns 354 calories per hourRaking leavesBurns236 calories per hour If you think about it, it probably takes a minimum of an hour to perform any of these chores. So don’t pay someone else to perform themfor you. These are excellent ways to stay fit year round while keeping up with your yard work.
  • These are all good ways to burn a bunch of calories without going to the gym. Most can be done right in your own home like stretching, aerobics, riding your bike. A lot of people most likely already perform some of these activities and they don’t even realize how many calories they are burning.
  • The Milk Jug Workout
  • So some reasons why people use a milk jug workout includeGoing on vacationWhen other resistance workouts are unavailableChange your routineThe body adapts to certain workouts if they are used often enoughThis exercise helps exercise smaller stabilizer muscles your body doesn’t normally useIt also helps maintain good form and balance
  • Finding your personal carbohydrate needs When someone is looking to gain some more muscle mass, it is recommended they bump up their carb intake to 60 or 65 percent of their diet. To find this you take your actual daily amount of calories and multiply it by .6(Continued on next slide)
  • For example, a person person on a 2,500 calorie diet needs 1,500 calories to come from carbs. Well nutrition labels are not going to tell you how many calories of carbs there are in your meal so you need to divide your answer by 4. This will express the amount of carbohydrates you need in grams, which the nutrition facts DO tell you. A few simple steps and you see that a person on a 2,500 calorie diet needs 375 grams of carbohydrates per day in order to help boost their muscle mass.
  • Calculating your protein requirements. 1.4 to 1.8 grams of protein is suggested per kilogram of your body weight. In other words, you should be eating 1.4 to 1.8 grams of protein for every kilogram you weigh. The 1.4 to 1.8 gram range comes from the Applied Physiology Research Lab at Kent State University.
  • Everyone get out a piece of paper and a pen, this is my class activity so we are going to do this together. -If you do not feel comfortable with any of the following steps, please stop participating immediately.First-write down your weight. If you do not want to write down your weight, feel free to write down any weight. It will still work it just will not be your own personal protein requirements.Second-Divide it by 2.2 to convert it to kilograms. Next-Multiply your weight in kilograms by any number between 1.4 to 1.8. This is the high end and low end range of suggested grams of protein.--The number you get should be the suggested amount of grams of protein you should be eating on a daily basis.
  • As a comparison of costs, let’s take the average cost it takes to join a local gym. -It’s going to be 50 to 200 dollars to join right off the bat.--Then at least another 30 to 50 dollars a month to keep your membership activated. -Over the course of a year, your looking at spending 400 to 800 dollars to be part of a gym.--This does not even include personal trainers or gas it takes to get there.
  • The cost to work out at home-A minimum of 0! Not one dollar.--Using all natural body weight exercises such as isometrics, as well as using alternative weights, such as old milk jugs, will not cost you a penny.
  • A rough estimate of the max it will cost you to work out at home is about 70 dollars or less. Yoga mats are not necessary, however if you only have hardwood floors, you really don’t have a choice. A chin up bar- 25 bucks can get you a nice chin up bar that will last you decades.8 bucks is on the more expensive end for a jump rope. It’s probably the cheapest and most efficient piece of equipment you can buyA light set of weights-like 3 to 5 pounds for walking or leg exercises cost around 20 bucks.--One payment of 70 dollars will last most of this equipment at least 10 years. That’s less than part of the gym’s initial membership fee.
