State of Pensions Regulations in India Sumantra Pal PFRDA [email_address]
I National Pension System II Compatibility: IOPS Principles Agenda
Define upfront liability of Government on pension payment Give choice to investors Full portability across geography and e...
Uniqueness of NPS Scalable System: Central+ State Government + Non-Government  Choice of fund managers and schemes ~ CRA m...
A separate regulator to regulate and develop pension market in India Contractual regulation  Domestic coordination with SE...
Objectives:  National laws should assign clear and explicit objectives  Independence:  operational independence   Adequate...
Objectives Independence Adequate Resources Adequate Powers Risk-based Supervision  Proportionality and Consistency Consult...
National laws should assign  clear and explicit  objectives to pension supervisory authorities   principal strategic objec...
Pension supervisory authorities should have operational independence   operational independence  from both political autho...
Pension supervisory authorities require adequate financial, human and other resources   should be granted adequate staff a...
If capacities are insufficient - should have the authority to outsource to third parties – though remains responsible for ...
Pension supervisory authorities should be endowed with the necessary investigatory and enforcement powers to fulfill their...
should have the power to conduct  full investigation   Necessary powers:  ability to impose corrective measures  and  reme...
gradation of powers  to tailor its response accordingly and sufficiently punitive powers are needed to enforce action.  sh...
Pension supervisory authorities should conduct their operations in a transparent manner should adopt clear, transparent an...
Where appropriate, the broad outlines of any supervisory response framework (such as an enforcement pyramid) should be mad...
The supervisory authority should adhere to its own good governance practices – including governance codes, internal risk-m...
An internal audit should be considered good practice, which reviews the consistency and transparency of the decision makin...
As part of good governance practices, should monitor their own performance using a range of measures.  should be clearly a...
Pension supervisory authorities should adopt a risk-based approach should adopt a risk-based approach, to use their resour...
Staff reorganization and training, in terms of the philosophy as well as the process of risk-based supervision, should be ...
Risk-scoring models should reflect the risk-focus of the pension supervisory authority  the net risk of relevant individua...
Pension supervisory authorities should ensure that investigatory and enforcement requirements are proportional to the risk...
Once a problem is identified,  a clear and well-defined ‘due process ’ {checks and balances} should be followed.  ensure t...
should give pension funds and plans flexibility, where appropriate, in the way they achieve compliance with regulatory req...
Pension supervisory authorities should consult with the bodies they are overseeing and cooperate with other supervisory au...
Pension supervisory authorities should treat confidential information appropriately should only release confidential infor...
in regard to non-public information, should, when requested by the providing authority, keep information confidential and ...
Why PFRDA Bill is not passed for more than five years What the benefits and what could be the costs Given the gaps in legi...
thank you
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Contrast.indian pensions regulations.vs.international better principles.ppt

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Contrast.indian pensions regulations.vs.international better principles.ppt

  1. 1. State of Pensions Regulations in India Sumantra Pal PFRDA [email_address]
  2. 2. I National Pension System II Compatibility: IOPS Principles Agenda
  3. 3. Define upfront liability of Government on pension payment Give choice to investors Full portability across geography and employment Ensure transparency + fair-play + zero conflict of interest A scalable model Point of Presence + Central Recordkeeping Agency + Trustee Bank + Custodian and Depository +Pension Funds Managers NPS Trust Independent Regulator National Pension System
  4. 4. Uniqueness of NPS Scalable System: Central+ State Government + Non-Government Choice of fund managers and schemes ~ CRA mechanism NPS unbundled architecture Contributions into individual PRAN during working years Accumulation - asset management using NAV based system Retirement Pay-outs- Partial or full annuitisation to secure monthly pension National Pension System
  5. 5. A separate regulator to regulate and develop pension market in India Contractual regulation Domestic coordination with SEBI, RBI , IRDA {DEA+DFS} in MoF International cooperation with OECD+IOPS Pension reforms world wide has created large institutional investors ~ develop their capital markets via effective and efficient regulation Why specialized supervision? unique system private fund managers long term perspective differentiated standards from other financial entities promotional & developmental roles conflict of interest - short term motivations affect the solvency FIs, at odds with the long term pension objectives Pensions Regulation
