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Branding fragrance for themodern man: amultimodal analysis of persuasive strategiesin Axe and Old-spice marketing campaigns
Tomas Jankauskis, 402872Supervisor: Carmen Daniela MaierDepartment of Language and Business CommunicationAarhus School of ...
Tomas Jankauskis, 402872 MMC 2012 Bachelor ThesisAbstractThe growth of the male grooming market formulates an interest of ...
Tomas Jankauskis, 402872 MMC 2012 Bachelor ThesisTable of ContentsAbstract 21. Introduction 51.1. Problem statement 51.2. ...
Tomas Jankauskis, 402872 MMC 2012 Bachelor Thesis5. Multimodal analysis 185.1. Print advertisements 185.1.1. Old-spice “Lu...
Tomas Jankauskis, 402872 MMC 2012 Bachelor Thesis1. IntroductionAfter decades of shaping the ideal female body image, medi...
Tomas Jankauskis, 402872 MMC 2012 Bachelor ThesisWhat are the persuasive strategies used across semiotic modes by “Axe” an...
Tomas Jankauskis, 402872 MMC 2012 Bachelor Thesis1.5. StructureAfter the introduction, the paper will provide brief histor...
Tomas Jankauskis, 402872 MMC 2012 Bachelor Thesisbrands; many even collect the old Old-spice shaving bottles as a memorabi...
Tomas Jankauskis, 402872 MMC 2012 Bachelor Thesisthe total set of options that constitute what can be meant.” (Stillar on ...
Tomas Jankauskis, 402872 MMC 2012 Bachelor ThesisWhen linking a text with an image, it can either elaborate or extend the ...
Tomas Jankauskis, 402872 MMC 2012 Bachelor Thesisvast: from implicit communication in advertising billboards to explicit m...
Tomas Jankauskis, 402872 MMC 2012 Bachelor Thesis3.2.2. Halmari and VirtanenHelena Halmari and Tuija Virtanen, who researc...
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Tomas Jankauskis, 402872 MMC 2012 Bachelor ThesisProximity, Humor, Vital Factors, Familiarity and Activity or Movement. Th...
presenting, makes the sender more credible and interesting.Table 1 Factors of Interest (Benoit & Benoit, 2008:106)3.2.4. G...
Tomas Jankauskis, 402872 MMC 2012 Bachelor ThesisThere are many motivational appeals: anxiety, fear, guilt, health, honor,...
Tomas Jankauskis, 402872 MMC 2012 Bachelor Thesisappeals of emotion and guilt, the sex appeals are ever spreading from onc...
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Tomas Jankauskis, 402872 MMC 2012 Bachelor ThesisHaving distinguished what branding is, it would be relevant to look at ho...
Tomas Jankauskis, 402872 MMC 2012 Bachelor Thesisthe Axe and Old-spice marketing campaigns. Given that the nature of the r...
Figure 1MethodologyLike the theoretical background, the framework will have three parts. Firstly, the social semioticstheo...
Tomas Jankauskis, 402872 MMC 2012 Bachelor Thesismetafunctions, where the textual part will be analyzed according to the o...
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Tomas Jankauskis, 402872 MMC 2012 Bachelor ThesisThis is a demand picture, as the hero has eye-contact with the viewer, wh...
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Tomas Jankauskis, 402872 MMC 2012 Bachelor ThesisOn the other hand, it then follows the path of the first ad, and imperati...
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Tomas Jankauskis, 402872 MMC 2012 Bachelor ThesisThe text is inserted using a polarized method of ideal and real. The idea...
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Tomas Jankauskis, 402872 MMC 2012 Bachelor Thesis5.2. Video commercials5.2.1. Old-spice “The man you could smell like” com...
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Tomas Jankauskis, 402872 MMC 2012 Bachelor Thesis5.2.2. Old-spice “Motorcycle” commercial (appendix 6)RepresentationThe se...
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Tomas Jankauskis, 402872 MMC 2012 Bachelor Thesisresident’s reaction to the fallen angels. Although it is a small town, it...
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Tomas Jankauskis, 402872 MMC 2012 Bachelor ThesisOrientationThe viewer is offered a detached camera angle that allows him ...
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Tomas Jankauskis, 402872 MMC 2012 Bachelor Thesisthe commercial is trying to sell. As an opposite, Axe keep their audience...
Tomas Jankauskis, 402872 MMC 2012 Bachelor Thesisshort videos, responding to posts by celebrities as well as the general a...
Tomas Jankauskis, 402872 MMC 2012 Bachelor Thesismemorable. On the other hand, Axe approach their viewers through the peri...
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Tomas Jankauskis, 402872 MMC 2012 Bachelor ThesisReferencesKress, G. and Van Leeuwen, T., 2004. Reading Images The Grammar...
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Tomas Jankauskis, 402872 MMC 2012 Bachelor ThesisPalmer R., E., 1969. Hermeneutics. Interpretation Theory in Schleimacher,...
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Tomas Jankauskis, 402872 MMC 2012 Bachelor ThesisAppendicesAppendix 1. Old-spice “lumberjack”.Visual (Kress & Van Leeuwen)...
Narrative processes: Resultative action – smell like a man. guilt appeal, curiosity.A non-transactional process – the acto...
Tomas Jankauskis, 402872 MMC 2012 Bachelor Thesisand “smell like a man, man”. Refers to the audience as man as to define i...
Tomas Jankauskis, 402872 MMC 2012 Bachelor ThesisAppendix 2. Old-spice “There’s a man in there”Visual (Kress & Van Leeuwen...
Ideational: Ideational (Field): Curiosity, humor, guilt appeal.Narrative structure: Relational classification process – is...
Tomas Jankauskis, 402872 MMC 2012 Bachelor Thesisspice.Yourself direct reference to the viewer.Aggressive claim, that he d...
Tomas Jankauskis, 402872 MMC 2012 Bachelor ThesisAppendix 3. Axe “The Axe Effect”
Visual (Kress & Van Leeuwen) Textual (M.A.K. Halliday) Persuasive theoriesIdeational: Ideational (Field): Familiarity, hum...
Tomas Jankauskis, 402872 MMC 2012 Bachelor Thesisused as objects of contemplation.Sentence structure – attitudinal, assess...
Tomas Jankauskis, 402872 MMC 2012 Bachelor ThesisAppendix 4. Axe “The Axe Effect”
Visual (Kress & Van Leeuwen) Textual (M.A.K. Halliday) Persuasive theoriesIdeational: Ideational (Field): Curiosity, humor...
Tomas Jankauskis, 402872 MMC 2012 Bachelor Thesisnot resemble a car streering-wheel.The stress marks on the back lead to i...
Tomas Jankauskis, 402872 MMC 2012 Bachelor Thesis
Appendix 5. The man you could smell like (video).Scene Script Visual (Iedema) Textual (M.A.K.Halliday)0:01Hello ladies. Re...
0:14Youre on a boat Boat/yacht representsMore relationalprocesses,with the man your manfreedom, relaxation,dreams involvin...
False reality claims:everything achievable ifusing Old-spice.Persuasion: fear appeal, guilt appeal, sex appeal, humor, con...
Tomas Jankauskis, 402872 MMC 2012 Bachelor ThesisAppendix 6. Motorcycle (video).Scene Script Visual (Iedema) Textual (M.A....
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Tomas Jankauskis, 402872 MMC 2012 Bachelor ThesisAppendix 7. Axe “Even angels will fall” (video)Scene Script Visual (Iedem...
Smell narrows down the products, that could beadvertised here, but viewer still clueless whether42
Tomas Jankauskis, 402872 MMC 2012 Bachelor Thesisthis is an ad for perfume, washing powder, bakeryor whatever else that pr...
43Tomas Jankauskis,402872 MMC 2012 Bachelor ThesisAppendix 8. Axe “Vice” (video)Scene Script Visual (Iedema) Textual (M.A....
find?00:25 Guilty, your Representation: Ideational:honor. Black and white: polarized colors, Relational attributivetext em...
Tomas Jankauskis, 402872 MMC 2012 Bachelor Thesisbeen formulated to look like. Direct statementAttitudinal lexisnaughty.Re...