  • You’ll notice the workout in my application includes a recovery day every other dayWhy are these days so important?When you workout, you rip muscle tissue. Recovery daysgive your body a chance to replenish damaged tissues--It also helps prevent overtraining syndrome. Overtraining syndrome (increasingly intense exercises with little or no rest) can result in feelings of depression, staleness, decrease in sports performance, and increase risk of injury
  • Stretching Before a workoutLoosens up all your musclesStarts to get your blood pumping, drawing more oxygen to your musclesThis also strengthen ligamentsFor a pre-warm up, tense your muscles for a few seconds, almost like isometrics, then release and repeat this step a few times.This makes the heart pump more blood making muscles more effective
  • Stretching After a workoutKeeps your muscles from tensing back up immediately after your workout--It also helps with muscle soreness in the future.Do not workout when your body is sore. Stretch and give your body time to fully heal.Stretching daily, especially in the morning or night, will help increase overall flexibility
  • Some good stretch examples that are good before and after a workout include-joint rotations-you just rotate all your limbs and joints in a circle, then back in the opposite directionCalf stretches-The woman in the picture is performing a nice calf stretch. Another good one is pressing the bottom of your toes up against a wall while keeping your heel on the ground.Inner thigh stretches-this includes stretches like butterflies-Should and elbow-when you reach your arm up over your head and begin to follow your hand down your spine.Last, fingers and wrist-interlocking your fingers and reaching up for the sky is a good stretch for your hands
  • For my application, I created an at-home-fitness magazine. I used men’s health and women’s health as my example to follow to create my magazine. Inside includes a 12 week beginner workout plan. This plan divides each workout according to specific muscle groups. Basically you do a different routine everyday for the first three weeks. On your fourth week, you start back at the first workout and the cycle repeats itself. There is also information about recovery days, calorie protein and carbohydrate intakes, as well as advertisements. I spoofed all of my advertisements to avoid breaking any copyright laws. (show class page by page)

Senior Grad Project Senior Grad Project Presentation Transcript

  • Staying Fit without Going to the Gym
    Kevin Sicilia
  • Thesis Statement
    Enthusiasts can learn to become healthy and stay fit without wasting the time and money it costs to join a gym.
  • Overview
    Physical Activity
    Basic Exercises/Exercise Methods
    BMI
    Alternate Methods of Burning Calories
    Intake
    Recovery Days
    Stretching
    Application
  • Physical Activity
    “Physical activity includes any activity that causes your body to work harder than normal. It describes activities that are beyond your daily routine of sitting, standing, and walking up stairs.”-Medline Plus
    US Preventive Services Task Force. Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans: Recommendation statement. 2008. Accessed March 1, 2009.
  • How Much is Necessary
    30 minutes per day=necessary
    60 minutes per day=optional
    Http://www.mypyramid.gov/pyramid/physical_activity_amount.html
  • Why is Physical Activity so Important?
    Increasing our fitness level
    Helping us manage our weight
    Burning unwanted calories
    http://www.mypyramid.gov/pyramid/physical_activity_why.html
  • Importance (continued)
    Helping us prevent weight gain
    Improving our self esteem
    And finally, helping us live a longer, happier life.
    http://www.mypyramid.gov/pyramid/physical_activity_why.html
  • Muscles Benefitted from Basic Exercises
    Pushups
    Chin Ups
    Reverse Chin Ups
    Crunches
    Sit Ups
    Triceps Dips
    Delavier, Frederic. Strength Training Anatomy. Paris, France: Editions Vigot, 2001. Print.
  • Push UpsDelavier (pg47)
  • Chin UpsDelavier pg (58)
  • Reverse Chin UpsDelavier (pg 60)
  • CrunchesDelavier (pg 110)
  • Sit UpsDelavier (pg 111)
  • Triceps DipsDelavier (pg 22)
  • Isometrics
    “Exercise or a program of exercises to strengthen specific muscles or shape the figure by pitting one muscle or part of the body against another or against an immovable object in a strong but motionless action, as by pressing the fist of one hand against the palm of the other or against a desk.”
    -To me, isometrics develops muscles from simply holding a flex
    http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/isometric+exercise
  • Isometric Bicep Contraction
    Bend your arm at the elbow at a 45 degree angle.
    From the shoulder to the elbow your arm should be straight along the side of your body.
    Imagine you are holding a large weight in your hand.
    Now with your arm flexed, tense your bicep as hard as you can-WITHOUT MOVING YOUR ARM!
    You’ll feel the blood rushing to the muscle and feel it getting warm and tired.