  6. 6. Objectives: National laws should assign clear and explicit objectives Independence: operational independence Adequate Resources: require adequate financial, human and other resources Adequate Powers: necessary investigatory and enforcement powers Risk-based Supervision : should adopt a risk-based approach Proportionality and Consistency : ensure that investigatory and enforcement requirements are proportional to the risk mitigation and consistent actions Consultation and Cooperation : consult overseen bodies and cooperate with other domestic and international supervisory authorities Confidentiality : treat confidential information appropriately Transparency: conduct operations in a transparent manner Governance: adhere to own good governance practices – including governance codes, internal risk-management systems and performance measurement - and should be accountable IOPS Principles
  7. 7. Objectives Independence Adequate Resources Adequate Powers Risk-based Supervision Proportionality and Consistency Consultation and Cooperation Confidentiality Transparency Governance Compatibility: IOPS Principles
  8. 8. National laws should assign clear and explicit objectives to pension supervisory authorities principal strategic objectives should be clearly and publicly specified . Focus on the protection of investor. Objectives should directed towards the stability and security of pension funds and plans the sustainability of the pension sector as a whole, the promotion of good governance and the encouragement of pension provision . responsibilities should be clearly and objectively stated, giving a clear mandate and assigning specific duties. 14(1)+14(2)(a)…(p) 1. Objectives
  9. 9. Pension supervisory authorities should have operational independence operational independence from both political authorities and commercial interference To ensure independence , stability and autonomy the nomination , appointment and removal of the head of the authority via transparent and objective mechanism. The head of the authority is usually appointed for a fixed term with subsequent reappointment allowed . should also be funded to ensure independence there should be a transparent budgetary process. Supervisory acts , use of enforcement and sanction powers, should be over-ruled only by judicial decision 3(1)+3(2)+5(1)…(3)+6(1)+33(1)…(6)+34+35+36+37+40+41 2. Independence
  10. 10. Pension supervisory authorities require adequate financial, human and other resources should be granted adequate staff and access to resources. should have its own budget sufficient to enable it to conduct proportionate, effective and independent supervision. Funding, in part or in full, by supervised pension funds or plans could be considered, provided independence is maintained. The fee structure should be transparent . Should hire, train and maintain sufficient staff with high professional standards, standards of confidentiality and disclosure. The directors and head of the authority should be suitably qualified, with sufficient education, experience, capacity and reputation. 36+37+14(2)(m)+12(1)+12(2)+4 3. Adequate Resources…
  11. 11. If capacities are insufficient - should have the authority to outsource to third parties – though remains responsible for the supervisory process and decisions. outsourced to third parties, should be able to assess their competence, monitor their performance and ensure their independence must have the ability to take actions against appointed third parties directly or via appropriate professional body. Decision making and application of sanctions: should not be outsourced. 50(1)+50(2)-47 … Adequate Resources
  12. 12. Pension supervisory authorities should be endowed with the necessary investigatory and enforcement powers to fulfill their functions and achieve their objectives should be legally charged to undertake supervision should be granted adequate powers and the capacity to exercise these powers. should have the power to conduct necessary supervisory functions Effective supervision should focus on legal compliance , financial control , minimum capital requirements , investment activity , good governance and integrity , actuarial examination , the supervision of pension plan or fund managers , and the provision of adequate disclosure and information to members . Powers should allow for relevant off-site supervision and on-site inspection. should have comprehensive investigatory and enforcement powers. The legal framework that defines conditions and circumstances under which must intervene should be flexible enough to enable the pension supervisor to undertake preventative, protective or punitive actions. 3+15(+24)+16+17 4. Adequate Powers…
  13. 13. should have the power to conduct full investigation Necessary powers: ability to impose corrective measures and remedial actions , power to impose administrative sanctions , revoke licences , refer for criminal prosecution , issue binding regulation. should have clear and well-defined strategic supervisory goals for the use of intervention, enforcement and sanction powers clearly establishing whether the goal of their action is preventative , protective or punitive and use the appropriate tools and powers accordingly. should have a coherent, well thought-out policy for deciding on the mix of supervisory tools adopted and the ability to adapt this approach to changing circumstances. 17+18+19 … Adequate Powers…
  14. 14. gradation of powers to tailor its response accordingly and sufficiently punitive powers are needed to enforce action. should have certain powers to use in exceptional circumstances should have the power to take exceptional measures, in times of acute financial and economic difficulty and volatility: increasing reporting requirements , strengthening stress tests , temporarily suspending certain regulatory or supervisory requirements which may have a pro-cyclical, adverse impact on financial markets in the short-term. 18+19 … Adequate Powers