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  1. 1. Branding fragrance for themodern man: amultimodal analysis of persuasive strategiesin Axe and Old-spice marketing campaigns
  2. 2. Tomas Jankauskis, 402872Supervisor: Carmen Daniela MaierDepartment of Language and Business CommunicationAarhus School of Business3rdof May 2012
  3. 3. Tomas Jankauskis, 402872 MMC 2012 Bachelor ThesisAbstractThe growth of the male grooming market formulates an interest of what persuasive strategiesmake the actual sale. Old-spice and Axe are responsible for the biggest share of the market. Manyargue that this is mainly due to their marketing campaigns, even though at first glance, theirgeneral approach of using gender stereotypes does not differentiate from others. The thesistherefore provides a multimodal analysis of several print and video commercials, aiming toidentify the persuasive strategies used across semiotic modes by both companies. This will befollowed by a look into how these persuasive strategies contribute to strengthening the brand.The multimodal analysis, using the metafunctional theory by M.A.K. Halliday and itsadaptations by Kress & Van Leeuwen (2004) for still images and Iedema (2001) for movingimages, provides several findings. The thesis identifies, that Old-spice and Axe approachpersuasion differently: Old-spice use the central route to persuasion and explicit messages, whileAxe use the opposite – peripheral route to persuasion and implicit messages. The companiescatch and keep audience’s attention by employing humor, sex and guilt appeals, while also usingconflict, familiarity and curiosity as factors of interest. The thesis then finds how the marketingcampaigns impact branding. Thomas Gad (2003) stated that there are four dimensions ofbranding: functional, social, mental and spiritual. The thesis argues that both companies fulfillthe mental dimensions, while Old-spice also covers the social dimensions by interacting withtheir viewers. Overall conclusion is that both companies sell not only a product, but also a set ofvalues and stories associated with the brands, to which their customers aspire to relate.The originality of the thesis is based on its timing. Currently, the market of male groomingproducts is experiencing massive growth. Men are more concerned with their physical image,thus the gates are open for the new companies to put their foot in. However, the market leadersare aware of this and continue introducing marketing campaigns that attract the audience. Thethesis unveils the promotional tools that work, thus serving as a framework for the newcompanies that strive for success in what is evolving to be a competitive market of malegrooming products.Character count: 1,9882
  4. 4. Tomas Jankauskis, 402872 MMC 2012 Bachelor ThesisTable of ContentsAbstract 21. Introduction 51.1. Problem statement 51.2. Method 61.3. Motivation 61.4. Delimitation 61.5. Structure 72. Background information 72.1. Axe 72.2. Old-spice73. Theoretical background 83.1. Social semiotics 83.1.1. Kress and Van Leeuwen 93.1.2. Iedema 103.2. Persuasion 103.2.1. Petty and Cacioppo 113.2.2. Halmari and Virtanen 123.2.3. Benoit & Benoit 123.2.4. Gass & Seiter 133.3. Branding 153.3.1. Thomas Gad 153.3.2. Fog et al 164. Methodology 163
  5. 5. Tomas Jankauskis, 402872 MMC 2012 Bachelor Thesis5. Multimodal analysis 185.1. Print advertisements 185.1.1. Old-spice “Lumberjack” print ad (appendix 1) 185.1.2. Old-spice “Smell better than yourself” print ad (appendix 2) 195.1.3. Axe “The Axe effect” print ad (appendix 3) 205.1.4. Axe “The Axe effect” print ad (appendix 4) 215.2. Video commercials 225.2.1. Old-spice “The man you could smell like” commercial (appendix 5) 225.2.2. Old-spice “Motorcycle” commercial (appendix 6) 235.2.3. Axe “Even angels will fall” commercial (appendix 7) 235.2.4. Axe “Courtroom” commercial (appendix 8) 246. Persuasion and Branding 256.1. Persuasive strategies 256.2. Branding 267. Conclusion 27References 29Appendices 31Characters (no spaces): 46,8614
  6. 6. Tomas Jankauskis, 402872 MMC 2012 Bachelor Thesis1. IntroductionAfter decades of shaping the ideal female body image, media eventually have found a way to thehearts of men. Buying patterns give reason to concluding that generation x and generation ymales have accepted the ‘good looks’ model presented by the mass media. However, men todaysee appearance not only as a tool of attracting women, good grooming is now also being relatedto a more professional image that leads to increased compliance in the business environments aswell as higher employment prospects. Due to the robust growth of male interest in improvingbody image, new light started shining on the grooming product market. A 21.7 billion dollarindustry and growing – it is becoming a target for many cosmetic companies, yet only a few havethe advertising figured out to claim most of the market share.1Gender stereotypes over time have become a traditional discourse in advertising.2Be it clothing,sweets or beverages – the universal adaptation of men as symbols of confidence, strength andcourage, while a woman as symbols of sexuality, fragility and vulnerability is overwhelming.3Old-spice and Axe are no different in their choice of the general themes of advertising. However,despite preferring the rather tedious approach to marketing, they are generating the highest salesin the male grooming product segment.While most of the current day advertising is following the environment friendly tendencies, Axeand Old-spice have chosen to continuously introduce campaigns that ignore the problems of theworld, focusing on the problems of a typical guy who aspires to attract women. Theadvertisements allegedly claim that using their products, or the fragrance that they sell, wouldimprove their customer’s sexual life, boost their confidence and in other ways make them bettermen.1.1. Problem statementGiven this background the thesis finds it interesting to explore the field of marketing malegrooming products. It will aim to identify the communicative strategies used by the marketleaders – Old-spice and Axe – which will be achieved by analyzing four print ads and four videocommercials two of each from both companies. Its purpose is to answer the following:1http://sbinformation.about.com/od/startingabusiness/a/bizopgrooming.htm2http://www.bestthinking.com/trendingtopics/business_and_finance/sales_and_marketing/advertising/gender-stereotyping-in-ads3http://www.bestthinking.com/trendingtopic/relateditem/19655
  7. 7. Tomas Jankauskis, 402872 MMC 2012 Bachelor ThesisWhat are the persuasive strategies used across semiotic modes by “Axe” and “Old-spice” in their marketing campaigns?How do these strategies contribute to strengthening the company’s brand?1.2. MethodAs the analysis of the material at hand - Axe and Old-Spice campaigns - requires mainlyinterpretation, the scientific method applied will be hermeneutics. Hermeneutics is basically ascience that achieves understanding of things via interpretation. In order to interpret, the thesiswill be using a combination of social semiotics, persuasion and branding theories. Firstly, as themain foundation, the social semiotics theories by Kress and Van Leeuwen will help identifyingthe textual and visual strategies encoded in the marketing campaigns. Secondly, relative to thetextual and visual analysis, the persuasive aims will be pinpointed as to name the promotionalgoals that the campaigns were striving to achieve. Finally, the conclusions will be correlated tothe modern branding theories as to formulate an overall perspective on how the companies brandtheir products to make them desirable.1.3. MotivationFirstly, the idea of such analysis arose from personal interest of Axe and Old-spice campaignsthat tend to provide attention grabbing advertising, spiced with humor, entertainment andinnovation. Secondly, the thesis is important in its ability to provide an in depth analysis thatwould show the hidden persuasive strategies. Lastly, it can contribute as a framework forsuccessful marketing for men.1.4. DelimitationGiven the problem statement, the thesis will be based exclusively on Axe and Old-spicedeodorant and shower gel commercials directed at men. Other products the companies areproducing will be disregarded. Furthermore, due to the length restrictions, the thesis will bedelimitative to a certain number of video commercials and posters, because it intends to make anin depth multimodal analysis. The thesis will be based solely on theories that will be introducedin the following chapter.6
  8. 8. Tomas Jankauskis, 402872 MMC 2012 Bachelor Thesis1.5. StructureAfter the introduction, the paper will provide brief histories of Axe and Old-spice brands. Thethird chapter will be devoted to an extensive presentation of the theoretical background whichwill be the basis for the thesis. Following that, the fourth chapter will define how the theoriesinterlink and how they are used to analyze the thesis material, namely methodology. Theapplication of the theories will be described in chapter five. Finally, the sixth chapter will explainthe conclusions that can be made of this research.2. Background information2.1. AxeLynx, better known as Axe is a brand that produces grooming products for men. It was created in1983 and currently is a part of Unilever group. It is the market leader, having 10-20 per cent ofmarket share, in most of the 60 countries where the product is available. At any given momentthe company produces six different fragrances and to keep up with the trends, every year itrenews the store shelves introducing one new scent, exchanging it with the least selling one. Thenew scent is based on the top five trending fragrances of that certain moment in time, thus thecompany may be argued to smell better than the average deodorant.4However, the company’s success is based not only on keeping up with the fragrance trends, butmore due to their spicy marketing campaigns. The company came up with a claim, “Axe effect”,which supposedly means that women will chase after men, who use any kind of Axe product.Targeting 15 to 25 year old males, this kind of promotion was extremely aspirational to the targetgroup, as most never grow fond of the teenage dreams of being surrounded by desirable women.The thesis will strive to define how this and possibly other reasons make Axe keep its leaderposition in the grooming product market.52.2. Old-spiceOld-spice, part of Procter & Gamble group, is a widely recognized brand of male groomingproducts that was created over 70 years ago, in 1937. It is one of the classic men grooming4http://www.basenotes.net/company/1027095http://thisisnotadvertising.wordpress.com/2011/11/07/15-years-of-axe-effect-the-worlds-most-sexist-advertising-campaign/7