    You’ve just completed an isometric exercise!
    http://www.isometric-training.com/isometric-exercise.html
  • Isometrics at Work
    Arnold Schwarzenegger
    Bruce Lee
    http://www.isometric-training.com/images/200px-
    The.Way.Of.The.Dragon.1972.Bruce.Lee.flex.front.jpg
    http://www.moonbattery.com/archives/arnold-schwarzenegger.jpg
  • BMI
    Body Mass Index
    It is a measure that compares your height and weight to see
    if your are a healthy size
    20%-25%= Average
    25%+ = Overweight
    35%+ = Obese
    http://jcem.endojournals.org/cgi/reprint/85/8/2748.pdf
  • BMI
    BMI=Mass (lbs) x 4.88
    (height(ft))^2
    Example:
    140 lbs x 4.88= 21.9%=Normal Weight
    5.58 ft^2
    http://jcem.endojournals.org/cgi/reprint/85/8/2748.pdf
  • BMI Chart http://www.theveindoctor.com/body/images/diabetes_BMI_chart.gif
  • 4 Ways French Women Stay Thin (Without the Gym)
    1. “Don’t save your steps, multiply them!”
    2. “Incorporate simple resistance movements into your daily routine.”
    3. “Take care of your core.”
    4. “Acquaint yourself with small to moderate free weights. (3-5 lbs.)”
    http://shine.yahoo.com/event/autumninnewjeans/4-ways-french-women-stay-thin-without-the-gym-515174/
  • Other Methods
    Average Diet
    A healthy intake for an average male is about 2,000 to 2,500 calories per day.
    Pace yourself
    The average of what a male really eats is 2,450 to 2,618.
    http://www.associaltedcontent.com/article/837847/how_many_calories_should_we_eat_.html
  • Dieting Female
    -Women are required
    to eat 1,800 to 2,000
    calories per day.
    On average, women
    tend to get a
    minimum of 2,000
    calories.
    The average high for a
    woman is 2,500 calories
    per day
    http://www.associaltedcontent.com/article/837847/how_many_calories_should_we_eat_.html
  • No Gym Necessary
    Jumping Rope
    Stairs
    Running the Vacuum
    http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/44540/gym_alternatives_tips_for_staying_fit.html?cat=5
  • Even More Methods
    Mowing your lawn (push mower)
    325*
    Shoveling your driveway
    354*
    Raking leaves
    236*
    *equals per hour
    http://www.nutristrategy.com/activitylist4.htm
  • http://www.mypyramid.gov/pyramid/calories_used_table.html
  • Milk Jug Workout
    http://www.bodybuilding.com/fun/wotw20.htm
  • Milk Jug Workout
    Reasons why people use a milk jug workout
    Mostly for vacation
    Change your routine
    Helps maintain good
    form and balance
    http://www.bodybuilding.com/fun/wotw20.htm
  • Finding Your Personal Carb Needs
    In order to bulk up a little, you need 60-65 percent of your calories to come from carbs.
    Calories from carbs per day=daily calories x recommended carbohydrate intake (60%)
    Keller & Schuler (pg 279)
  • Finding Your Personal Carb Needs
    Ex. 2,500 calories x .60 = 1,500 calories from carbs
    Divide your total by 4 to find the number of grams needed each day
    1,500 / 4 = 375 grams of carbs per day*
    *(based on a 2,500 calorie diet)
    Keller & Schuler (pg 279)
  • Calculate Your Protein Requirements
    First, divide your weight by 2.2 to find its equivalence in kilograms.
