Successfully reported this slideshow.
Your SlideShare is downloading. ×

3.growth & Development.pptx

Upcoming SlideShare
MTET- Special Edition (2019)
MTET- Special Edition (2019)
Loading in …3

Check these out next

1 of 55 Ad

More Related Content

Similar to 3.growth & Development.pptx (20)

Recently uploaded (20)


3.growth & Development.pptx

  1. 1. Pediatric Nursing (Seminar - 3) Growth & Development Tagreed Awad Khalid KU – Nursing Collage - PhD (4) 2016
  2. 2. Objectives At the end of this presentation, the objectives should be achieved are: 1. Define growth 2. Define development 3. Define maturation 4. Identify principles of growth and development . 5. Identify factors that affect growth and development. 6. Enumerate stages of growth and development in pediatric 7. Discuss theories of development .
  3. 3. Introduction O All children pass through predictable stages of growth and development as they mature. O Parents often ask what to expect from their children regarding their developmental progress at health care visits. O Growth and development are interrelated, ongoing processes in infancy and childhood O Growth and development is essential in the establishment of complete and effective nursing care plans for children
  4. 4. Outlines: 1. Definition of growth, development and maturation 2. Principles of growth and development. 3. Factors that influence child's growth and development 4. Stages of growth and development in pediatrics. 5. Theories of development
  5. 5. Fundamental Concepts of Growth and Development O Growth refers to the quantitative changes in physical size of the body and its parts. O Development refers to behavioral changes and increasing competency in functional abilities and skills. O Maturation describes the increasing complexity of a person’s capabilities. O Maturation involves biological growth, functional changes, and learning that come with age.
  6. 6. 17-6 Principles of Growth and Development 1. Occurs in a cephalocaudal direction and proximodistal manner 2. Occurs from simple to complex and from the general to the specific 3. All individuals go through the same developmental processes.
  7. 7. 17-7 4. Growth and development do not proceed at a consistent rate. 5. The pattern of growth and development is continuous, orderly, and predictable. 6. Every person proceeds through stages of growth and development at an individual rate. 7. Every stage of development has specific characteristics. 8. Each stage of development has certain tasks to be achieved or acquired during that specific time Principles of Growth and Development
  8. 8. Principles of Growth and Development 9. Some stages of growth and development are more critical than others. 10. A critical period can be a time of the most rapid growth or development in a particular stage of the life cycle. 11. Growth and development may temporarily be regress during critical periods.
  9. 9. Factors Influencing Growth and Development 1. Heredity O The genetic composition of an individual determines physical characteristics. O Determines to a great extent the rate of physical and mental development. 2. Gender O On average, girls are born lighter (by an ounce or two) and shorter (by an inch or two) than boys.
  10. 10. Factors Influencing Growth and Development 3. Health Status : O Illness or disability can interfere with the achievement of developmental milestones. 4. Life Experiences O A child’s experiences can influence the rate of growth and development. 5. Cultural Expectations O The age at which an individual masters a particular task is determined in part by culture.
  11. 11. 6. Environment Environment can interfere with the achievement of developmental milestones (pollution – acquired environmental disease) 7. Nutrition nutrition has become a major focus of health promotion and disease prevention the quality of a child’s nutrition during the growing years has a major influence o health and stature
  12. 12. Developmental Milestones O For each period of growth and development in a child, there are four major parameters within which developmental milestones (significant points in the growth process) occur: O Physical Development O Intellectual-Cognitive Development O Psycho-Emotional Development O Social Development
  13. 13. Physical Development O Refers to the actual bodily changes observed in a client during a particular period of growth O Sometimes these changes are measurable O Example: height and weight are measurable physical attributes Intellectual-Cognitive Development O Refers to the thinking skills a client develops during a particular period of growth and development
  14. 14. Psycho-Emotional Development O Refers to the changes in feelings a client may be likely to experience during a particular period Social Development O Refers to the way in which a child interact with those around him, such as Family ,Friends, Business associates O It is important to note that the way one child interacts with another depends upon the child with whom he is interacting O Example: a teen may speak differently with a parent than he would with a friend or peer
  15. 15. PERIOD OF DEVELOPMENT O Time frame in life characterized by certain features, usually involving an 8-period sequence
  16. 16. 8 – PERIOD SEQUENCE 1. Prenatal period: conception to birth. 2. Infancy – Birth to 1 year 3. Early childhood – 1-6 years 4. Late childhood – 6-12 years 5. Adolescence – 12-18 years 6. Early adulthood – 19-40 years 7. Middle adulthood – 40-65 years 8. Late adulthood – 65 years and older
  17. 17. Pediatric Stages 1) Prenatal period O Conception to birth: O From single cell to complete organism with complex brain and nervous system capable to variety of behaviors
