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H. Sapiens  Conquers the World
Primera Salida de Africa: H. erectus (2 mya) <ul><li>Restos de H. erectus más antiguos fuera de Africa son de 1.8 mya (Ale...
H. erectus exits Africa 2 mya
H. erectus site in China
Map of H. erectus sites <ul><li>Llegaron hasta el norte de Africa, pero no cruzaron a la Peninsula Ibérica por Gibraltar (...
H. Erectus vs. Modern Humans
Segunda Salida de Africa : H. sapiens arcáico (60,000) <ul><li>after  Homo erectus  migrated out of Africa the different p...
Archaic H. sapiens (Appear in Africa 250,000 ya) <ul><li>While these early  Homo sapiens  were anatomically modern they we...
H. Sapiens y H. neandertalis (co-habitan en Europa por 10,000 años) <ul><li>H. erectus llega a Europa hace 1 mya  </li></u...
H. neandertalis en Europa <ul><li>H. erectus sale de Africa hace 2 mya, y llega a Eurpopa hace 1 mya </li></ul><ul><li>Por...
H. neanderthalis child
<ul><li>-- long, low braincase </li></ul><ul><li>and double-arched browridge  </li></ul><ul><li>-- flaring, funnel-shaped ...
H. neandertalis vs. H. sapiens
Neanderthals are distinguished by a unique set of anatomical features <ul><li>a large, long, low cranial vault with a well...
H. neanderthalis behavior <ul><li>little variation in stone tool types, with a preponderance of flake tools that are diffi...
Gran Dolina, Atapuerca (Spain) Cannibalism
Great Leap Forward H. sapiens (40,000 ya) <ul><li>a remarkable diversity in  stone tool types </li></ul><ul><li>tool types...
Earliest Evidence of Art <ul><li>Engraved Ochre (Africa, 75,000 ya) </li></ul>
Arte Rupestre Lascaux, Francia  (40,000 y)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Bisonte de Altamira
Otras Migraciones Importantes <ul><li>Australia: 60,000 ya  (hay 60 millas de Asia a Australia) </li></ul><ul><li>America:...
<ul><li>Desaparicion del Bosque </li></ul><ul><li>Separación de los chimpanceses </li></ul><ul><li>Eva Africana </li></ul>...
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Luis galanes- Homo Sapiens Conquers The World

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Homo Sapiens A La Conquista Del Mundo

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Luis galanes- Homo Sapiens Conquers The World