    Then multiply the number of suggested grams of protein. “1.4 – 1.8 grams per kilogram of body weight” (Applied Physiology Research Lab at Kent State University)
    Keller & Schuler (pg 285)
  • Calculate Your Protein Requirements
    Take me for example
    140 lbs. / 2.2 = 63.6 kilograms
    High end: 63.6 kg x 1.8 g/kg = 114.5 g of protein daily
    Low end: 63.6 kg x 1.4 g/kg = 80 g of protein daily
    Keller & Schuler (pg 285)
  • Average Cost to Join a Gym
    1 time membership setup fee:$50-$200
    Monthly fee:$30-$50
    A total of $400-$800 dollars per year to be a member of a gym
    Does not include personal trainers or gas to get there
    http://www.savingwithoutabudget.com/health-beauty/do-you-really-need-a-gym-membership/
  • Cost Range to Work Out at Home
    Minimum:$0
    Using natural body weight exercises
    Using random objects around the house as weights. Ex. Rice, canned goods, milk jugs, old tires
    http://www.bodybuilding.com/fun/wotw20.htm
  • Cost Range to Work Out at Home
    Maximum: <$70 (one payment)
    Yoga mat-$15-necessary for working out on hardwood floors
    Chin up bar-$25
    Jump Rope-$8
    Light Set of Weights-$20
    http://www.sportsauthority.com/product/index.jsp?productId=3372485 http:www.yoga.comstoreproduct.aspProduct_ID=4141&Category_ID=295 http://www.karatedepot.com/tr-ex-15.html http://www.sportsauthority.com/product/index.jsp?productId=3085336&CAWELAID=251529093
  • Recovery Days
    You’ll notice the workout in my application includes a recovery day every other day
    Why are these days so important?
    Replenish damaged tissues
    Prevent overtraining syndrome
    http://sportsmedicine.about.com/cs/overtraining/a/aa062499a.htm
  • Stretching Before
    Before a workout
    Loosens up all your muscles
    Starts to get your blood pumping, drawing more oxygen to your muscles
    Tense your muscles for a few seconds, almost like isometrics, then release.
    http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/1222418/the_importance_of_stretching_before.html?cat=5
  • Stretching After
    After a workout
    Keeps your muscles from tensing back up immediately after your workout
    Helps with muscle soreness in the future.
    Do not workout when your body is sore. Stretch and give your body time to fully heal.
    Stretching daily will help increase overall flexibility
    http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/1222418/the_importance_of_stretching_before.html?cat=5
  • Stretching Examples
    Good for before and after a workout
    Joint rotations
    Calf stretches
    Inner Thigh (butterflies)
    Shoulder and elbow (hand down spine)
    Fingers and Wrist (interlock hands over head)
    http://www.netfit.co.uk/stretching_cool_down.htm http://www.soccerdivas.com/stretching.htm
  • Application
    Home Fitness Magazine
    Includes
    12 week beginner full body
    workout plan
    Grouping certain exercises
    according to muscles
    Recovery days
    Advertisement
  • Works Cited
    http://www.the-fitness-motivator.com/muscle-groups.html
    The Fitness Motivator.com
    http://www.bodybuilding.com/
    Body Building.com
    • Delavier, Frederic. Strength Training Anatomy. Paris, France: Editions Vigot, 2001. Print
    • Stoppani, Jim. Encyclopedia of Muscle and Strength. United States of America, 2006. Print
  • Works Cited
    http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1608/is_10_17/ai_80309860/pg_2/?tag=content;col1
    http://steadfastfinances.com/blog/2010/01/05/why-pay-gym-membership-personal-trainer-fees-when-youtube-is-free/
    http://www.beachbody.com/product/fitness_programs/p90x.do?code=P90XDOTCOM
    www.newspapersoc.org.uk/Files/life-is-local.ppt
  • Works Cited
    http://www.google.org/recharge/dashboard/calculator
    http://www.eia.doe.gov/oil_gas/petroleum/data_publications/wrgp/mogas_home_page.html
    http://www.gotmilk.com/#/home/benefits/
    Clinical Guidelines on the Identification, Evaluation, and Treatment of Overweight and Obesity in Adults.  National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. June 17, 1998
  • Works Cited
    Understanding Nutrition,  by Whitney and Rolfes.  Uses NHANES II classification.
    National Population Health Survey 1996/1997.  (Canadian data n=77,403  age & sex stratified.)
    Nutrition Canada, Anthropometry Report 1980 of data from Nutrition-Canada Survey 1971.  (n=13,691)
    Kuczmarski RJ, Flegal KM. Criteria for definition of overweight in transiation: background and recommendations for the United States. Am J ClinNutr 2000; 72:1075-1081.
  • Works Cited
    AMProshot. Muscle Girl Stretch. 2007. Photograph. Flickr.
    Astrycula. The Scale Series Says: Fat. 2008. Photograph. Flickr.
