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SES London 2012 : Lean Optimisation


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My deck of slides on Lean Optimisation, tools, techniques and methods - for you to download and use.

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SES London 2012 : Lean Optimisation

  1. Naked promotional slide Tweet me @OptimiseOrDie• Conversion Rate Optimisation • Contact deflection and online self service• A/B and Multi-variate testing • Site search analytics• Telephony analytics & tracking • Site, Page and Campaign• User centered Design optimisation• Usability testing • Test design and execution• Customer Research & Insight • A long usable site portfolio• Web Analytics • ROI on UX improvements• Performance, browser and • Over 19 years of slow death email optimisation in really really boring meetings Group CX Manager for Belron® (Autoglass ®) Unofficial title : Chief evil scientist Run the ‘League of Optimisers’ on Linkedin
  2. Outline• Lean Optimisation• Customers drive optimisation• Analytics tools• How we build stuff• How we optimise stuff• What we found out• Call tracking 24 Jan 2012
  3. Lean UX / Lean Optimisation• Old but new in the way it’s packaged• It isn’t really Lean – more sleek• Combines UCD, Agile PM and tightly integrated teams• Econsultancy report part 2 – next weekUsability Industry Definition:“A cross functional, principle driven processcharacterized by rituals that predispose teams to high-quality, high-velocity user experience outcomes” 24 Jan 2012
  4. Lean optimisationLean startup:“For a particular vision, test your hypotheses against reality very, very early.Learn, evolve and repeat.”Belron definition:“Using a tightly integrated team and an Agile PM method, we design productsusing lots of rapid prototypes, iterations, split testing and consumer feedbackloops. There are no real deliverables, releases or precise products: Onlycontinually improving experiences with measurably positive outcomes for ourbusiness.”Short version:“It makes lots of money and delights customers”Edison, Dyson and Jobs – for websites. 24 Jan 2012
  5. InsightResearch and insight 24 Jan 2012
  6. NFL (Normal for Lewisham)
  7. Immersion tips• Wear the magical slippers of customer experience• Work in the call centre or listen in, regularly.• Test all the journeys from print, media, display, PPC, organic.• Exercise your top landing pages or key routes• What’s the scent trail like?• Test all the non phone contact stuff in your site (email, forms)• Test the phone lines people use (quick poll)• Lovefilm staff packages and incentives (make your own)I’d like you to immerse yourself: 1. In the complete journeys that people are taking and the product or service you’re offering 2. In the emotional states they’re in or can get themselves into 3. In all the materials – the website of course but the emails, the phone on hold music, the SMS messages - absolutely everything about the customer lifecycle. 24 Jan 2012
  8. Our killer optimisation sources…• Usability testing• Remote usability testing• Other usability techniques• Clicktale• Surveys• Customer feedback loops• Analytics and instrumentation• BU contacts and market research, local knowledge• Foolproof and our Optimisation team• Optimisers in industry, books, websites• Social networks• New for 2012? – Higher use of Dynamic surveys, Reviews, Ratings, Social Proofing, Video 24 Jan 2012
  9. Usability testing• International scope : 35 countries, 19 languages• Over 300 tests in the last 18 months• Including 52 mobile handsets, 40 locations and 9 key products• Usability testing is a vital part of our strategy• Without this, our products would suck (for long periods)How does usability testing help?• Reduces development and ‘get wrong’ time• Guides product design in the right direction• Faster iteration of product improvements• In flight adjustment not ‘like it or lump it’• There is no IT team or department involved• We’ve built our development process around this• Fast design of successful products (mobile, app, website, call centre) 24 Jan 2012
  10. Remote usability testing• What are the advantages here?• Cheaper, faster than lab based testing• Belron does this to get large viewing audiences too!• Participants, Team and Colleagues• Live audio, video and realtime translation• Normal test viewing ~3 people. Remote tests = 20+Use crowdsourced remote testing for:• Live prototyping and feature tests• Larger groups can be recruited for volume studies (say a new postcode lookup function)• International language support• Integration between surveys, behaviour and customer outcomes 24 Jan 2012
  11. Budget ideas – no excuse!:• Low budget prototyping (Mediacam £40, Laptop with webcam)• Escape from the office prototyping• Paper prototyping• Bookshop testing• Crowdsourced testing – unmoderated online feedbackPlease, if you can:• Link UX work to analytics, NPS and ROI – always test or measure• Look at your Lifetime value, downstream conversion, return rate etc. etc. too “Good in test isn’t always good in pocket” 24 Jan 2012