  9. 9. Tomas Jankauskis, 402872 MMC 2012 Bachelor Thesisbrands; many even collect the old Old-spice shaving bottles as a memorabilia.6Given thisbackground, the brand seems to be appealing to a narrower target group – likely older people,possibly loyal to the brand. This may have been the reason, why the company decided torevitalize its marketing, by introducing a shocking new campaign in 2010.“The man you could smell like” was an unexpected viral hit that brought back the light on acompany that seemed to have given up to such market leaders as Axe. The video of a man in atowel, acted by Isaiah Mustafa, boasting about his physical and emotional attractiveness, hit 6million views during the first 24 hours, making it one of the most successful online videocampaigns.7Noticing the success of “The Old-spice guy”, company continued using YouTube asa platform for marketing, by introducing a new campaign that in a way resembles the prior. The“Old-spice guy” will be one of the campaigns reviewed in the thesis, but before that, the paperwill look at the theories that will be used for the analysis.3. Theoretical backgroundThe theoretical background chapter will provide with an extensive description of the theoriesused in the thesis. The data and the problem statement required the use of three differentframeworks: social semiotics, persuasion and branding.3.1. Social semioticsThe term semiotics derives from Greek word semeoitikos meaning “interpreter of signs”8. As afield of close relation to linguistics, it was first defined by Ferdinand de Saussure, whoresearched signs in societal context. He claimed that signs are arbitrary, meaning that every signmay have several meanings that depend on the receivers social constructions for that certain sign(Selden on Saussure, 1988:353). He based his claim, on the assumptions that language issomething every individual assimilates. It is a system of signs one has stored in his mind in aword-image form, and the most important one (Selden on Saussure, 1988:351).The most notable person in the social semiotics field was Michael Alexander Kirkwood Halliday.According to him, “Text represents a choice. A text is ‘what is meant,’ selected from6http://www.basenotes.net/ID26121214.html7http://mashable.com/2011/03/16/old-spice-imitators/8http://www.wisegeek.com/what-are-semiotics.htm8
  10. 10. Tomas Jankauskis, 402872 MMC 2012 Bachelor Thesisthe total set of options that constitute what can be meant.” (Stillar on Halliday, 1998:15). Toanalyze how the social environment forms certain meanings, Halliday came up with ametafunctional theory within the social semiotics field, which suggested that language has threefunctions: ideational, interpersonal and textual. The ideational function constructs theperspective of the world, the environmental context. The interpersonal function, deals withsocial relationships, engaging people to act. The textual function is responsible for the method ofpresentation. Several researchers have employed these metafunctions to other semiotic modes.Among them, were Kress and Van Leeuwen and Iedema.3.1.1. Kress and Van LeeuwenKress and Van Leeuwen followed the ideas of M.A.K. Halliday, but instead of text, they wereinterested in ‘reading’ images. According to Kress and Van Leeuwen: “Like linguistic structures,visual structures point to particular interpretations of experience and forms of social interaction.”(Kress & Van Leeuwen, 2004:2). And just like the grammar of language has certain rules on thestructures of various textual elements, elements of an image can as well “combine in visualstatements of greater or lesser complexity.” (Kress & Van Leeuwen, 2004:2). To be able toanalyze an image, they have adjusted M.A.K. Halliday’s metafunctional theory. In its ‘new’ formthe ideational metafunction would tell about how different objects are interrelated, theinterpersonal metafunction would interpret the relationship between the sender and the receiver.Finally, the textual part would deal with the cohesion of different modes applied (Kress & VanLeeuwen, 2004:43).During their further research, they noticed a decrease in interest of monomodal discourse.Corporate, academic and political documentation as well as mass media have adapted to usingthe multimodal approach of information sharing. Thus Kress and Van Leeuwen identified a needof analyzing multimodal information as a whole, where all modes are interpreted as acombination, not independent pieces, has formed (Kress & Van Leeuwen, 2001:1-2). Informationpieces, even though having rich individual value, often can create more value when joinedtogether. In other words, information provides its “true” value when it is interpreted according tothe contextual pieces of information available at that certain point (Van Leeuwen, 2005:219-220).9
  11. 11. Tomas Jankauskis, 402872 MMC 2012 Bachelor ThesisWhen linking a text with an image, it can either elaborate or extend the visual piece. The textcould elaborate the image by specifying or explaining what is depicted. The extension linkagecan be used in a form of similarity, contrast or complement (Van Leeuwen, 2005:229-230).3.1.2. IedemaLike Kress and Van Leeuwen, Rick Iedema followed the footsteps of M.A.K. Halliday, adjustingthe metafunction theory to moving images. Television and film analysis has various methods andtheories that provide frameworks for analyzing the structure, semiotic perspectives, themes andsimilar. However, most of them focus on telling us what the tele-film is “really about”. As acontrast, Iedema provides an approach that focuses on the sociopolitical intertextualities and howthey relate one frame to another (Iedema, 2001:186).Going back to the metafunctions, the ideational was renamed to representation which deals withthe meaning of the world based on the visual, verbal and musical information provided. Theinterpersonal metafunction was replaced by orientation, which analyzes how the meaningpositions the viewer, looking at angles of view, as well as the positioning of characters of thevideo itself. Finally textual metafunction turned to organization which deals with sequencing themeanings in terms of structure and rhythm (Iedema, 2001:191-192).Social semiotics helps identifying the social commitments and other values that are beingpersuaded in the film. It works as a provisional tool that allows interaction with the medium, asin seeing the smallest details that help questioning the social reality that is being presented inmore depth (Iedema, 2001:187). Persuasion or promotion is the key of every marketingcampaign and ever since marketing has become an ‘art’, the phenomenon of compliance gainingin business has grown to extreme extents. The following part of the chapter will be devoted todefining the tools that actually make people buy or attach themselves to a certain product orbrand.3.2. PersuasionEvery day people are surrounded with implicit and explicit influence attempts, which all can beexplained by the theory of persuasion (Gass & Seiter, 2011:2). Persuasion as a term is defined as“communication intended to induce belief or action”9.Given that the forms of persuasion are9http://www.thefreedictionary.com/persuasion10
  12. 12. Tomas Jankauskis, 402872 MMC 2012 Bachelor Thesisvast: from implicit communication in advertising billboards to explicit messages by politiciansand news media – there are many theories under this rather new topic in the field of business.Firstly, it would be relevant to know the model that is the basis for analysis of persuasivemessages.3.2.1. Petty and CacioppoThe ELM or elaboration likelihood model by Richard Petty and John Cacioppo created in 1986(Gass & Seiter on Petty & Cacioppo, 2011:34), is one of the most permanent models ofpersuasion. It basically identifies two routes to persuasion: central and peripheral. The first routeis relevant for cases, where the receiver already has knowledge of the subject, thus bases hisresponse with regard to the content, ideas and information found in the message. Peripheralroute is predominant when the audience has no previous encounters with the subject and thusbases their decisions on physical attractiveness, amount of arguments or ‘catchy’ advertisingmessage (Gass & Seiter on Petty & Cacioppo, 2011:35).Besides the abovementioned, the two routes can also be distinguished by several other factors aswell. The central route is effective when the receiver has high: involvement, motivation, abilityto process information and need for cognition. Straightforwardly, the peripheral route is usefulwhen the receiver has low involvement, motivation, ability to process information and no needfor cognition. It is often the case when the audience is the general population, thus using bothcentral and peripheral routes is the most effective in these cases. This dual processing approachis called the unimodel, researched by Arie Kruglanski and Erik Thompson in 1999 (Gass &Seiter on Kruglanski & Thompson, 2011:37). Their claim is based on the idea that central andperipheral processing do not exist as separate terms; what differs is actually the amount ofcentral processing required to obtain a certain persuasive message. However, research shows thatthere are numerous cases where persuasive messages are reasoned by fundamentally differentapproaches (Gass & Seiter, 2011:38).Knowing the audience is the first step, choosing the type of persuasion is the second. Thefollowing theories by Halmari and Virtanen will differentiate explicit persuasion from implicit,giving reason for using one over the other.11
  13. 13. Tomas Jankauskis, 402872 MMC 2012 Bachelor Thesis3.2.2. Halmari and VirtanenHelena Halmari and Tuija Virtanen, who researched persuasion across different genres, note thatone of the most predominant characteristics that have been making its mark in all of thediscourse genres recently is promotion, or persuasion. This is reasoned by the new informationtechnology that it created a “massive information explosion”. The advertising methods havechanged radically, while also influencing other, usually non persuasive forms of discourse(Halmari & Virtanen, 2005:213).The researchers are fond of the idea that: “The very nature of persuasion requires its forms to bekept implicit” (Halmari & Virtanen on Ostman, 2005:229). Halmari and Virtanen aim to prove,that it is the implicit nature of the phenomenon that is responsible for the variation of its forms indifferent genres. They further explain, that if a genre is known to be used for persuasion, itspersuasive power is affected, due to it becoming more explicit. This means the linguistic markershave to differentiate, which would lead for the genre to change its original nature, thus becomesomething different (Halmari & Virtanen, 2005:230).Less conscious people are of the persuasive messages, more persuaded they will be. Thus themore a genre is associated with the usage of promotional communication, the more it isineffective or the more its authors have to be crafty in a way that they would encode thepersuasive message to an extent where it has to be a clear message as to make an effect, but nottoo clear as not to chase away the audience (Halmari & Virtanen, 2005:230-231). All this may beconcluded, that there is a thin line, based on knowing the audience and being up to date, thatmarketers have to walk on, in order to be successful.3.2.3. Benoit & BenoitAfter identifying the audience, it would be relevant to know how to gain and maintain theirinterest, which can be achieved by using the factors of interest. The theory, introduced byWilliam L. Benoit and Pamela J. Benoit in their book on Persuasive messages, states that factorsof interest work as strategies that catch the audience’s attention and keep them throughout thewhole message (Benoit & Benoit, 2008:106). What is more, the factors tend to increase theamount of involvement audience has for the topic; therefore they are more likely to be usingcentral processing. There are nine factors of interest: Reality, Conflict, Novelty, Curiosity,1
  14. 14. 2
  15. 15. Tomas Jankauskis, 402872 MMC 2012 Bachelor ThesisProximity, Humor, Vital Factors, Familiarity and Activity or Movement. The following table willbriefly explain each of the factors.RealityReality is a quality; real things attract people morethanhypothetical or abstract ideas. Possible example of usage isbyreferring to real events or victims.ConflictA conflict tends to catch attention, as people are interestedinhearing both sides, seeing who will win or lose,hearingargumentation for both approaches.NoveltyPlainly, things that are “new” create interest, as people havenotheard about them. Situated best in the introduction.CuriosityIn general people are curious, thus arousing this interest isanexcellent way to keep their attention.ProximityThings that happen near, regarding time or location, havemoreappeal, as they are physically closer to the people.HumorAlmost everyone favors humor, thus it is a great tool to puttheaudience into receptive mood. On the other side, one mustmakesure what kind of humor audience finds funny and approves of.Vital factorsHealth, economic security, family safety - these are the factorsthatcan affect person’s well-being. People are always willing tolistento matters that can affect them negatively.FamiliarityPeople care more for things that they can familiarize more with.Itincreases audience’s care and involvement in the topic.Activity or MovementActivity and movement is a trait in people that makes themstandout from the crowd. Physical movement and gestureswhen
