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Gradle in a Polyglot World

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Using Gradle to build projects in a polyglot world - an introduction for Gradle newbies.

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Gradle in a Polyglot World

  1. 1. GRADLE IN A POLYGLOT WORLD Schalk Cronjé
  2. 2. ABOUT ME Email: Twitter / Ello : @ysb33r ysb33r@gmail.com Gradle plugins authored/contributed to: VFS, Asciidoctor, JRuby family (base, jar, war etc.), GnuMake, Doxygen
  3. 3. GRADLE Not just for building JVM projects
  4. 4. GRADLE DSL Underlying language is Groovy You don’t need to be a Groovy expert to be a Gradle power user Groovy doesn’t need ; in most cases Groovy does more with less punctuation, making it an ideal choice for a DSL In most cases lines that do not end on an operator is considered a completed statement.
  5. 5. GROOVY VS JAVA In Groovy: All class members are public by default No need to create getters/setters for public fields Both static & dynamic typing supported def means Object
  6. 6. CALLING METHODS class Foo { void bar( def a,def b ) {} } def foo = new Foo() foo.bar( '123',456 ) foo.bar '123', 456 foo.with { bar '123', 456 }
  7. 7. CALLING METHODS WITH CLOSURES class Foo { void bar( def a,Closure b ) {} } def foo = new Foo() foo.bar( '123',{ println it } ) foo.bar ('123') { println it } foo.bar '123', { println it }
  8. 8. MAPS IN GROOVY Hashmaps in Groovy are simple to use def myMap = [ plugin : 'java' ] Maps are easy to pass inline to functions project.apply( plugin : 'java' ) Which in Gradle can become apply plugin : 'java'
  9. 9. LISTS IN GROOVY Lists in Groovy are simple too def myList = [ 'clone', ''http://github.com/ysb33r/GradleLectures' ] This makes it possible for Gradle to do args 'clone', 'http://github.com/ysb33r/GradleLectures'
  10. 10. CLOSURE DELEGATION IN GROOVY When a symbol cannot be resolved within a closure, Groovy will look elsewhere In Groovy speak this is called a Delegate. This can be programmatically controlled via the Closure.delegate property.
  11. 11. CLOSURE DELEGATION IN GROOVY class Foo { def target } class Bar { Foo foo = new Foo() void doSomething( Closure c ) { c.delegate = foo c() } } Bar bar = new Bar() bar.doSomething { target = 10 }
  12. 12. MORE CLOSURE MAGIC If a Groovy class has a method 'call(Closure)`, the object can be passed a closure directly. class Foo { def call( Closure c) { /* ... */ } } Foo foo = new Foo() foo { println 'Hello, world' } // This avoids ugly syntax foo.call({ println 'Hello, world' })
  13. 13. CLOSURE DELEGATION IN GRADLE In most cases the delegation will be entity the closure is passed to. Will also look at the Project and ext objects. The Closure.delegate property allows plugin writers ability to create beautiful DSLs task runSomething(type : Exec ) { cmdline 'git' } is roughly the equivalent of ExecTask runSomething = new ExecTask() runSomething.cmdline( 'git' )
  14. 14. GRADLE TASKS Can be based upon a task type task runSomething ( type : Exec ) { command 'git' args 'clone', 'https://bitbucket.com/ysb33r/GradleWorkshop' } Can be free-form task hellowWorld << { println 'Hello, world' }
  15. 15. GRADLE TASKS : CONFIGURATION VS ACTION Use of << {} adds action to be executed Tasks supplied by plugin will have default actions Use of {} configures a task
  16. 16. BUILDSCRIPT The buildscript closure is special It tells Gradle what to load into the classpath before evaluating the script itself. It also tells it where to look for those dependencies. Even though Gradle 2.1 has added a new way of adding external plugins, buildscript are much more flexible.
  17. 17. EXTENSIONS Extensions are global configuration blocks added by plugins. Example: The jruby-gradle-base plugin will add a jruby block. apply plugin: 'com.github.jruby-gradle.base' jruby { defaultVersion = '1.7.11' }
  18. 18. JAVA PROJECT repositories { jcenter() } apply plugin : 'java' dependencies { testCompile 'junit:junit:4.1+' }
  19. 19. GRADLE DEPENDENCY MANAGEMENT Easy to use Flexible to configure for exceptions Uses dependencies closure First word on line is usually name of a configuration. Configurations are usually supplied by plugins. Dependencies are downloaded from repositories Maven coordinates are used as format
  20. 20. GRADLE REPOSITORIES Specified within a repositories closure Processed in listed order to look for dependencies jcenter() preferred open-source repo. mavenLocal(), mavenCentral(), maven {} Ivy repositories via ivy {} Flat-directory repositories via flatDir