  12. Killer tip #1 : Use clicktale, now• Vital for conversion rate optimisers.• Realtime feedback on changes, new product features• Deep analysis – for example, show me all Google Chrome javascript errors on the credit card page• Complete forms analytics (a whole subject area)• A nice safety net – helps you avoid being fired• The coolest tool I use in my job – nothing else gets me this stuff• 15 minutes after publishing new stuff, we’re watching live recordings• Some examples:• Q. Where is the fold on the page? A. It’s not a fold, it’s a region 24 Jan 2012
  13. Killer tip #2 : End device discrimination• 33 companies were asked:• “Measure a key process but segment the conversion or completion rates by browser type. Tell me what you find.”• 11 out of 33 found significant holes in checkouts or conversion funnels. Like lots of money missing, iceberg like. Nobody noticed.• Broken links, missing continue buttons, form validation, javascript browser or tag clashes, alignment and visibility issues. Firefox and Chrome were largest problem areas, not IE6!• “This store does not support Puma trainers” and the buggy test• Remember, the % of browser is not the % of revenue, D’oh!• Stop discriminating – look at your entry traffic (arrivals) split by browser and test for the main audiences.• Desktop browser testing - Browsercam• Mobile device testing - Deviceanywhere• Noble cause or actually just the Scotsman’s eternal sadness 24 Jan 2012
  14. Surveys• A neglected art• Put 99% of your time into the design (RIRO)• Read Catherine Jarrett : tips:• Test at least 3 times with small samples• Fix problems (e.g. Too many ‘none of the above’ responses)• Rinse and repeat• Use someone who has done it before• Design for outcomes• General service surveys are great (Lovefilm)• Are you surveying competitors? Your service? Think about 7 years of data!• Where else can we use these wonderful things? 24 Jan 2012
  15. Surveys #2• Dropped basket survey (LF and Paypal/Direct debit driver)• Remarketing sucks without knowledge. Drops on the floor.• Bail survey (exit process)• Behavioural triggers• Page level feedback• Site exit survey (satisfaction, what purpose, completed?, why not?)• Onion layer survey• NPS – Belron runs a huge program• UX work = 35% filled responses, 4% dropout, 10% mobile fillout• VOC products:• Cool stuff I like : Triggered surveys, crowdsourced feedback, new product features, show video, adverts or mockups to people 24 Jan 2012
  16. Analytics and instrumentation• For our work, we use 6 tools for optimising outcomes: Google Analytics Insight, realtime, hypotheses Speed Trap Advertising response engine Autonomy Optimost Split and MV testing Clicktale Session capture, realtime Addthis Social clickbacks Call tracking (Various)So, what about instrumentation?• We invest time each week on (re)instrumenting the site• We’re getting richer behavioural data as time goes on• Slicing and Dicing data becomes simpler and outcome focused• We measure more phone and contact channel behaviour• We ask more questions 24 Jan 2012
  17. Analytics tips• Invest in Talent.• A 35k hire versus a 55k hire is not a 20k saving lol.• Beware of bull ordure – hard to recruit• Try my analytics interview tips (email me)Invest in instrumentation:• Ringfence development time for continual improvement of analytics. Give it some love.• Link behaviours to post conversion event activity (MVT, Segments)• Invest in call analytics (on your mobile site, you can do it for free)• Drive report vomit out of your business 24 Jan 2012
  18. Performance and Availability• This isn’t a geek thing• I’ve measured performance impacts• Dominant factor in mobile conversion• Big impact on desktop, tablet• Improves your Google quality score• Improves your conversion rateTip #1 : Google Site SpeedTip #2 : www.webpagetest.orgTip #3 : Make development timeTip #4 : Stop testing mobile on wifi
  19. How we build and optimiseFrom prototype to final product 24 Jan 2012
  20. How do we build stuff?• We don’t know what the final end product will be• We do have some basics, previous product and insight• We produce very little documentation• We start with a clay model (prototype)• We work out the basic shape• We then optimise the face in stages• Once we’re good enough, we go live• Then we tweak and optimise in place• The human face of Belron, not a robot• Emotional and customer centric, not designed by them• This is the sweet spot• This is also a key competitive advantage 19 Dec 2011
  21. User centred Design Wireframe Research Concept Prototype Analyse Test
  22. Multi channel and platform Washup Mobile Web 1 1 UX Insight Washup Design Washup App 1
  23. New funnel cycle Analyse Go live Fix & 10% Improve Browser and Device Live 20% testingUsability Test and Fix & Instrument Improve test output Rinse and Live 50% repeat A/B test live
  24. OPTIMISATIONA set of techniques, implemented inorder to influence customer behaviourtowards these outcomes:• Increased revenue or profit• Increasing NPS (Customer Sat) scores• Lower cost for business or contact centres• Increasing productivity or labour flexibility• Simply delighting customersWe may fail with 90% of what we try.The 10% of winners let us shiftbehaviour hugely and measurably.