  1. 1. H. Sapiens Conquers the World
  2. 2. Primera Salida de Africa: H. erectus (2 mya) <ul><li>Restos de H. erectus más antiguos fuera de Africa son de 1.8 mya (Alemania) </li></ul>
  3. 3. H. erectus exits Africa 2 mya
  4. 4. H. erectus site in China
  5. 5. Map of H. erectus sites <ul><li>Llegaron hasta el norte de Africa, pero no cruzaron a la Peninsula Ibérica por Gibraltar (13 millas), sino que caminaron desde Medio Oriente. </li></ul>
  6. 6. H. Erectus vs. Modern Humans
  7. 7. Segunda Salida de Africa : H. sapiens arcáico (60,000) <ul><li>after Homo erectus migrated out of Africa the different populations became reproductively isolated, evolving independently, and in some cases like the Neanderthals, into separate species </li></ul><ul><li>Homo sapiens arose in one place, probably Africa (geographically this includes the Middle East) </li></ul><ul><li>Homo sapiens ultimately migrated out of Africa and replaced all other human populations, without interbreeding </li></ul><ul><li>modern human variation is a relatively recent phenomenon </li></ul>
  8. 8. Archaic H. sapiens (Appear in Africa 250,000 ya) <ul><li>While these early Homo sapiens were anatomically modern they were not behaviorally modern. </li></ul><ul><li>It is significant that modern anatomy evolved prior to modern behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>No changes are seen in the shape of the skulls between earlier and later Homo sapiens . </li></ul><ul><li>These early sapiens were characterized by : </li></ul><ul><li>a cranial vault with a vertical forehead, rounded occipital and reduced brow ridge </li></ul><ul><li>a reduced facial skeleton lacking a projecting mid-face </li></ul><ul><li>a lower jaw sporting a chin </li></ul><ul><li>a more modern, less robustly built skeleton </li></ul>
  9. 9. H. Sapiens y H. neandertalis (co-habitan en Europa por 10,000 años) <ul><li>H. erectus llega a Europa hace 1 mya </li></ul><ul><li>Permanecen aislados, y esto ocasiona la especiación </li></ul><ul><li>Aparece H. neandertalis (200,000 ya) </li></ul><ul><li>H. sapiens arcáico llega a Europa (40,000 ya) </li></ul><ul><li>Cro-Magnon (Francia): Evidencia más temprana de H. sapiens en Europa (30,000 ya) </li></ul><ul><li>Para 30,000 ya, H. neandertalis desaparece por completo </li></ul><ul><li>Simultaneamente, en Asia, H. sapiens reemplaza a H. erectus </li></ul><ul><li>Desede hace 30,000 años H. sapiens es la única especie de hominido que sobrevive </li></ul>
  10. 10. H. neandertalis en Europa <ul><li>H. erectus sale de Africa hace 2 mya, y llega a Eurpopa hace 1 mya </li></ul><ul><li>Por aislamiento, evoluciona a H. neandertalis </li></ul>
  11. 11. H. neanderthalis child
  12. 12. <ul><li>-- long, low braincase </li></ul><ul><li>and double-arched browridge </li></ul><ul><li>-- flaring, funnel-shaped chest </li></ul><ul><li>-- flaring pelvis </li></ul><ul><li>-- robust fingers and toes </li></ul><ul><li>-- tall, rounded braincase and small, divided browridge </li></ul><ul><li> -- cylindrical, barrel- shaped chest </li></ul><ul><li>-- narrow pelvis </li></ul><ul><li>-- slender fingers and toes </li></ul>H. neanderthalis vs. H. sapiens
  13. 13. H. neandertalis vs. H. sapiens
  14. 14. Neanderthals are distinguished by a unique set of anatomical features <ul><li>a large, long, low cranial vault with a well-developed double-arched browridge </li></ul><ul><li>a massive facial skeleton with a very projecting mid-face, backward sloping cheeks, and large nasal aperture, with large nasal sinuses </li></ul><ul><li>an oddly shaped occipital region of the skull with a bulge or bun </li></ul><ul><li>molars with enlarged pulp chambers, and large, often very heavily worn incisors </li></ul><ul><li>a mandible lacking a chin and possessing a large gap behind the last molar </li></ul><ul><li>a massive thorax, and relatively short forearms and lower legs </li></ul><ul><li>although short in stature they possessed robustly built skeletons with thick walled limb bones </li></ul><ul><li>long clavicles and very wide scapulas </li></ul>
  15. 15. H. neanderthalis behavior <ul><li>little variation in stone tool types, with a preponderance of flake tools that are difficult to sort into discrete categories </li></ul><ul><li>lack of tools fashioned out of bone, antler or ivory </li></ul><ul><li>burials lacked grave goods and signs of ritual or ceremony </li></ul><ul><li>hunting was usually limited to less dangerous species and evidence for fishing is absent </li></ul><ul><li>population densities were apparently low </li></ul><ul><li>no evidence of living structures exist and fireplaces are rudimentary </li></ul><ul><li>evidence for art or decoration is also lacking </li></ul>
  16. 16. Gran Dolina, Atapuerca (Spain) Cannibalism
  17. 17. Great Leap Forward H. sapiens (40,000 ya) <ul><li>a remarkable diversity in stone tool types </li></ul><ul><li>tool types showed significant change over time and space </li></ul><ul><li>artifacts were regularly fashioned out of bone, antler and ivory, in addition to stone </li></ul><ul><li>burials were accompanied by ritual or ceremony and contained a rich diversity of grave goods </li></ul><ul><li>living structures and well-designed fireplaces were constructed </li></ul><ul><li>hunting of dangerous animal species and fishing occurred regularly </li></ul><ul><li>higher population densities </li></ul><ul><li>abundant and elaborate art as well as items of personal adornment were widespread </li></ul><ul><li>raw materials such as flint and shells were traded over some distances </li></ul><ul><li>Well established hunters and gatherers societies were in place everywhere. This would be the only type of society until the Neolithic Revolution. </li></ul><ul><li>Precisely how this transformation occurred is not well understood, but it apparently was restricted to Homo sapiens and did not occur in Neanderthals. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Earliest Evidence of Art <ul><li>Engraved Ochre (Africa, 75,000 ya) </li></ul>
  19. 19. Arte Rupestre Lascaux, Francia (40,000 y)
  20. 31. Bisonte de Altamira
  21. 32. Otras Migraciones Importantes <ul><li>Australia: 60,000 ya (hay 60 millas de Asia a Australia) </li></ul><ul><li>America: 20,000 ya (Bering Strait) </li></ul>
  22. 33. <ul><li>Desaparicion del Bosque </li></ul><ul><li>Separación de los chimpanceses </li></ul><ul><li>Eva Africana </li></ul>4-8mya 4mya 2mya 1mya 60,000 40,000 30,000 15,000 5,000 1789 ________________________ 1.Primer hominido 2. Bipedalismo <ul><li>Herramientas </li></ul><ul><li>Dieta carnivora </li></ul><ul><li>Aparicion primer Homo </li></ul><ul><li>H. erectus exits Africa </li></ul>H. erectus enters Europe Migración a Australia <ul><li>Great Leap Forward </li></ul><ul><li>Art </li></ul><ul><li>H. sapiens llega a Europa </li></ul>H. Sapiens reemplaza otros Homos Migración a las Américas Revolución Neolitico Revolución Industrial

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