  15. 15. Pension supervisory authorities should conduct their operations in a transparent manner should adopt clear, transparent and consistent supervisory processes. The rules and procedures of the pension supervisory authority, and updates thereof, should be published. should generally operate in a transparent environment and should provide and publish a regular report – at least annually and in a timely manner – on the conduct of its policy, explaining its objectives and describing its performance in pursuing those objectives. should be subject to regular audit and reporting requirements which allow for the assessment of how well the authority is fulfilling its responsibilities and ensuring the mandate and functions of the pension supervisory authority cannot be changed on an ad hoc basis. 39(1)…(4)+42 9. Transparency…
  16. 16. Where appropriate, the broad outlines of any supervisory response framework (such as an enforcement pyramid) should be made public, so that its actions will be understood by supervised entities and are not unexpected. When directing the management of pension funds or plans pension supervisory authorities should explain to those affected why they are acting. A transparent information disclosure mechanism and timely publication of intervention and sanction decisions, where appropriate, should be in place, subject to relevant confidentiality requirements. should provide and publish clear and accurate information for the pension industry and the general public on a regular basis -- generally be on an aggregate basis, but could also be on individual pension funds, in which case the rules of confidentiality may be particularly relevant. 14(2)(i)+(k) … Transparency
  17. 17. The supervisory authority should adhere to its own good governance practices – including governance codes, internal risk-management systems and performance measurement - and should be accountable should establish and operate sound governance practices in order to maintain credibility and moral authority to promulgate good practices in the entities under their oversight. should be overseen by a governing board of a manageable size. The remuneration of the senior executives of the authority may be published for transparency. should establish and adhere to a governance code, outlining suitable internal controls, checks and balances, and effective processes for risk and performance management. A code of conduct should be established and enforced in relation to all staff members. 4+7(1)…(3) 10. Governance…
  18. 18. An internal audit should be considered good practice, which reviews the consistency and transparency of the decision making process, the effectiveness of risk management practices and the efficiency and propriety in the use of resource. These internal audits should be carried out as part of the legal and functional oversight of the supervisory authorities and their findings should be presented to the overseeing (parent) ministry or other statutory authority. There should be clearly documented procedures for decision-making, with processes for referring decisions up to the appropriate level of seniority, reviewing and documenting decisions. For interventions with serious impact there should be some separation between those within the authority proposing interventions and those taking the final decision, so the scope for emergency action is balanced by a review process. … Governance…
  19. 19. As part of good governance practices, should monitor their own performance using a range of measures. should be clearly accountable for their general conduct and activity. should have accountability arrangements, accountability to a range of bodies, from parliament or head of state, Ministry of Finance to the members and beneficiaries of pension funds or plans. should be subject to an external audit by a state or independent audit institution. Procedures should be in place for the governing body of a pension plan or fund to appeal to the pension supervisory authority or relevant tribunal for decisions taken that affect them and which they consider unreasonable or inconsistent with legal provisions. Individual members of staff should have indemnity from civil prosecution. 42+48+39+30+33+34+35 … Governance
  20. 20. Pension supervisory authorities should adopt a risk-based approach should adopt a risk-based approach, to use their resources efficiently a suitable risk-assessment methodology should be established risk-based supervision - emphasis of supervision is function or risk Rules or compliance based supervision The move should be a continuum from rules or a compliance-based system. Does not mean having no rules or compliance procedures. A legal framework allowing suitable discretion in terms of interpretation and enforcement is required should also provide with the necessary powers to adopt a risk-based approach. 5. Risk-based Supervision…
  21. 21. Staff reorganization and training, in terms of the philosophy as well as the process of risk-based supervision, should be undertaken as the transition to the new approach takes place. should communicate its risk-based approach ; explaining what is expected of them – particularly in relation to risk-management – via guidance notes and possibly providing training. RBS different types of information, should obtain from existing sources where possible. Where specific supervisory returns are required should be designed with care and focused on obtaining information regarding the main risks. Where quantitative risk assessment tools are used, the models involved should be carefully designed and their limitations fully understood … Risk-based Supervision…
  22. 22. Risk-scoring models should reflect the risk-focus of the pension supervisory authority the net risk of relevant individual entity and systemic risk factors These factors should be suitably weighted according to the nature of the pension system a risk-score derived from the probability and impact of their occurrence. … Risk-based Supervision