  25. What do we use in optimisation cycles?• Autonomy (for split testing)• For a budget option, Check Optimizely or Google• Data warehouse or reporting link (TNC/NPS)• Clicktale• Google Analytics• User Research materials• Browsercam• Testing and lots more testing• Call Centre continual feedback• Surveys (e.g. did you like X, did you see the Y) 24 Jan 2012
  26. Usability & Optimisation process Final Usability Legal review Final changes Release build prototype issues left kickoff SignoffInstrument Marketing Cust services (Legal, Test Plan analytics review review kickoff Mktng, CCC)Instrument Offline End-End Launch Contact QA testing tagging testing 90/10% Centre Launch Monitor < 1 LaunchGo live 100% Monitor 50/50% week 80/20% Analytics Washup and New New test Rinse and review actions hypotheses design Repeat!
  27. A/B and Multivariate testsHow we blend the techniques 24 Jan 2012
  28. A/B test Control Version A Version B
  29. Multi variate Pizza Ingredients Experiment Recipes =
  30. What’s our testing mix?• A/B testing – Homepage, Landing pages, Funnels• MVT testing – High traffic landing or Home pages – Mini (less than 8 variables) – Midi (8-32) – Maxi (>32 variables)And 6 types of specialised testing:• Funnel testing – bedding in new funnels• Landing page optimisation• Cross channel and telephony testing• Iterative feature and product testing• Video tests• Micro testing
  31. 6 years of testing on one slideLess is more – simplicity, comprehension, clarity in design, visibility, space, LESS WORDSCopy works – Call to action wording, title, headline, strapline, framing – contribute 50-70%of our test uplift. Pay someone to do this properly, like Sticky Content.Really big buttony button : Large, prominent, visible, button like CTAUse goal, verb or action oriented keywords (Fix my glass!, Download now, Get started)Use text decoration on key persuasive copy (don’t overdo it)CTA above fold, especially on landing pages, key stepsClick here (Haz clic aqu, cliquez ici) is one of the top 3 button wordings, always. Let meexplain.Do not split attention on CTA unless necessary. Deprecate other buttons or functions(Save, Cancel, Print, Back, Help, Buy)Emotional states : Using emotion, reflecting or mirroring the customer are just asimportant as how the checkout form works. If you don’t know what the worries and fearsare from the visitors coming through the funnel, you’re missing a trick.Show me the value proposition : The what’s in it for me test. (PPC example)Maintain a scent trail – PPC advert, Organic title and snippet, Landing page, Funnel, Reflectthe user, Maintain the scent, Make use of the gifts you’re givenThink about emotional states and make use of themBadging : Use badging, testimonials, social proofing and trust symbolsBadging : Be careful about security seals and when you use them. Same with promotion orvisibility of card information – always test.Images : See next slideGuidelines are good but every page and site will vary
  32. People images that suck…
  33. Photo Guidelines• Groups, vans, stores, head office, • Arms with prop instead – hold a corporate guff = NO clipboard, rag, tool – I’m working for• Single person – not groups or even *you* person + customer (ignoring you) • Female images work best in almost every• Open, Friendly, Natural, Smiling, country – they slay the guys Engaged, Alert = YES • Natural, authentic and not ‘model’ or• Smile best with eye crinkles ‘stock’ image types work best for people• Uniform – has huge effect, even • Some of our best performing images wearing branded hat improves would be rejected by advertisers as ‘too conversion ugly.• Look straight at viewer or slightly • Want to know more? Contact me or towards CTA check out the @brainlady• Plain backgrounds only • Oh, and we also know that genital• No folded arms, arms on hips, pointing, framing doesn’t work… scowling, cheesy smiles, hands behind back, hanging useless by the side, clasped by groin, fiddling with hands
  34. Lean optimisation : The roundup• Reduced ego and opinion (execs + others)• Faster time to market• Measurable ROI• Increased conversion in the pocket early• Iterative and rapid product lifecycles• Faster, smaller, focused, measured releases• Continual testing = continual improvement• SLED vs. Agile = faster return, better focus• Less reliance on anecdotal evidence• Introduces a testing culture for everyone• Large cross silo team now gets involved• Improved £ - but also drives business change
