Thanks and Tweets: Comparing Two Public Displays (CSCW 2011)

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Two public display systems, with different methods of posting, were deployed over several years. One, the Thank You Board, was designed to give people an outlet specifically for publicly thanking and acknowledging others in the community. The other, SI Display, showed any Twitter post directed to the display and did not have explicit usage guidelines. People preferred the flexibility of the latter, but ambiguity about its purpose and norms of usage persisted even six months after deployment and made some people hesitant to post. Also, using Twitter as the posting mechanism facilitated participation for some but also created barriers for those not using Twitter and for Twitter users who were wary of mixing their professional and non-professional contexts.

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Thanks and Tweets: Comparing Two Public Displays (CSCW 2011)

  1. 1. Thanks and Tweets:Comparing Two Public Displays@smunson, @emirose, @presnick
  2. 2. Matt Rife,Flickr: meddygarnet Flickr: Confidence, Comely
  3. 3. C3C (McCarthy et al 2008)IM Here (Huang et al 2004)Plasma Poster Network Notification Collage (Greenberg and Rounding 2001)(Churchill et al 2003)
  4. 4. this study Matt Rife,Flickr: meddygarnet Flickr: Confidence, Comely
  5. 5. this study Thank You Board Highly directed, structured use; post from official website. Matt Rife,Flickr: meddygarnet Flickr: Confidence, Comely
  6. 6. this study Thank You Board SI Display Highly directed, structured use; Use le open to interpretation by post from official website. community, post using existing social network site (Twitter) Matt Rife,Flickr: meddygarnet Flickr: Confidence, Comely
  7. 7. 1.5 milesthe site:school of information, university of michigan
  8. 8. School of Information North PhD students, staff, faculty ank You Board: 17 inch display in entryway SI Display: large touchscreen in lunch room West Hall Masters students, staff, faculty, administration ank You Board: 17 inch display in main stairwell SI Display: 17 inch display in main stairwell, large touchscreen in student loungethe site:school of information, university of michigan
  9. 9. Thank You Board SI Display
  10. 10. ank You Board•  Clear expectation for how it would be used•  Post via web form•  Structured input•  Randomly show a message from the 10 most recent, every 6 seconds
  11. 11. SI Display•  No expectations for how it would/should be used.•  Post via Twitter (@sidisplay)•  Unstructured input (except for Twitter limitations)•  Cycle through 8 most recent messages, or all from the last 24 hours, whichever is greater. Morgan  Keys  making  so/ware  available:  h6ps://github.com/morgankeys/ATdisplay  
  12. 12. Methods
  13. 13. Analysis of posts 196 posts from 100 posters 251 posts from 58 posters 25 February 2007 – 8 August 2008 5 November 2009 – 2 April 2010 120 100 80Posts 60 40 20 0 Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar
  14. 14. Analysis of postsCode posts by category and audience Category ank You Board SI Display Event Announcements <1% 32% Congratulations / praise 6% 6% anks 100% 4% Greetings 2% 9% Questions & Discussion prompts <1% 14% Information sharing 2% 34% Response to another post 1% 8% Referencing the display 1% 16% Directed to the display 0% 6% To a specific person or people 57% 8% To a specific SI subgroup 17% 8%
  15. 15. Analysis of postsCode posts by category and audience Category ank You Board SI Display Event Announcements <1% 32% Congratulations / praise 6% 6% anks 100% 4% Greetings 2% 9% Questions & Discussion prompts <1% 14% Information sharing 2% 34% Response to another post 1% 8% Referencing the display 1% 16% Directed to the display 0% 6% To a specific person or people 57% 8% To a specific SI subgroup 17% 8%
  16. 16. Analysis of postsCode posts by category and audience Category ank You Board SI Display Event Announcements <1% 32% Congratulations / praise 6% 6% anks 100% 4% Greetings 2% 9% Questions & Discussion prompts <1% 14% Information sharing 2% 34% Adam saysanother post Response to thanks to 1% 8% [whoever put this monitor to know how many links Referencing the display (Now, use] for having a clue are saved in delicious or 1% 16% can we set up some displays Directed to the display how i would access such 0% 6% to non-invasively broadcast information? To a specific person or people 57% 8% pressing questions a la To a specific SIstuff?) Zephyr and subgroup 17% 8%