  18. 18. 2) Infancy: O Birth to 12 months; O Extreme dependency on adults and other older individuals. O Psychological activity begins 3) Early Childhood: • Age 2 to 5 or 6 • Preschool years • become more self-sufficient • learn school readiness skills such as following instructions and recognizing letters and colors
  19. 19. 4) Middle and Late Childhood: O From 6 to 11 or 12 O Elementary school years; O Master basic skills of reading, writing and arithmetic; O Achievement is central theme; O Person shows increasing self-control;
  20. 20. 5) Adolescence: O Transition from childhood to early adulthood; O From 10-12 to age 18-22 O Begins with rapid physical changes characteristic of puberty O Major goals becoming independent and developing an individual identity O Thinking more logical and abstract
  22. 22. THEORY O A theory is a systematic statement of principles that provides a framework for explaining some phenomenon. O Developmental theories provide road maps for explaining human development.
  23. 23. DEVELOPMENTAL TASK O A developmental task is a skill or a growth responsibility arising at a particular time in an individual’s life. O The achievement of which will provide a foundation for the accomplishment of future tasks.
  24. 24. Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory O Sigmund Freud (1856–1939) O An Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, offered the first real theory of personality development O He described child development as being a series of psychosexual stages in which a child’s sexual gratification becomes focused on a particular body part.
  25. 25. FREUD’S PSYCHOSEXUAL STAGE O INFANT 1. “Oral Stage”: O Child explores the world by using mouth, especially the tongue O Nursing Implication: provide oral stimulation by giving pacifiers, do not discourage thumb- sucking O Breast feeding has more stimulation than formula feeding
  26. 26. FREUD’S PSYCHOSEXUAL STAGE O TODDLER (1- 3 years) 2. “Anal Stage”: O Child learns to control urination and defecation O Nursing Implication: help children achieve bowel and bladder control
  27. 27. FREUD’S PSYCHOSEXUAL STAGE O PRESCHOOLER 3. “Phallic Stage” O Child learns sexual identity through awareness of genital area O Nursing Implication: Accept children’s sexual interest, such as fondling their own genitals, as a normal area of exploration; help parents answer child’s questions about birth and sexual differences O Masturbation is common during this phase.
  28. 28. FREUD’S PSYCHOSEXUAL STAGE O SCHOOLAGE 4. “Latent Stage”: O Child’s personality development appears to be nonactive or dormant O Nursing Implication: Help children have positive experiences with learning so their self-esteem continues to grow.
  29. 29. Freud’s Psychosexual Stages O ADOLESCENT 5. “Genital Stage” O Develops sexual maturity and learns to establish satisfactory relationships with the opposite sex. O Nursing Implication: Provide appropriate opportunities for the child to relate with the opposite sex; allow the child to verbalize feelings about new relationships.
  30. 30. Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development O Erik Erikson (1902–1996) O Was trained in psychoanalytic theory but later developed his own theory of psychosocial development O A theory that stresses the importance of culture and society in development of the personality
  31. 31. Erikson’s Psychosocial Developmental Stages O INFANT O Developmental Task “TRUST VS MISTRUST” O Child learns to love and be loved O Nursing Implication: Provide a primary caregiver; provide experiences that add to security, such as soft sounds and touch; provide visual stimulation for active child involvement
  32. 32. Erikson’s Psychosocial Developmental Stages O TODDLER O Developmental Task “AUTONOMY VS SHAME” O Child learns to be independent and makes decisions for self O Nursing Implication: provide opportunities for decision making; praise for ability to make decisions rather than judging correctness of any one decision
  33. 33. Erikson’s Psychosocial Developmental Stages O PRESCHOOOLER O Developmental Task “INITIATIVE VS GUILT” O Child learns how to do things (basic problem solving) and that doing things is desirable O Nursing Implication: Provide opportunities for exploring new places or activities; allow play to include activities involving water, clay (for modeling), or finger paint
  34. 34. Erikson’s Psychosocial Developmental Stages O SCHOOLAGE O Developmental Task “INDUSTRY VS. INFERIORITY” O Child learns how to do things well O Nursing Implication: provide opportunities such as allowing child to assemble and complete a short project so that child feels rewarded for accomplishment
  35. 35. Erikson’s Psychosocial Developmental Stages O ADOLESCENT O Developmental Task “IDENTITY VS ROLE CONFUSION” O Adolescents learn who they are and what kind of person they will be; seeking emancipation from parents and choosing a vocation O Nursing Implication: Provide opportunities for an adolescent to discuss feelings about events important to him or her; offer support and praise for decision making.
  36. 36. Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development O Jean Piaget (1896–1980) O A Swiss psychologist, introduced concepts of cognitive development or the way children learn and think O Piaget defined four stages of cognitive development O Each period is an advance over the previous one. To progress from one period to the next, children reorganize their thinking processes to bring them closer to adult thinking.
  37. 37. Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development O SENSORYMOTOR STAGE O Infant’s stage O Babies relate to the world through their senses, using only reflex behavior. O Concept of “permanence” is present.