  35. Conversion optimisation - MobileWhy was our mobile stuff rocking? 24 Jan 2012
  36. 35 Growth in Worldwide 29.9 Mobile traffic30 % of all unique visitors 25.825 23.9 Nov-11 Jul-11 Dec-10 May-1020 17.6 16.815 13.8 12.8 13 12.7 11.7 10.4 9.8 9.710 9.5 7.3 6.5 6.2 6.1 5.8 5.1 5 4.6 4.75 4.2 3.6 3.6 3.2 2.7 2.5 2.4 2.3 2.3 2.30 Australia USA UK Norway Sweden Spain Italy France Canada Netherlands Germany
  37. Our mobile journey…• Launched Dec 2010• Mobile web in all countries• Apple and Android apps in key markets• Growth areas – iOS, Windows Phone, Android• Conversion is as high as 30% when including tap to call• Has delivered over 5M per month in revenue• Not driven by apps – mobile web 20-300x larger revenue• Search traffic (intent), a discovery route (SEO and PPC) and an optimised site = • Tablets, though growing, are still only 10-15% of all our visitors• Everyone needs a highly optimised site
  38. Why did it work so well?• Listened to customers, not our inner • Device aware traffic routing and geek switching• Read Luke Wroblewski, Brian • High performance site, even in poor data Fling, Maximilliano Firtman conditions• Focused on • Page weight 7-10 Kb payload for each user, device, context, location, performa page, after cache nce, emotions. • Performance does not mean poor design• User centred Design (8 weeks) for fast • Contact options that customers want execution, high conversion • Cheap mobile targeted PPC and Display• Total handset compatibility – an advertising Optimal experience for all device • Total compatibility with their handsets capabilities, even 10 year old flip phones (95%+). • Employed a dedicated copy specialist, Sticky Content• Deviceanywhere – for testing • It’s fast – that’s very important for CRO• Uses HTML5 techniques on supported phones
  39. Killer Tip #3 : Call trackingHow it works:• Rent a bank of numbers• Add a dynamic ‘tag’ to your page• Phone number appears automatically• Customer calls this number• Captures the keywords, landing page, converting page, traffic source• Geo mapping captures customer location• When the call is hung up, optionally record the outcome code (sale, loss)• Have a special number for Facebook, SEO, Adwords traffic etc.• Lets you analyse from web -> phone call -> wait time -> answer ->outcome• Builds a link between web and call, finally
  40. Why use call tracking?• Claim your conversions!• You can’t work out your advertising effectiveness, if you don’t include phone• If you don’t measure phone, your A/B tests may be wrong• You can capture all your web AND phone, in one easy interface• Allows you a multi-channel view of all your contact sources• Lets you record offline campaigns as well with specific numbers (print, TV etc.)• You can experiment with routing, messages, on hold music – much more easily• If you can’t afford lots of phone numbers, this is an easy way to get tracking• Puts this in the hands of small businesses
  41. Company Website CoverageWho?Mongoose Metrics* UK, USA, Canada Ifbyphone* USA TheCallR* USA, Canada, UK, IT, FR, BE, ES, NL Call tracking metrics USA Hosted Numbers USA Callcap USA UK, SE, FI, NO, DK, LT, PL, IE, CZ, Freespee* SI, AT, NL, DE Adinsight* UK Infinity tracking* UK Optilead* UK Switchboard free UK Freshegg UK Avanser AUS Jet Interactive* AUS * I read up on these or talked to them. These are my picks .
  42. Autoglass UK – Putting it together• 12.4% from User centred Design• 12.5% increase from Multi Variate Testing• 3.5% increase in downstream conversion rate• 4% increase in online conversion from mobile optimised site• Reduced call time (1 second = > 10k per year)• Faster online booking time• 5.5% increase in NPS (Customer sat) score• Customer delight – feedback. Less questions and worries• Total increase in conversion (measured) = 32%• Actual increase in conversion = 41%• NO additional marketing spend needed• Web Channel : ROI positive within 2 weeks• Worldwide ROI : 15% increase in conversion during 2011
  43. More reading. Slides and resources on Email : Twitter : @OptimiseOrDie : Slideshare :