  16. 16. presenting, makes the sender more credible and interesting.Table 1 Factors of Interest (Benoit & Benoit, 2008:106)3.2.4. Gass & SeiterHaving reached the audience’s attention, it would be the right time to impose the strategies thatwould help gaining the outcome of purchase. Motivational appeals, compiled by Robert Gassand John Seiter, can be defined as “attempts to jump start an individual’s drive to do something.”(Gass & Seiter, 2011:271). They are external encouragement factors that aim to induce an action.13
  17. 17. Tomas Jankauskis, 402872 MMC 2012 Bachelor ThesisThere are many motivational appeals: anxiety, fear, guilt, health, honor, humor, patriotism, pity,pride, and more. But before looking in depth, it is relevant to distinguish logical and emotionalappeals. Aristotle once defined logic (logos, - logic, reasoning) and emotion (pathos - passion,emotion) as distinct methods of persuasion. Researchers have learned, that agreeing with acertain message is often associated with logical reasoning, while disagreeing with it is more ofemotional nature (Gass & Seiter, 2011:271).The first emotional appeal that the paper will briefly overlook is fear. It is said that USA hasbecome a culture based on fear. Even though at first it was thought to be vice versa, researchershave confirmed that the higher the fear, the more persuasive value a message has (Gass & Seiter,2001:272). The usage of fear can be reasoned by the Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM),introduced by Kim Witte. It states that when a message arouses fear in its receiver, he can eitherengage danger control or fear control. The persuaders should be aiming to trigger dangercontrol, as it leads to the receiver be positive and constructive in resolving this issue. Fearcontrol, on the other hand, leads to panic and avoidance (Gass & Seiter, 2011:273).Pity and guilt often are used as a combination. When pity itself is a motivational factor thatcauses people to make unconscious decisions, researchers have come to conclusions, thatinducing feelings of guilt can cause compliance. Even though these appeals are mostly used forcharity fundraising campaigns, the innovative perspective of advertising that embraces shockvalue, makes use of these emotions in many daily product ads as well (Gass & Seiter, 2011: 274).The most common emotional appeal is humor as 21 to 48 percent of advertisements are humorbased (Gass & Seiter, 2011:277). In general, humor is commonplace in almost any context orenvironment of communication. Humor increases attention and causes people to favor the brand.It is also effective in its nature of distracting people. Even though humor increasestrustworthiness or credibility, it can cause the company portrayed in the ad loose competence orexpertise.Researchers state that: “The usage of sex appeals has been a fixture of advertising for decades”.(Gass & Seiter, 2011:281). The most common application is visual. One way is by expressingthat if the audience uses a certain product, they will be sexier. Another line is telling the audiencethat usage of the certain product will cause other sexy people be more attracted to you. Like the14
  18. 18. Tomas Jankauskis, 402872 MMC 2012 Bachelor Thesisappeals of emotion and guilt, the sex appeals are ever spreading from once being used only inperfume ads, to having its hints in almost any type of product category marketing campaigns(Gass & Seiter, 2011:281).Having gone through the persuasion theories, the last part of the theoretical background will bededicated to branding, which from a basic perspective, is a field of persuasive nature itself.3.3. BrandingTim Kitchin argues that “a brand is something that is owned by buyers and other stakeholders.”(Nicolas Ind on Tim Kitchin, 2003:3). Even though it represents a certain product or a group ofproducts, brand itself is immaterial. Its only place of existence is the customers mind, and it isthe customer who is the creator as well as the terminator of the relationship. Thus branding couldbe defined as strategies that help creating a perceived value (Nicolas Ind, 2003:3-4). But thisterm only covers one the functional dimension of the brand, the other three will be discussed inthe following paragraph.3.3.1. Thomas GadThe classical view of branding only identifies one dimension – functional, meaning that a brandonly serves as a tool for delivering benefits to the client, while earning money for the owner. Butaccording to Thomas Gad (2003:185), the transparent environment businesses are now living inforces brands to have to operate in more than one dimension. The researcher identified fourdimensions of branding: functional, social, mental and spiritual.The first of the new three dimensions, the social dimension is responsible for the brandsprovision of an ability to create identification within a social group. According to Thomas Gad(2003:186), many people satisfy their need for identification, by familiarizing with a strongbrand. Second new dimension is the mental dimension that is responsible for the brands ability toinspire and change its consumers. Brands do become role models for many, where its loyalcustomers see brand’s success as their own success. Finally, the third new dimension is thespiritual dimension, which is contributing to making the world a better place. The responsibilityof becoming more environmentally friendly is often a complicated task, but many entrepreneursagree that it has always been important (Thomas Gad, 2003:186).1
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  20. 20. Tomas Jankauskis, 402872 MMC 2012 Bachelor ThesisHaving distinguished what branding is, it would be relevant to look at how branding actuallyworks. The most innovative perspective on the subject comes from the theory of storytellingwhich will be covered in the following paragraphs.3.3.2. Fog et alStorytelling is the new uprising trend that is being named the future of branding, although thereare not enough critical insights as to provide explicit reasoning for why would this theory beeffective. Many companies still view this concept as something that could be used for publicrelations as a tool for internal communication and company culture building (Fog et al, 2011:17).But the modern perspective suggests that the more emotional attachment a brand can create themore sales it will make.Guerilla marketing genius, Jay Conrad Levinson has said that after a long time of seeking forquality as number one trait of a product, customers are looking for the feeling of confidence thechosen brand can provide.10The storytelling theories go beyond that, stating that people actuallyseek for a story that provides with a set of characteristics, they can identify with (Fog et al.,2011:18). Whether it would be confidence, perseverance, or wildness – people are looking for atale that would correlate with their own lifestyles or promote a lifestyle they aspire of having.Besides being able to promote their brand through many advertising campaigns that provide witha different story each, a company must have a core story, which would define the pillars of thebrand (Fog et al., 2011:62). The core story may even be the basis of all of the marketingcampaigns. One well known example of this is the Marlboro man11, who depicts the brand ascourageous, confident and masculine. That very first cowboy in the company’s advertisements iseven being titled as “the most influential man who never lived”, starting a consistent marketingtheme for the company, who due to its confidence and trust in one approach has become numberone in its market.4. MethodologyKnowing the theoretical background the following step would be to intertwine the theories fromthe previous chapter, forming a certain methodology that would be the most effective analyzing10http://www.gmarketing.com/articles/6-memorize-these-12-words-then-live-by-them11http://iconicphotos.wordpress.com/2009/10/19/the-marlboro-man/16
  21. 21. Tomas Jankauskis, 402872 MMC 2012 Bachelor Thesisthe Axe and Old-spice marketing campaigns. Given that the nature of the research isinterpretation, hermeneutics seems to be the most relevant scientific approach. Hermeneuticsrooting back to ancient Greece is one of the oldest humanitarian traditions, which assumes thatan understanding of things should be reached by interpretation (Sherratt, 2005:17). Sinceinterpretation is a commonplace phenomenon, it is merely possible to portray an actual origin tothis tradition. In addition, every day conversations between two people may be argued to bebased on each other’s interpretation. Thus the term hermeneutics delimited itself to a tradition ofinterpreting texts that have cultural or any other special value that would provide new knowledge(Sherratt, 2005:17-18). Friedrich Schleimacher is known to be the creator of modernhermeneutics, as he was interested in interpreting books. He wanted to know what the authormeant or what was intended to be understood (Sherratt, 2005:59). Thus modern hermeneuticscould be defined as forming a certain ‘lens’ which ‘translates’ a text based on a set of social andcontextual aspects that are relevant to the sender. The following paragraphs will provide the‘lens’ for understanding the campaigns by Axe and Old-spice.
  22. 22. Figure 1MethodologyLike the theoretical background, the framework will have three parts. Firstly, the social semioticstheories will help analyzing the still and moving image materials from Axe andOld-spice marketing campaigns. Textual and visual analyses will all be based onM.A.K. Halliday’s 17
  23. 23. Tomas Jankauskis, 402872 MMC 2012 Bachelor Thesismetafunctions, where the textual part will be analyzed according to the original theory, while thevisual part will be considered using the adaptations of the metafunctions. The still imageadvertisements will be related to the Kress and Van Leeuwen theories, whereas the video ads willbe looked upon from Iedema’s perspective. Secondly, after the multimodal analysis, the thesiswill strive to identify the persuasive strategies employed by the companies. It will firstly drawgeneral conclusions of the persuasive approaches based on the theories of Petty & Cacioppo andHalmari & Virtanen. Following that, the thesis will aim at identifying the factors of interest andthe emotional appeals used in the advertising campaigns. Finally, the thesis will relate thefindings to the modern branding theories, identifying the links and formulating the overallstrategies Axe and Old-spice have chosen to imply.5. Multimodal analysisThe following chapter will provide a multimodal analysis. It will only stress out the findings andinterpretations based on the terminology of the field, while conclusions will be drawn in thefollowing chapter. It will be looking at 4 print ads and 4 video commercials, two of each bothfrom Axe and Old-spice. The print ad analysis will be based on M.A.K. Halliday’s (1998) andKress and Van Leeuven’s (2004) theories and terminology, while the video analysis will useM.A.K. Halliday (1998) theory for the textual aspects and Iedema (2001) for the visual part.5.1. Print advertisements5.1.1. Old-spice “Lumberjack” print ad (appendix 1)IdeationalSeveral processes can be identified in the ad. Firstly a non-transactional action, where the mainactor – an athletic male with a foam lumberjack costume, is promoting the Old-spice product.The second narrative process is a transactional reaction by the second participant of the ad – thewoman model. Her posture and gaze represents admiration, affection and humbleness. Finally, aconceptual process can be found as well. The shower gel bottle stands as the analytical carrierof the ad, with its attributes depicted behind it – creating a ‘lumberjack’, out of any man, whomevery woman will look up to due to the associations with high masculinity.Interpersonal1