  21. 21. BUILDING C++
  22. 22. BUILDING C++ - TOOL SUPPORT Operating System Tool Chain Official Linux gcc, clang Y MacOS X Xcode Y gcc-macports, clang- macports N Windows Visual C++, gcc-cygwin32, gcc-mingw Y
  23. 23. gcc-cygwin64 N Unix-like gcc, clang N
  24. 24. BUILDING C++ - LAYOUT Need to change convention from traditional C++ projects .cpp files go in src/${name}/cpp Exported headers files go in src/${name}/headers Local header files should be in src/${name}/cpp Object files will end up in ${buildDir}/objs Binary files will end up in ${buildDir}/binaries
  25. 25. BUILDING C++ - BASICS apply plugin : 'cpp'
  26. 26. BUILDING C++ - EXECUTABLE model { components { hello(NativeExecutableSpec) } }
  27. 27. BUILDING C++ - PROJECT LAYOUT ├── build.gradle └── src └─── hello    ├── cpp │ └─── hello.cpp │    └── headers └─── hello.hpp
  28. 28. BUILDING C++ - EXISTING PROJECTS Source directories can be adjusted Alternative compiler locations
  29. 29. BUILDING C++ - ALTERNATIVE SOURCE sources { cpp { source { srcDir "myDir" include "**/*.cpp" } } }
  30. 30. BUILDING C++ - OTHER FEATURES Cross compilation Multi-architecture targets Set compiler & linker flags Multi-variant builds
  31. 31. BUILDING C++ - WEAKNESS Currently only have built-in support for CUnit Only platform configuration tool support is CMake No Autotools equivalent DSL can be slicker
  32. 32. BUILDING RUBY
  33. 33. BUILDING JRUBY buildscript { repositories { jcenter() maven { url "https://plugins.gradle.org/m2/" } } dependencies { classpath 'com.github.jruby-gradle:jruby-gradle-plugin:1.1.4' } } import com.github.jrubygradle.JRubyExec
  34. 34. BUILDING JRUBY apply plugin: "com.github.jruby-gradle.base" dependencies { jrubyExec "rubygems:colorize:0.7.7+" } task printSomePrettyOutputPlease(type: JRubyExec) { description "Execute our nice local print-script.rb" script "${projectDir}/print-script.rb" } (Example from JRuby-Gradle project)
  35. 35. OTHER LANGUAGES C / ASM / Resources (built-in) Clojure (plugin) Frege (plugin) Golang (plugin) Scala (built-in) Gosu (plugin)
  36. 36. SUPPORT FOR OTHER BUILDSYSTEMS ANT (built-in) GNU Make MSBuild / xBuild Grunt Anything else craftable via Exec or JavaExec task
  37. 37. DOCUMENTATION
  38. 38. BUILDING DOCUMENTATION Doxygen Markdown Asciidoctor
  39. 39. ASCIIDOCTOR
  40. 40. BUILDING WITH ASCIIDOCTOR plugins { id 'org.asciidoctor.convert' version '1.5.2' }
  41. 41. BUILDING WITH ASCIIDOCTOR repositories { jcenter() } asciidoctor { sources { include 'example.adoc' } backends 'html5' }
  42. 42. BUILDING WITH DOXYGEN plugins { id "org.ysb33r.doxygen" version "0.2" } doxygen { source file('src/hello/cpp') source file('src/hello/headers') generate_xml true generate_html true file_patterns '*.cpp', '*.hpp' html_colorstyle_sat 100 }
  43. 43. PUBLISHING Built-in to Maven, Ivy Metadata publishing for native projects still lacking Various plugins for AWS and other cloud storage Plain old copies to FTP, SFTP etc.
  44. 44. PUBLISHING VIA VFS plugins { id "org.ysb33r.vfs" version "1.0-beta3" } task publishToWebserver { vfs { cp "${buildDir}/website", "ftp://${username}:${password}@int.someserver.com/var/www", recursive : true, overwrite : true } }
  45. 45. MORE SUPPORT…​ Official buildsystem for Android Docker Hadoop
  46. 46. ENDGAME Gradle is breaking new ground Ever improving native support Continuous performance improvements Go find some more plugins at https://plugins.gradle.org
  47. 47. ABOUT THIS PRESENTATION Written in Asciidoctor Styled by asciidoctor-revealjs extension Built using: Gradle gradle-asciidoctor-plugin gradle-vfs-plugin Code snippets tested as part of build Source code: https://github.com/ysb33r/GradleLectures/tree/AccuLondon
  48. 48. THANK YOU Email: Twitter / Ello : @ysb33r ysb33r@gmail.com Keep an eye out for https://leanpub.com/idiomaticgradle
  49. 49. MIGRATIONS
  50. 50. ANT TO GRADLE Reflect Ant Build into Gradle ant.importBuild('build.xml')
  51. 51. MAVEN TO GRADLE Go to directory where pom.xml is and type gradle init --type pom
  52. 52. GNUMAKE TO GRADLE Call current Makefile from Gradle plugins { id "org.ysb33r.gnumake" version "1.0.2" } import org.ysb33r.gradle.gnumake.GnuMakeBuild task runMake (type:GnuMakeBuild) { targets 'build','install' flags DESTDIR : '/copy/files/here', BUILD_NUMBER : '12345' }

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