  38. 38. Sensorimotor O Neonatal reflex: 1 month: Stimuli are assimilated into beginning mental images. Behavior entirely reflexive. O Primary circular reaction : 1- 4 months - Hand- mouth and eye – ear coordination develop. - Infant spending much time looking at objects and separating self from them - Infant brings thumb to mouth to suck it. - Enjoyable activity for this period is a rattle or tape of parent's voice.
  39. 39. OSecondary circular reaction: 4-8months. - Infant learns to initiate, recognize and repeat a pleasurable experiences from environment. - Good toy is mirror, peek- a- boo.
  40. 40. OCoordination with secondary reaction: 8-12 mo - Infant can plan activity to attain specific goals. - Can search for and retrieve toy that disappears from view. - Recognize shapes and sizes of familiar objects. - Can experience separation anxiety. - Good toy: nesting toys (colored boxes)
  41. 41. O Tertiary circular reaction: 12- 18months. - Child is able to experiment to discover new properties of objects and events. - Capable of space perception, time and permanence. - Objects outside self are understood as cause off actions. - Good game: throw and retrieve
  42. 42. O Invention of new means through mental combinations: 18- 24 months: - Use memory and imitation to act. - Can solve basic problems. - Good toys: those with several uses, such as blocks, colored plastic rings.
  43. 43. Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development O PRE-OPERATIONAL THOUGHT O Toddler’s stage O Preschooler stage (Intuitive Thought) O Children relearn on a conceptual level some of the lessons they mastered as infants at the sensorimotor level, before having language.
  44. 44. O Preoperational thought 2-7 years: - children are able to use symbols to represent objects OEgocentric (unable to see the viewpoint of another) ODisplays static thinking (inability to remember what they started talking about) OConcept of time is now. ONo awareness of reversibility (opposite action) O unable to state cause effect relationships. OGood toy is that required imagination such as: modeling clay.
  45. 45. Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development 3.CONCRETE OPERATIONAL THOUGHT O School age Stage O Can discover concrete solutions to everyday problems and recognize cause-and-effect relationships.
  46. 46. O Concrete operation thought: - Uses memory to learn broad concepts (fruit) and subgroups of concepts (apples, oranges). - Classifications involve sorting objects according to attributes such as color; weight. - Child is aware of reversibility - Understands conservation - Good activity for this period: collecting and classifying natural objects such as native plants, sea shells
  47. 47. Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development O FORMAL OPERATIONAL THOUGHT O Adolescent stage O Adolescents are capable of thinking in terms of possibility—what could be (abstract thought)—rather than being limited to thinking about what already is
  48. 48. O Formal operational thought: 12 years - Can solve hypothetical problems with scientific reasoning. - Understand causality and can deal with past, present and future. - Good activity is (talk time)
  49. 49. Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development O Lawrence Kohlberg (1927–1987) O A psychologist, studied the reasoning ability of boys and, based on Piaget’s development stages. O Developed a theory on the way children gain knowledge of right and wrong or moral reasoning.
  50. 50. Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development 1. PRE-CONVENTIONAL - The Infant O Is a pre-religious stage. Infants learn moral concepts when they do certain actions, parents give affection and approval; for other actions, parents scold and label the behavior “bad.” O The development of trust is important in moral development O Infants who develop a sound sense of trust can better develop a spiritual orientation in future years or be a moral conscience
  51. 51. - The Toddler O Toddlers begin to formulate a sense of right and wrong, but their reason for doing right is centered most strongly in “mother or father says so” rather than in any spiritual or societal motivation. O Kohlberg referred to this as a “punishment obedience orientation” (a child is good because a parent says a child must be good, not because it is “right” to be good).
  52. 52. - The Preschooler O They tend to do good out of self-interest rather than out of true intent to do good or because of a strong spiritual motivation. O Children at this age also imitate what they see, so if they see less-than-perfect role models, they may copy those wrong actions, assuming those actions are correct. O They have great difficulty knowing what rules apply to new situations because they cannot judge whether a previously learned principle of right or wrong can be applied to this new situation
  53. 53. Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development 2. Conventional development O The School-Age Child children enter a stage of moral development at a level at which many adults continue to function. O Young school-age children adhere to a phase of development termed the “nice” or “fair” rather than necessarily right. O Later in the school-age period, as children learn about community resources, they become aware that community laws
  54. 54. 3. Post-conventional development - The Adolescent O They become capable of abstract thought, they become capable of internalizing standards of right or wrong O As adults they continue at a school-age level, doing right things only when obvious authority or set rules are present Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development
  55. 55. References': O Suzan S- R, Terri-K, Suzan C (Maternity and Pediatric Nursing ), 2nd eddition,2013. O Adele Pillitteri (Maternal and Child Health Nursing- care of child bearing and child bearing family) 5th eddition,2010 O Terri –K (essential for pediatric Nursing) 1st eddition 2008