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  25. 25. Tomas Jankauskis, 402872 MMC 2012 Bachelor ThesisThis is a demand picture, as the hero has eye-contact with the viewer, while also promoting theOld-spice product in his right hand. The textual aspect strengthens the demand, by being animperative statement, commanding the viewer to use the product and smell like a man. Inaddition, the reference of “man” not only defines its target audience, but also compliments theyounger segment of the prospect customers, who are tagged as “teenagers” in theirenvironments. Going back to the visual effects, the picture uses a fairly monochrome color range- a lot of white colors as to form a discourse of cleanness as well as to stress out the participants.TextualThe textual aspect is put into the picture using very low salience – no framing or borders on thetext – it is almost as if it belongs there, on the bathtub. The straightforward sentence is presentedas a rule, that every man should think about, when he enters his bathroom. Its overallcomposition is triptych. The center element is the hero, as he is aimed to be the first noticeableelement of the picture. The viewer is then expected to see the other two elements: the bottle ofshower gel, and the girl, while also drawing the conclusions about what narrative and symbolicstructures are being represented.5.1.2. Old-spice “Smell better than yourself” print ad (appendix 2)IdeationalBoth narrative and conceptual structures can be identified in the ad. The first notable aspect ofthe picture is that it presents a non-transactive reaction. The reacter, whose eye-line vector is notconnected to anything, is an overweight, modest, nerdy looking male model that has an ecstatic‘inner self’ hiding inside of him. He probably represents a student, as the circumstance oflocation resembles a library. Another structure depicted, is the conceptual symbolic structure. Itenvisions a symbolic carrier – a rock star, whose symbolic attributes are: massive popularityamong women, wild and irrational lifestyle, freedom and iconicity.InterpersonalUnlike the previous ad, this is an offer picture. The viewer is provided with a full body shot,impersonal distance, only for observing and interpreting. The textual aspect is less aggressivethan the previous ad, with a general statement that states about a “real” man hiding in every guy.1
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  27. 27. Tomas Jankauskis, 402872 MMC 2012 Bachelor ThesisOn the other hand, it then follows the path of the first ad, and imperatively states that the viewershould smell better than himself, meaning he should replaces his current product with Old-spice.TextualThe textual element has aspects of both high and low salience. The choice of colors thatresembles the color palette of the whole ad makes it less visible, while its shape of a universityblazon, makes it stand out of the ad. This choice has been made as to appeal to universitystudents - a large segment of the audience. Its bottom center location stands a place of explainingthe above, which is a transformation from given which is a plain guy who blends intouniversity’s background to new – a rock star, whom many aspire to be like and live like.5.1.3. Axe “The Axe effect” print ad (appendix 3)IdeationalLooking at the Axe print ad, the first thing that catches the attention is a narrative process of aconversation. Given that it is a dialogue between two women models, whose eye-line vectors areinterconnected it is a transactional action. The interactors are two young female models, one ofwhose script is written above. The actor on the left side of the print ad, due to her hand gestures,should be assumed to be the one who is talking while the second actor is showing facialexpressions of approval. The circumstance of location is either a café, or café corner at a gym.These locations are associated with informal conversations and meeting new people, thus theideational aspects present a discourse of two young females sharing experiences with sexualinnuendos.InterpersonalGiven that there is no eye contact, the picture is an offer picture. However, the social distance ofthe shot, the postures and gestures that are associated with flirting and the leg vectors of theinteractors towards the viewer, aim to make the viewer feel as a part of this ‘triangle’ ofconversation. Several modality markers, such as brightness adjustments that increase the whitetones and darkening the dark tones, are done to make the participants look more tanned, whichmeans more attractive, thus the viewer would be more inclined to come closer to the print ad.Textual2
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  29. 29. Tomas Jankauskis, 402872 MMC 2012 Bachelor ThesisThe text is inserted using a polarized method of ideal and real. The ideal in this case is the storyof how these traits that are generally not associated with attraction, cause the female model tofeel affection towards the mysterious guy. The new presents the reason for this unusual event –the bottle of Axe. What should be noted, the textual element uses slang “to get hit on”, whichmeans approaching someone with sexual intentions. It creates is another mystery, as it does notprovide any detail to whether the approach happened at all and if it did, what had happened.5.1.4. Axe “The Axe effect” print ad (appendix 4)IdeationalThe first notable structure in the last print ad is the conceptual structure of a symbolic carrier.The carrier in this case is a female model. Her symbolic attributes are: young, wild, free,spontaneous, as well as the “chosen one”, given the stress marks on her back. Furthermore, anarrative structure of a non-transactive reaction emerges from the eye-line vector. The reactergazes downwards which is a pose of shame and guilt. In addition, the hand vector aimed towardsthe reacter’s bikini as well as the text of “it can happen anywhere” forms a sexual innuendo,providing reason for the discourse of guilt. Finally an analytical process can be identified aswell, where the deodorant bottle is the carrier and its attributes are the background that it causes.InterpersonalThe final print ad does not form any contact with the viewer, thus is an offer picture. Thedistance represented is close and social, with high pictorial detail aimed at pointing out the stressmarks. The textual element has a modality “can happen”. Thus overall even though the viewer isnot involved, he is persuaded that this could be his reality, if he would start making use of the“longer lasting Axe effect”.TextualThe textual element is located in a high visibility spot – on the body of the model, where thehand vector points to, thus the viewer is will inevitably read the promotion text and see theproduct. In addition, the textual and visual elements are interlinked as they both explain eachother, although they do not point out what exactly happened, the viewer has to come up withwhat was meant by “it” himself.2
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  31. 31. Tomas Jankauskis, 402872 MMC 2012 Bachelor Thesis5.2. Video commercials5.2.1. Old-spice “The man you could smell like” commercial (appendix 5)RepresentationThe first video of the multimodal analysis visualizes an athletic male, who stands as a symboliccarrier. His confident tone and posture, athletic looks and strong eye contact, make him lookideal. This claim is also complimented with relational processes of “he isn’t me” and “he couldsmell like me”. What is more, as soon as the hero shows an Old-spice product, the backgroundinstantly changes to what looks like a yacht. In other words, it turns into a dreamy location,related to freedom, relaxation and romance. The other three objects in the ad: oyster, diamondsand the horse add to the discourse of fantasy life which is vocally explained by the second to lastsentence: “Everything is possible when your man smells like Old-spice and not a lady.”OrientationWhen analyzing how the meanings position viewers, there are two aspects that need to be lookedupon. First of the two aspects, the camera angles and movements seem to be strategized toinvolve the viewer as much as possible. Close, mainly frontal shots and eye-contact forms astrong social bond with the commercial. Secondly, the speech of the hero further explores therelationship with the viewer by showing various positions towards the audience: politeness(“hello”), disrespect to men (“sadly, he isn’t me”; “using lady scented body wash”), disrespect towomen (picturing them as only interested in good looks and material gain), leadership (“look atyour man”, “look down”), entertainment (“what’s in your hand?”, “I’m on a horse”) and finallysuperiority (“he could smell like he’s me”). The viewer is positioned to experience mixedemotions, which would end up as a longer lasting memory of the advertisement.OrganizationThe link between meanings is based on the problem-solution model. The hero introduces a falseproblem, of men not looking like him, and quickly suggests a partial solution of using Old-spice.The rhythm of the commercial is based on the hero’s further vocal and visual elaboration of theproblem-solution story. It also makes the hero more credible, as the nonstop speech does notallow the viewer to take his time to think and neglect any of the claims.2
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  33. 33. Tomas Jankauskis, 402872 MMC 2012 Bachelor Thesis5.2.2. Old-spice “Motorcycle” commercial (appendix 6)RepresentationThe second commercial of the analysis starts off with a scene in a gym locker room. It presents amodified reality, as usually the gym rooms are neither structured, nor as silent as the commercialdepicts it. The ironical choice of participants that are far from athletic, slow, emotionless anddeep in their thoughts creates a dissatisfaction discourse of being unhappy with the currentlifestyle and possibly searching for solutions of being a better man. After the hero smells the“Old-spice” shower gel, he starts cracking and becoming a different man. From a man whoappeared to have given up on a satisfactory life, he becomes a symbolic carrier - masculine,rough, wild and courageous male model on a motorcycle – a man whom women aspire of dating.The gym locker room background becomes an idyllic view of an exotic location. Thus, overall, itpresents a contrast of old and new worlds, where the old world cracks down like glass makingway for the new fantasy world to emerge.OrientationMeanwhile, since there was no speech or text, the viewer was allowed to interpret the wholesituation himself, witnessing the narrative from mainly impersonal distance shots. On the otherhand, the few close shots allowed the viewer to see the contrasting worlds in details and decide,whether it was the product that was actually transforming a man, or if it was just the dream of the“hero” envisioned.OrganizationThe rhythm of this commercial is based on the phenomenon of metamorphosis. It presents how agloomy, static and empty world can turn into a world of movement, pleasure and fulfillment. Thelast frames of the commercial show the conductor of the unusual rhythm of life – Old-spiceproducts.5.2.3. Axe “Even angels will fall” commercial (appendix 7)RepresentationThe video commercial, similarly to the previous two, presents a collision of two different worlds.The first world is a reality of a small Italian town with a highly religious culture given the2