  23. 23. Pension supervisory authorities should ensure that investigatory and enforcement requirements are proportional to the risks being mitigated and that their actions are consistent A logical connection should be made between the results of the risk assessment and its actions; a supervisory response matrix. The remedial actions and if necessary sanctions imposed should be proportional to the amount of risk posed by the fund to its members and beneficiaries and the pension system as a whole - taking into account the nature , scale , complexity and seriousness of the potential compliance irregularities relating to the relevant party – should represent the most efficient use of supervisory resources. The extent of supervisory demands placed on pension funds or plans and associated parties being supervised should be in accordance with the value expected to be derived. a balance should be struck between the potential benefits of the supervisory action and the costs and impact on pension fund members and beneficiaries. 6. Proportionality and Consistency
  24. 24. Once a problem is identified, a clear and well-defined ‘due process ’ {checks and balances} should be followed. ensure that supervised entities are treated fairly , consistently and transparently . To ensure proportionality, requirements should be set out in legislation, secondary regulation or detailed industry guidance Appropriate documentation, guidance and examples should be regulated or provided to staff. Subject to the availability of regulatory and administrative powers and measures, the response should be escalated appropriately to achieve the desired regulatory objectives. Depending on the nature scale and complexity of the problem detected, a graduated response or exceptional measures should be adopted. Proportionality and Consistency
  25. 25. should give pension funds and plans flexibility, where appropriate, in the way they achieve compliance with regulatory requirements. Supervisory decisions and intervention should be consistent (both horizontally between pension funds and vertically over time Supervisors should have well-documented procedures (documentation, training, peer review, specialist team reviews and/or senior oversight) for ensuring that similar decisions are taken in similar circumstances and that these decisions are taken on objective and unbiased grounds. Proportionality and Consistency
  26. 26. Pension supervisory authorities should consult with the bodies they are overseeing and cooperate with other supervisory authorities domestically and internationally should consult, as appropriate, with the pensions sector when determining its approach to supervision. should be empowered to exchange information with other relevant supervisory authorities, subject to legal and confidentiality requirements. This includes cooperation both nationally and internationally cooperation should be for both efficiency purposes (avoiding overlaps and promoting economies of scale and scope) as well as promoting pro-active preventative measures (e.g. tackling financial crime). should ensure that intensified, extraordinary coordination between financial sectors and internationally takes place during periods of economic difficulty and financial system volatility. 7. Consultation and Cooperation
  27. 27. Pension supervisory authorities should treat confidential information appropriately should only release confidential information if permitted by law (with fines or even prison sentences imposed for breaches). Staff should be bound by internal codes of confidentiality -also after leaving the authority. IT systems used by supervisors should include limited access restrictions to improve confidentiality and care should be taken regarding the security of the supervisory authority’s database. should publish its policy on how confidential information will be treated. A suitable balance should be struck between conduct of business supervision (where disclosure can be used to influence the behavior of the supervised community), prudential supervision (where confidentiality is important to protect the interests of particular supervised entities), and system integrity, according to the nature of the pension system. 8. Confidentiality…
  28. 28. in regard to non-public information, should, when requested by the providing authority, keep information confidential and maintain appropriate safeguards for the protection of confidential information within its possession. Where unsure of the status of the information, the supervisory authority should treat it as confidential if not publicly available or should check the status with the provider. If agreed by the providing authority, the receiving supervisory authority may pass on information to other supervisory bodies or law enforcement agencies with legitimate supervisory interests and equivalent confidentiality standards. Where staff transfer between the supervisory authority and the private sector, mechanisms should exist to ensure against the disclosure of confidential information. Third parties to whom the pension supervisory authority has outsourced supervisory tasks should be subject to the same confidentiality requirements as the staff of the pension supervisory authority itself. … Confidentiality
  29. 29. Why PFRDA Bill is not passed for more than five years What the benefits and what could be the costs Given the gaps in legislations: What (in-) actions are warranted As the interim regulator As a policy option designer As an individual professional Questions for discussion
  30. 30. thank you

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