    Dave In T O. Keep Off My Lawn. 2008. Photograph. Flickr.
    F De Feltro, Claudia. DecoTape. 2008. Photograph. Flickr.
  • Works Cited
    Floralgal. Al Dente. 2009. Photograph. Flickr.
    Fonsico's. Beach Workout. 2007. Photograph. Flickr.
    Fuzzirella. Day 066. 2008. Photograph. Flickr.
    Groos, Daniel. Lifting Weights. 2009. Photograph. Flickr.
    HA! Designs-Artbyheather. Vintage Epherma. 2008. Photograph. Flickr.
  • Works Cited
    Joan Vincent Canto. Extreme Diet. 2008. Photograph. Flickr.
    Joan Vincent Canto. T-Bone Steak. 2008. Photograph. Flickr.
    JunkByJo. 34/366 February 3 '08. 2008. Photograph. Flickr.
    Kagey B. Belly's Gonna Get Ya. 2006. Photograph. Flickr.
  • Works Cited
    KeyAnna68. One Arm Stretch. 2008. Photograph. Flickr.
    Kip Photographie. Day 130/365: The Feast. 2008. Photograph. Flickr.
    Konrad. Stretching in the Night. 2006. Photograph. Flickr.
    Lecia/A Day That Is Dessert. Bench Monday: Milk Box Edition. 2009. Photograph. Flickr.
  • Works Cited
    Quarlo. Juicy LB. 2007. Photograph. Flickr.
    "Body Building." Body Building. Body Building, 2010. Web.http://www.bodybuilding.com/
     "Got Milk." Got Milk. California Milk Processor Board, 2009. Web.http://www.gotmilk.com/#/home/.
    Fohner, Mike. "Muscle Groups." The Fitness Motivator. The Fitness Motivator, 2010. Web. <http://www.the-fitness-motivator.com/muscle-groups.html>.
  • Works Cited
    Nowlin, Derrick. "Shopping for a Personal Trainer." CBS. Gale, Cengage Learning, 2008. Webhttp://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1608/is_10_17/ai_80309860/pg_2/?tag=content;col1
    Nowlin, Derrick. "Shopping for a Personal Trainer: Following These Six Steps Can Mean The Difference Between Failure and a Great- Looking Body." CBS. Gale, Cengage Learning, 2008. Web. <http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1608/is_10_17/ai_80309860/pg_2/?tag=content;col1>.
    "P90X." P90X. Product Partners, 2010. Web.http://www.beachbody.com/product/fitness_programs/p90x.do?code=P90XDOTCOM.
  • Works Cited
    SF, Matt. "Why Pay Gym Membership & Personal Trainer Fees When YouTube Is Free?" Steadyfast Finances. 2010. Web. <Why Pay Gym Membership & Personal Trainer Fees when YouTube is Free?>.
    "U.S Retail Gasoline Prices." EIA. Http://www.eia.doe.gov/oil_gas/petroleum/data_publications/wrgp/mogas_home_page.html. Web. <http://www.eia.doe.gov/oil_gas/petroleum/data_publications/wrgp/mogas_home_page.html>.
    "Vehicle Calculator." Google.org. Google, 2009. Web.http://www.google.org/recharge/dashboard/calculator.
  • Works Cited
     Jones, Jug. Wilson? 2007. Photograph. Flickr.
     La Photographie Nashville. Groom Party. 2008. Photograph. Flickr.
     EightJs. Triple Tuxes. 2006. Photograph. Flickr.
     Patrickjoust. 2009. Photograph. Flickr.
     Bobbyshots, Robin. Eat More Fruits and Nuts. 2010. Photograph. Flickr.
  • Works Cited
     Schnepf, Zack. Edge of the Earth. 2008. Photograph. Flickr.
     StOOpidgErl. KILL HillBILLY. 2006. Photograph. Flickr.
     LalliSig. ALEXANDRA. 2008. Photograph. Flickr.
     Shotbart. TEETH INVADERS. 2007. Photograph. Flickr.
     Boukesalverda. Untitled. 2008. Photograph. Flickr.