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  35. 35. Tomas Jankauskis, 402872 MMC 2012 Bachelor Thesisresident’s reaction to the fallen angels. Although it is a small town, it seems very dynamic. As acontrast, the visitors from the second world enter and move throughout the premises carefully,gracefully and gently. Around them, time seizes to exist. Finally, the hero appears in the last shot,who even though he has common male features, having used the Axe product, he becomes thegod of the moment, turning everything upside down.OrientationClose camera shots of the angel, help expressing the female perfection, tenderness, purity andinnocence hidden behind the faces of the angels. In addition, the choice of the female modelswas interracial, for the viewer to find the one he likes the most, as well as to make him see thatthe scent, that is making all the angels fall down is universally agreed upon to be attractive.Concerning the hero, he is shot in close social distance, as for the viewer to be able to familiarizehimself with the fact, that the model is not too athletic or hyped in any other way.OrganizationThe video is built on a narrative, climax structure, which makes the viewer guess, think andinterpret more, eventually leading to a higher rate of recall. Its rhythm is formed with the help ofthe video editing that put slow motion effect on the fallen angels as for them to be distinguishedfrom the environment. What is more, the biblical soundtrack connects the two worlds, as it isrelevant both for the background of an Italian city, as well as the God’s messengers.5.2.4. Axe “Courtroom” commercial (appendix 8)RepresentationThe final video of the analysis presents a courtroom, which associates with justice,distinguishing what is moral and lawful from what is wrong and illegal: the gates to twopolarized worlds of either imprisonment or freedom. The offender in the trial is presented ascalm, silent and discrete - resembles a vicious, coldhearted criminal. On the other hand, thespeech presents a different story adding an unusual dimension of humor. The reality becomesmisleading, thus the viewer becomes interested in finding what the cause of this unnaturalbehavior is. Finally, an answer comes up in white letters on a black background, resembling alaw or a rule, giving credibility to the statement.2
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  37. 37. Tomas Jankauskis, 402872 MMC 2012 Bachelor ThesisOrientationThe viewer is offered a detached camera angle that allows him to see the full picture, thus he isjust the observant. The speech, intonation and the set-up are intended to resemble an actualcourtroom case from television shows, which, given to its unmusicality would gain the viewer’sattention. In addition, the courtroom background represents conflict, which is one of severalfactors of interest, that help gaining and maintaining the viewer.OrganizationSimilar to the previous commercial, it is based on the narrative climax structure that keeps theviewer interested throughout, as it does not provide many hints of what it actually is promoting.Its rhythm is based on the monotonous speech of the judge that explains the reality presented.6. Persuasion and Branding6.1. Persuasive strategiesThe multimodal analysis of print and video advertisements provided with several genericconclusions that can be made on both Axe and Old-spice choices. The following paragraphs willprovide a brief comparison of the persuasive strategies identified in the ads.Firstly, looking at the approach to their customer, Old-spice bases their persuasion mainly on thecentral route by providing factual reasons to buy their product (“smell like a man”, “smell betterthan yourself”, “not like a lady”). However, they do use attractive male models that representwhat the customer would become had he started using Old-spice which is a false claim andappealing through peripheral route (Gass & Seiter on Petty & Cacioppo, 2011). On the otherhand, Axe expects their customers to use mainly peripheral processing when buying a deodorant,thus all of their advertising is based on superficial claims about the popularity the products gainsfor its user (“girls are turning naughty”, “even angels will fall”).The polarized difference in persuasion strategies is further notable, when comparing thecompanies in regard of implicitness and explicitness of their messages (Halmari & Virtanen,2005). In the video commercials, Old-spice having chosen the central route to persuasion, arepromoting their product explicitly – from the very first moments, the audience is aware of what2
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  39. 39. Tomas Jankauskis, 402872 MMC 2012 Bachelor Thesisthe commercial is trying to sell. As an opposite, Axe keep their audience uncertain until the verylast moments, when they introduce their product. This pattern prevails in the print ads as well. Aneasy way to see the implicitness is by removing the Axe deodorant bottle from the bottom corner– the viewer could neither tell the company, nor the type of product that is being promoted.Finally, it would be relevant to look at how the advertisements connect with the audience. Theonly common aspect identified in both companies is a subtle usage of humor. Old-spice does thisby making fun of men, who do not use their products, while Axe make false claims that areironically opposite from the reality (appendix 3, appendix 8). Besides humor, Old-spice appealsto their audience by creating the feelings of guilt, which is normally used in social marketingcampaigns (Gass & Seiter, 2011). In addition, they create what could be seen as a conflictbetween two worlds: one where men do not use Old-spice and the other, superior world withtheir shower gels and deodorants. On the other hand, Axe mainly uses sexual appeals. They do itto such extents that they do not even visualize their prospect customer in their print ads; insteadthey choose attractive female models that represent the alleged reality the customer would live inif he would use the product. However, when they do show or describe him (appendix 3, appendix7), he appears to be a typical male, thus the company appeals to the audience throughfamiliarization as well (Benoit & Benoit, 2008).6.2. BrandingThe second and last part of this chapter will briefly look at how the persuasive strategies helpstrengthening the brand. It will refer to the brand dimensions theory by Thomas Gad (2003). Thefunctional dimensions will be overlooked as advertising’s direct relation with it – helpmaximizing sales – is evident, while the spiritual dimension, as aforementioned in theintroduction, has been disregarded by both companies.Filling the social dimension via advertising is a complicated task, especially if the promotedproduct is something as personal as a deodorant bottle. Nonetheless, Old-spice have chosen touse the new social media communicative opportunities of marketing outside the frame of theadvertisement. The company extended the “Old-spice man” campaign by offering people onvarious social media platforms to ask their hero, Isaiah Mustafa, questions. They then posted 8726
  40. 40. Tomas Jankauskis, 402872 MMC 2012 Bachelor Thesisshort videos, responding to posts by celebrities as well as the general audience.12In addition,customers, motivated by the communication and response, responded themselves with variousparodies of the “Old-spice man”. On the other hand, Axe have chosen to remain within the frame.The third, mental dimension seems to be fulfilled by both companies. Old-spice suggest thateveryone should find the inner alpha male hidden within him, which can be achieved byimproving their grooming habits. At the same moment, Axe by familiarizing with their audience,implicitly encourage men to be less insecure when they are in front of desirable women. Bothcompanies present fragrance, something that is intangible, as a product that will bring tangiblechanges to their customer’s personality and image.Finally, the dimensional findings closely relate to the storytelling theory. In almost everyadvertisement they produce, Axe are telling the persistent story of the “Axe effect”. This could bereferred to as the company’s core story, portraying Axe as an aspirational leader of men to a lifesurrounded by desirable women. On the other hand, Old-spice do not promote a core story intheir ads. Instead, they use storytelling as a constant tool for presenting new products. They haveidentified that storytelling brings more success due to its provision of an ability to create animage of a man, to which the customer can or wants to relate (Fog, 2011).7. ConclusionThe thesis provides an analysis of Old-spice and Axe marketing campaigns. Its aims to identifythe persuasive strategies used across semiotic modes, while also finding how these strategiescontribute to strengthening Old-spice and Axe brands. As a method of the analysis, the thesisuses a complex interdisciplinary framework compiled of theories from three distinct fields:discourse analysis, persuasion and branding. First off, the multimodal analysis reveals that eventhough both companies use gender stereotypes as a general theme for their campaigns, theirpromotional communication varies. Old-spice use the central route to persuasion, where theyexplicitly state what they are selling. Since this would not differentiate them from othercompanies, they have chosen to appeal through guilt which alongside humor appeal formulatesan unusual strategy, thus even though they are explicit and in other words, obvious in what theyare promoting, the textual and visual choices of the advertisements are unexpected, thus12http://www.readwriteweb.com/archives/how_old_spice_won_the_internet.php27
  41. 41. Tomas Jankauskis, 402872 MMC 2012 Bachelor Thesismemorable. On the other hand, Axe approach their viewers through the peripheral route, creatingclimax structure advertisements, where the viewer has to guess, and interpret the visualinformation, before the textual element provides him the answer at the very end. This is asuccessful way to manipulate the general explicitness of the genre of advertising, which manycompanies have also accomplished. Therefore, Axe in addition have chosen to appeal throughfamiliarity, choosing male models that resemble an average man. This also contributes to themental dimension of branding. Both companies encourage men to be different: more confident,masculine, “better than themselves”. The companies tell stories, which define the their traits,making the brand not only a title on the product package, but also a set of values, their customerscan relate with and a story, they would like to be a part of.Having provided the answers to the problem statement, the further exploration of the field wouldbe using a similar methodological approach to analyze how companies promote fragrance towomen. The ability to compare the results to the ones found in this thesis would help identifyinggeneric patterns of promoting fragrance.2
