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  1. 1. What are International Data Standards?
  2. 2. Presentation Contents• What is a standard?• Who defines standards?• How is a standard defined?• How is a standard maintained? Page 2
  3. 3. What is a standard? Standard • document, established by consensus and approved by a recognized body, that provides, for common and repeated use, rules, guidelines or characteristics for activities or their results, aimed at the achievement of the optimum degree of order in a given context • NOTE: Standards should be based on the consolidated results of science, technology and experience, and aimed at the promotion of optimum community benefits. International standard • standard that is adopted by an international standardizing/standards organization and made available to the public Page 3
  4. 4. Who defines standards?• Groups of experts – International e.g. ISO, IEC, ITU – Regional e.g. CEN, CENELEC, ETSI in Europe – National – Industry – Company – Project – Individual• Standards bodies facilitate common process and consensus – Technical committees – national groups often mirroring international structures – Editing – Publication Page 4
  5. 5. The four global de jure bodies The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) – The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) – The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) – The United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UN/ECE) – Page 5
  6. 6. The four global de jure bodies • The de jure standards bodies are committed to operating by international consensus • IEC and ISO are the “parents” of JTC1 on IT standards • ISO, IEC and ITU each have a number of technical groups developing standards relevant to e-Business • UN/ECE also involves countries outside Europe such as Canada and the USA • UN/ECE is the “parent” of UN/CEFACT – the UN’s Centre for Trade Facilitation and Electronic Business Page 6
  7. 7. Participating in International Standards Work • Participation by national delegation – ANSI or nominated secretariats • National mirror committee – Nominates delegates to meetings – Agrees national inputs – Agrees national votes – Promotes results • Various levels of participation – P-member – participating – O-member – observing – A-liaison – external organisation actively working – B-liaison – external organisation observing Page 7
  8. 8. Consortia examples• OASIS –• GS1 –• OAGI –• SWIFT – – Over 140 in the eBusiness space – Company rather than national representation – Often provide results to ISO for endorsement • E.g. ebXML specifications Page 8
  9. 9. How is a standard defined? • Staged process – ISO example – Preliminary stage – Proposal stage – Preparatory stage – Committee stage – Enquiry stage – Approval stage – Publication stage • Different criteria at each stage • Similar structure in each of the organisations • Consortia often more restrictive than ISO Page 9
  10. 10. Preliminary stage • Definition of areas of work for prospective future standardisation • No completion dates set • Simple majority of P-members Page 10
  11. 11. Proposal stage• Formal proposal for new work • a new standard; • a new part of an existing standard; • revision of an existing standard or part; • an amendment to an existing standard or part; • a Technical Specification or a Publicly Available Specification• Can be submitted by • a national body; • the secretariat of that technical committee or subcommittee; • another technical committee or subcommittee; • an organization in liaison; • the technical management board or one of its advisory groups;• Description, justification and targets• Acceptance by simple majority, + 5 active participants Page 11
  12. 12. Preparatory stage • Development of a Working Draft document suitable for ballot – Usually by Working Group or team of experts – Ie no national representations • Could be published as a Publicly Available Specification Page 12
  13. 13. Committee stage• Ballot for acceptance as Committee Draft• Major opportunity for national comments• Successful if consensus achieved “General agreement, characterized by the absence of sustained opposition to substantial issues by any important part of the concerned interests and by a process that involves seeking to take into account the views of all parties concerned and to reconcile any conflicting arguments. NOTE Consensus need not imply unanimity."• Two-thirds majority of P-members will do• May publish at this stage as Technical Specification Page 13
  14. 14. Inquiry stage • Formal international acceptance as Draft International Standard – Edit and format by ISO – Circulated by ISO to all national bodies for 5-month vote – Votes can be yes or no, with comments, or abstain • Acceptance requires: – a two-thirds majority of the votes cast by the P- members of the technical committee or subcommittee are in favor, and – not more than one-quarter of the total number of votes cast are negative Page 14
  15. 15. Approval stage• If the DIS ballot was unanimous, the final standard can be sent for publication• If the ballot was not unanimous, the final text incorporating modifications is circulated for approval – Voting may be yes, no with comments, or abstain• Acceptance requires: – a two-thirds majority of the votes cast by the P- members of the technical committee or subcommittee are in favour, and – not more than one-quarter of the total number of votes cast are negative Page 15
  16. 16. Publication stage • Publication as International Standard • Available at cost from ISO or national bodies • Copyright asserted by ISO – just to be passed back to national bodies like ANSI Page 16
  17. 17. How is a standard maintained?• International standards must be reviewed every five years – Confirm – Modify – Withdraw• Technical Specifications must be reviewed every three years, maximum of twice – Confirm – Modify – Withdraw – Convert to International Standard Page 17