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  43. 43. Tomas Jankauskis, 402872 MMC 2012 Bachelor ThesisReferencesKress, G. and Van Leeuwen, T., 2004. Reading Images The Grammar of Visual Design. Secondedition. Routledge.Stillar, G., F., 1998. Analysing everyday texts. Discourse, rhetoric and soial perspectives. Sagepublications, pp 14-57.Kress, G. and Van Leeuwen, T., 2001. Multimodal discourse: the modes and media ofcontemporary communication. Arnold, pp 1-27.Van Leeuwen, T., 2005. Introducing Social Semiotics. Routledge, pp 219-247.Idema, R. (2001). Analysing Film And Television: a Social Semiotic Account of Hospital:anunhealthy business. In: Van Leeuwen, T. and Jewitt, C.. Handbook of Visual analysis.Sage, pp 183-204.Halmari, H., and Virtanen, T., 2005. Persuasion Across Genres. Amsterdam, John Benjamins. pp213-243.Benoit, L., W., and Benoit, J., P., 2008. Persuasive Messages. The Process of Influence.Blackwell publishing.Gass, R. & Seiter, J., 2011. Persuasion, Social Influence and Compliance Gaining, fourth edition,Paerson Education, Inc.Ind, N., 2003. Beyond Branding. How The New Values Of Transparency And Integrity AreChanging The Wolrd Of Brands. Kogan Page.Thomas Gad, 2003. Leadership Branding. In: Thomas Ind. Beyond Branding. How The NewValues Of Transparency And Integrity Are Changing The Wolrd Of Brands. Kogan Page,pp 183-198.Fog, K., Budtz, C., Munch, P., Blanchette, S. 2011. Storytelling, Branding in Practice.Samfundslitteratur Press.Sherratt, Y., 2005. Continental Philosophy of Social Science. Hermeneutics, Genealogy andCritical Theory from Ancient Greece to the 21 century. Cambridge University Press.2
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  45. 45. Tomas Jankauskis, 402872 MMC 2012 Bachelor ThesisPalmer R., E., 1969. Hermeneutics. Interpretation Theory in Schleimacher, Dilthey, Heideggerand Gradamer. Northwestern University Press, pp 84-97.Web linkshttp://sbinformation.about.com/od/startingabusiness/a/bizopgrooming.htmhttp://www.bestthinking.com/trendingtopics/business_and_finance/sales_and_marketing/advertising/gender-stereotyping-in-adshttp://www.bestthinking.com/trendingtopic/relateditem/1965http://www.basenotes.net/company/102709http://thisisnotadvertising.wordpress.com/2011/11/07/15-years-of-axe-effect-the-worlds-most-sexist-advertising-campaign/http://www.basenotes.net/ID26121214.html http://mashable.com/2011/03/16/old-spice-imitators/ http://www.wisegeek.com/what-are-semiotics.htmhttp://www.thefreedictionary.com/persuasionhttp://www.gmarketing.com/articles/6-memorize-these-12-words-then-live-by-themhttp://iconicphotos.wordpress.com/2009/10/19/the-marlboro-man/http://www.readwriteweb.com/archives/how_old_spice_won_the_internet.php3
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  47. 47. Tomas Jankauskis, 402872 MMC 2012 Bachelor ThesisAppendicesAppendix 1. Old-spice “lumberjack”.Visual (Kress & Van Leeuwen) Textual (M.A.K. Halliday) Persuasive theoriesIdeational: Ideational (Field): Humor appeal, fear appeal?,
  48. 48. Narrative processes: Resultative action – smell like a man. guilt appeal, curiosity.A non-transactional process – the actor, No time reference.athletic male, with “lumberjack” suit madeConcept taxonomy: smell like a man,meaningof foam, naked underneath – sex appeal, not like a woman.masculine, promoting the Old-spiceproduct.A transactional reaction - the female modellooking up to her man, admiration,affection.Circumstances: the deo an shower gel atthebottom of the page, only necessary to showthat the “lumberjack” fragrance isavailableboth as a deo and a shower gel.Background of the bathroom – intimatelocation, usually occupied by singleperson,thus a male and female at the samemomentleads to interpreting a relationship ofcertainkindFoam duck flying over – totally random,though an addition to the discourse of thelumberjack, though likely to be used as a‘random’ humor element.Conceptual process – analytical carrier –theshower gel bottle and its attributes ofcreating a lumberjack in any man.Interpersonal: Interpersonal (Tenor):Demand picture – The “main” actor, the Imperative statement. Commanding to useused of “Old-spice” products staring at the their product, as the scent that it producesviewer, demanding him to use the product makes the user smell like a man.31
  49. 49. Tomas Jankauskis, 402872 MMC 2012 Bachelor Thesisand “smell like a man, man”. Refers to the audience as man as to define itstarget audience, as well as complement theLong impersonal shot, full figure view – as teen-aged segment of the audience, who doto see the “full” picture of what the not yet feel as men.fragrance causes.Objective angle – “this is how it works”.Intentional white choices of bathroombackground – a. cleanness; b. stress out theactors and the red bottle of “Old-spice”.Textual: Textual (Mode):Very low salience and high connection, Unmarked theme.almost made as to be naturally written onthe bath tub. Makes it look and soundmorelike a rule, that every man should thinkabout when he enters the bathroom for ashower.32
  50. 50. Tomas Jankauskis, 402872 MMC 2012 Bachelor ThesisAppendix 2. Old-spice “There’s a man in there”Visual (Kress & Van Leeuwen) Textual (M.A.K. Halliday) Persuasive theories
  51. 51. Ideational: Ideational (Field): Curiosity, humor, guilt appeal.Narrative structure: Relational classification process – is a man.A non-transactive reaction.Resultative action – smell better thanyourself.The reacter here is supposed to stand for astereotypical male, but being nerdy,slightlyTime perspective – now, as is is presenttense.overweight, plain simple, a person who has Urging to act now, because there hides a rockgiven up on grooming was anexaggeration, star that wants to be unleashed.which was to create a higher contrast fromthe right side of, which depicts what the Concept taxonomy: better that yourselfOld-spice scent “makes” its user look and meaning currently the audience smells bad.feel like. When one hand holds an old-spice,other hand is rocking the guitar.Circumstances are the secondaryparticipants which is Old-spice bottles,which are unnecessary given that the brandname is already in the textual part.Conceptional structure:Symbolic carrier - The rock star image,associates with massive popularity amongwomen, braveness, freedom, doing whathewants, popularity, iconicity. Everybodywants to be a rock star.Interpersonal: Interpersonal (Tenor):Offer picture, no gaze to the viewer,viewer Direct statement, that there is a real manlycan fully observe the phenomenon of man hidden in every “regular” guy.transformation. Full shot, impersonal.Imperative sentence. Command, to smellLow color differentiation, many shades of better than yourself. Obliging to replace thebrown, though rich detail. current product the viewer is using with Old-33
  52. 52. Tomas Jankauskis, 402872 MMC 2012 Bachelor Thesisspice.Yourself direct reference to the viewer.Aggressive claim, that he does not smell asgood as he could.Textual: Textual (Mode):The textual element is centered, though Intentional repetition of “there”, making thetowards the bottom.sentence grammatically incorrect. – aimingtobe funny.Low salience, similar color palette, thoughformed as a blazon of a university. ‘Random’.all sum up to the discourse of universityandthe main actor being a ‘geeky’ person.Given – a typical nerdNew – a rock star34
  53. 53. Tomas Jankauskis, 402872 MMC 2012 Bachelor ThesisAppendix 3. Axe “The Axe Effect”
  54. 54. Visual (Kress & Van Leeuwen) Textual (M.A.K. Halliday) Persuasive theoriesIdeational: Ideational (Field): Familiarity, humor appeal, sexNarrative structure:Relational process – the carrier (the Axedeo), appeal.Bitransactional action – eye-line vectors has his attributes seat pants, flip flops, fannyinterconnected – mouths open – dialogue pack depicted, which lead to him beingbetween two young attractive female attractive.models, one of whose sentence is written Resultative action – he was just asking to getabove.hit on . Unclear if he already got hit on, orwillbe in future.Participants: young women, open clothing, Circumstance of cause related action.attracting attention, open postures, legvectors towards the viewer as if he were inNo time references, but could be interpretedasthe “triangle” of conversation. Alsoposture‘morning’ as the visually seems bright, aswelland holding cylindrical objects –considered as coffee makes in more believable to beas flirting. The left one is telling the story, earlier in the day. Possibly, after he got hit onwhile the right one shows facialexpressions either in the gym or the night before.of approval.Bottom text – company slogan.Circumstances: background of either acafé,or a café-corner at the gym, given how oneof the actors is dressed.Conceptual structure:Analytical – the deo bottle – with itsattributal aspects depicted as it beinglinkedto women talking about the user.Interpersonal: Interpersonal (Tenor):Offer picture – absence of gaze, actors are Direct statement.35
  55. 55. Tomas Jankauskis, 402872 MMC 2012 Bachelor Thesisused as objects of contemplation.Sentence structure – attitudinal, assesses aSocial distance – medium shot – close certainty of traits as in physical aspects thatdistance. cause getting hit on.Equal involving angle of shot.Modality markers: Pastelic color range,wellsaturated. Also, brightness adjustmentsmade – dark colors darkened, while lightcolors brightened – stress out the actors,make them more tanned- more attractive.Textual: Textual (Mode):Polarized: Marked structure – DO he, indirect objectsIdeal: text about the ‘hero’ of the sweat pants, flip flops, fanny pack. Adjustedadvertisement, that tells his attributes. unusual sentence structure, ellipsis of DosReal: the reason for the story – axe relation to IOs, as it can be assumed all fordeodorant. better humor effect.High salience – text in white color thatIrony – IOs are in opposite considered astraitsstands out, also large font with borders. that do not attract women – humor appeal.No framing efforts, text input directly into Slang - get hit on - to be approached withbackground, only marginal borders effect, sexual intentionsno drop shadow or any other possibilities.36
  56. 56. Tomas Jankauskis, 402872 MMC 2012 Bachelor ThesisAppendix 4. Axe “The Axe Effect”
  57. 57. Visual (Kress & Van Leeuwen) Textual (M.A.K. Halliday) Persuasive theoriesIdeational: Ideational (Field): Curiosity, humorConceptual structures: Process type: appeal, sex appeal.Symbolic participant - a young woman model incan happen - resultative action , though theactionbathing suit – a stereotypical female of stays undefined.advertisements – aimed to catch male attention.Circumstantial roles:Attributive carrier – although turned her back – place – anywhere, again undefined, forms aposes for the viewer showing stress marks from a discourse of ‘mystery’.steering-wheel.reason - longer lasting axe effect as a reason foritto happen.Symbolic attributes: young, wild, free,spontaneous, the stress mark – as she is the Time and perspective:“chosen one”.can happen – modal verb, expresses likelihoodofthe action to be true.Focusing on the specific moment.Also analytical process – the deo bottle thecarrier,and the background as its “attribute” – what itcauses.Narrative structure:Non-transactional reaction – eye-line vectordownwards gaze – pose of ‘shame, guilt’. Alsohand -> underwear vector, draw attention –sexualappeal.Circumstances – background is vague, water andsome shore – also a pillow, seems to be a yacht,given the stress marks of the steering-wheel did37
  58. 58. Tomas Jankauskis, 402872 MMC 2012 Bachelor Thesisnot resemble a car streering-wheel.The stress marks on the back lead to interpret atwo phase narrative, when phase one has alreadyhappened and the ad depict phase two - reaction.Interpersonal: Interpersonal (Tenor):Offer picture – no contact with the viewer. Declarative sentences –sender provides withstatements. Persuading that the longer lastingDistance – social, medium shot effect will cause it to happen (hidden modality?).Equal, involvement angle – viewer welcomed to Modality:analyze the ad. can happen – indicates possibility.High pictorial detail, increased brightness to addangelic look.All interpersonal elements aimed at stressing outthe stress marks.Textual: Textual (Mode):Centered composition: triptych positioning oftext: Theme: unmarked ??bottom right corner – standard.Cohesion:High salience of element – positioned on the leg Exophoric referenceof the model, near the hand vector, as to better it : to the image above the text. Explains what itdraw attention. is.Absence of framing. Ellipsis of connection/relation between the twosentences.38
  59. 59. Tomas Jankauskis, 402872 MMC 2012 Bachelor Thesis
  60. 60. Appendix 5. The man you could smell like (video).Scene Script Visual (Iedema) Textual (M.A.K.Halliday)0:01Hello ladies. Representation: Ideational:0:02Look at your man. Scene depicts an athleticMotion processes: lookat0:02Now back to me. male, confidentyour man and back tome0:03Now back at your posture/tone, attractive, (ellipsis).man. “ideal”?.Relational processes:isn’t0:04Now back to me. The audience is verbally me and could smell like0:05Sadly, he isnt me. and visually being me.0:07But if he stopped convinced to believe, that Circumstance of cause:using lady scentedbody he is the man, every man stop using lady scentedwash and switched should look/be like. body wash.0:09to Old Spice, he Orientation: Time: now.could smell like hesme.Close intimate frontalcame Formulates the world,0:11Look down.angle, moving closer,strong where all males are0:12Back up. eye contact, orders to theclaimed to be usingfemaleaudience – constructingthescented body wash andnotnot so perfect reality ofthe as attractive as the maleaudience, not questioningit model.(like usual advert.). Strong Interpersonal:involvement of viewer.Speech function: mainlytoOrganization: command.Non-stop sentences, fast Modality could expressesconfident rhythm, also possibility of solving thedynamic – interacting with madethe audience bothtextually up issue.and visually. sadly – attitude of theIntroducing the problemandspeaker, cont. todiscourseproviding the partial of pity to men who usesolution.lady scented shower gelaswell as females who haveto live with it.Textual:Marked theme:DO – the prospect user“he”, IOs – the actor inthe ad or “me”, “ladyscented body wash”,“Old-spice”.Logical coherence: issue->reasons-> solution.Short sentences.Repetition “me”.0:13Where are you? Representation: Ideational:
  61. 61. 0:14Youre on a boat Boat/yacht representsMore relationalprocesses,with the man your manfreedom, relaxation,dreams involving the viewer:could smell like. – deity experience.where are you? what isin0:16Whats in your Orientation: your hand?hand? More further shot, as to Interpersonal:0:17Back at me. grasp the exotic view. Speech function: also toOrganization: interact, many referencesDefining values, as theactor to viewer: you, your. Alsoand his scent is most questioning the audience.39Tomas Jankauskis, 402872MMC 2012 BachelorThesisimportant here.0:18I have it. Representation: Ideational:0:19Its an oyster with Oyster and smth inside – Mental reactive process:two tickets to that thing reference to mermaid thing you love.you love. fairytale. Assuming audience –“Tickets to the thing youfemale – loves going outtolove” – humor as inconcerts/theaters /movies.stereotypical male Gaining compliance?disinterest in woman’sinterest intheater/opera/movies,buying gifts expectingsexual favor in return.Orientation:Back to intimate angle,resemblance of actual casewhen male gifts a female.Organization:Providing arguments forthesolution, false gains.0:22The tickets arenow Representation:diamonds.Humor cont.:exaggeration,0:24Anything ispossibleunreal, given previous -hintwhen your man smells of disrespect to women, aslike Old they are only interested in0:26Spice and not amaterial gain and onlygoodlady. looks in men.Organization:Rephrasing the problem,asto humiliate the malesagainand again instantlyproviding a solution.0:27Im on a horse Representation: :Aspect of randomness,alsohorse;
  62. 62. False reality claims:everything achievable ifusing Old-spice.Persuasion: fear appeal, guilt appeal, sex appeal, humor, conflict, curiosity, movement.T&V: Creating mixed emotions40
  63. 63. Tomas Jankauskis, 402872 MMC 2012 Bachelor ThesisAppendix 6. Motorcycle (video).Scene Script Visual (Iedema) Textual (M.A.K.Halliday)- Representation: -The hero:” typical guy”, though overweight,slow, emotionless /unhappy.No speech, no background music – unusualgiven the background of the gym.All participants in a stance of thought,possiblydreaming of being a better man.Constructing exaggerated reality, discourse ofdissatisfaction with life, looking for solutions–gym as one of them.Also ironical choice of participants – noathleticmales – humor appeal.Orientation:Long distance shot, allows the viewer to seethefull picture, possibly identify himself with it.Organization:No speech, viewer left to interpret thesituationhimself.- Representation: -Just the smell of Old-spice led to atransformation of hero to a new, extremelymasculine and athletic look.Fantasy, unreal aimed to entertain.- Representation: -An athletic male on a motorcycle – everygirl’ssecret dream of dating a wild, courageous,rough, macho type guy.Motorcycle – a symbol of freedom,adventures,independence, risk.A brown bear in the Jacuzzi – another symbolof manliness, although unreal, anotherexaggeration to create a humor effect.Organization:A sequence of scene where the hero wasthinking, dreaming about something to a scenewhere he becomes a macho, makes reason tobelieve, that it was his dream that turned torealityPersuasion: guilt appeal, humor, movement.
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  65. 65. Tomas Jankauskis, 402872 MMC 2012 Bachelor ThesisAppendix 7. Axe “Even angels will fall” (video)Scene Script Visual (Iedema)Textual(M.A.K.Halliday)- Representation: -First scenes depict what looks like southernEuropean city, musical background reminds ofonefrom catholic church psalms, not everyday realityto most.Out of a sudden, something falls down – unreal.Main goal to arouse interest.Orientation:Many different angles, close up shots, dynamicvideo, with sounds that appeal to emotionally –sadmelody.Viewer has no idea what the advertisementpromotes.- Representation: -Fallen angel – represents …Angel – associated with divine beauty, foundnowhere on Earth, innocence, virginity, femaleperfection, unearthly powers, tenderness, purity.Many angels start falling, interracial choice offemale models.Orientation:Lengthy close shots of the angel for the viewer toobtain its beauty. Also models with differentcolored skin appealing to people around theworld.Also – worldwide agreement that this scent isamazing.00:22 Representation: Textual:“Mamma Italian chatter confirms of a small Italian city Common ItalianMia!” background, cradle of Christianity, people in the saying when00:26*Other video seem shocked and affected emotionally by surprised.Italian the reality presented.chatter* Organization:Two types of scenes, either background of peoplesamazement, or close shots of angels. Action-reaction process. Sound and minor speechelementscomplement or elaborate the visual information.- Representation: -Smell – one of five senses. Also the most mysticalin the context of using it as a method of attraction.Reference to aphrodisiacs, in literature used bymagical creatures.Since angels are falling down because of it, thismystery scent is turning the world upside down.Orientation:
  66. 66. Smell narrows down the products, that could beadvertised here, but viewer still clueless whether42
  67. 67. Tomas Jankauskis, 402872 MMC 2012 Bachelor Thesisthis is an ad for perfume, washing powder, bakeryor whatever else that produces smell.- Representation: -the hero – typical everyday male.Orientation:Viewers can identify with the hero.- Representation: -Refusing to wear the aureole any more – sins,chaos, loosing virginity, shift of control: now thetypical everyday guy is supposed to look after theangels.Orientation:Close intimate shots of angel faces, flirty facialexpressions – sexual appeal.00:56 New Representation: Ideational:Axe ExciteThe man, semi-naked, looks to be very typical,not Motion process:00:58 Evenhyped, not muscular – familiar with the audience-- will fall.angels will - back to reality. Appeal to familiarity. Also Time: future,fall intimate location – bedroom, sexual hints, aswhen theprospectusually its common to put on deo in the bathroom. customer willOrientation: start using Axe.The viewer is welcome to see for himself that heis Interpersonal:no different than the hero, and that he could be as Modality:popular among women as advertised. will, expressesOrganization: trust inOverall climax structure - making the viewerthink, effectivenessguess, interpret, thus memorize more. Textual:evenPersuasion: movement, curiosity, familiarity.
  68. 68. 43Tomas Jankauskis,402872 MMC 2012 Bachelor ThesisAppendix 8. Axe “Vice” (video)Scene Script Visual (Iedema) Textual (M.A.K.Halliday)00:02 On two Representation: Ideational:misdemeanor counts Courtroom environment – justice, Motion processes:of indecentexposure,defining/judging what is goodand exposure, riding.how do you find? what is bad, no ambient noise – Professional language00:05 Guilty. focus, not exaggerated sense of used to describe the00:06 On two familiarity with people, real unusual violations.misdemeanormoving environment. But immediately Time: past. Womanviolations of riding a becomes false as the judge starts stands in court fornaked man like a naming the violations – humor misdemeanor instances.pony? appeal. Interpersonal:Orientation: Statements.Viewer confronted with the view Authoritativeof the judge side, unacquaintedincriminating tone ofthewith the criminal – mystery. judge – professional,Reminds of justice television even though the crimesshows. Goal to catch attention. are humorous. SeriousOrganization:versus bizarre –commonNatural order of a courtroomcase. humor theme.Attitudinal lexis:indecent, unlawful,Textual:Marked theme.Cohesion throughassumed conjunctures(ellipsis of and).00:09 Guilty. Representation: Ideational:00:10 NudenessThe audience is presented withthe Attributive processesincluding an entire criminal, given the vocal nudeness, exposure.case of New Zealand information, it is clear that the Action processescumquats? woman character is the criminal, impersonating,00:13 Impersonatinga while the man besides is her pothering.registered nurse,lawyer. Reality of facing thejustice Textual:00:15 Unlawful system. The offender seems calm,pothering of a man’s silent, discrete – viciouswig, coldhearted criminal.00:17 Assault with a Orientation:Ping-Pong paddle, Again diagonal side angle – not00:19 Assault with a involving the viewer, giving himball gag, the task of observation.00:21 Exposure in agiant chickencostume, how doyou
  69. 69. find?00:25 Guilty, your Representation: Ideational:honor. Black and white: polarized colors, Relational attributivetext emphasized as a “fact”. processOrientation: are turning naughty.Silence, no disruption for the Time reference:viewer to read the “punch-line” of currently.the joke that this advertisementhas Interpersonal:44
  70. 70. Tomas Jankauskis, 402872 MMC 2012 Bachelor Thesisbeen formulated to look like. Direct statementAttitudinal lexisnaughty.Representation: Ideational:Viewer confronted with “Axe”Mental cognitiveprocess:products as a reason to these find out why. Evenunnatural events in the reality though the viewer canpresented. come up with theOrientation: conclusion, he is offeredDirect confrontation with the to read more about it.viewer, full size centered pictureof Interpersonal:the products. Command but in a senseOrganization: of offering.Climax structurePersuasion: humor, curiosity, familiarity.
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