  17. 17. Analysis of postsCode posts by category and audience Category ank You Board SI Display Event Announcements <1% 32% Congratulations / praise 6% 6% anks 100% 4% Greetings 2% 9% Questions & Discussion prompts <1% 14% Information sharing 2% 34% Response to another post 1% 8% Tobias says thanks to SI Career Referencing the display students Services for Helping 1% 16% New Oxford American manageto thesearches: Starting Directed job display Dictionary 20096% 0% Word of from resume creation etc. SI the Year: "Unfriend" To a specific personis one of the Career Services or people 57% 8% To a specificservices available to strongest SI subgroup 17% 8% students at SI!
  18. 18. Analysis of postsCode posts by category and audience Category ank You Board SI Display Event Announcements <1% 32% Congratulations / praise 6% 6% anks 100% 4% Greetings 2% 9% Questions & Discussion prompts <1% 14% Information sharing 2% 34% Response to another post 1% 8% Referencing the display 1% 16% Directed to the display 0% 6% To a specific person or people poor @sidisplay. I know aw 57% 8% To a specific SI subgroup what its like to feel 17% 8% unrefreshed!
  19. 19. Analysis of postsCode posts by category and audience Category ank You Board SI Display Event Announcements <1% 32% Congratulations / praise 6% 6% anks 100% 4% Greetings 2% 9% Questions & Discussion prompts <1% 14% Information sharing 2% 34% Response to another post 1% 8% Referencing the display 1% 16% Directed to the display 0% 6% To a specific person or people 57% 8% To a specific SI subgroup 17% 8%
  20. 20. Semistructured InterviewsQuestions about: Participants•  How they used the displays n = 14•  How they thought others should use them 9 masters students•  Likes / dislikes about each 3 staff members 2 PhD students 13 with Twitter accounts 6 recalled the ank You Board 7 had posted to SI Display
  21. 21. Results
  22. 22. ResultsDesignated use vs. open ethos | Twitter as posting mechanism
  23. 23. ResultsDesignated use vs. open ethos | Twitter as posting mechanism
  24. 24. Participants valued flexibility of SI Display “open ethos” (P6) “serendipity” of unexpected things (P13)
  25. 25. Participants valued flexibility of SI Display “open ethos” (P6) “serendipity” of unexpected things (P13)… but had concerns about using it inappropriately. “I guess I would feel better if there were more established norms about it. If we knew more about what its purpose was and what are the goals and how people should use it.” (P13) “people are unsure how it’s supposed to be used … and because people, I’m a firm believer that if people don’t want to offend other people, they won’t do something they think might offend them and that might be use the board in a way they don’t think other people think it’s intended to be used for.” (P7)
  26. 26. issues with how SI Display was introduced emphasis on usability over uses no example uses givenuncertainty about purpose the You may have noticed that How to post[display] is displaying public &thankhave no freakingthankI really don’t. displays] can be used for “I yous. You can clue. “[the” (P9)someone, too! Just go to sharing short, publichttp://si.umich.edu/thanks. messages.”
  27. 27. issues with how SI Display was introduced emphasis on usability over uses no example uses givenuncertainty about purpose “I have no freaking clue. I really don’t.” (P9)
  28. 28. issues with how SI Display was introduced emphasis on usability over uses no example uses givenuncertainty about purpose “I have no freaking clue. I really don’t.” (P9)uncertainty about audience Couldn’t remember all locations Not sure if it was for students, the entire SI community, or for external visitors to seebut norms did not develop over the months of use
  29. 29. issues with how SI Display was introduced emphasis on usability over uses no example uses givenuncertainty about purpose “I have no freaking clue. I really don’t.” (P9)uncertainty about audience Couldn’t remember all locations Not sure if it was for students, the entire SI community, or for external visitors to seebut norms did not develop over the months of use
  30. 30. ResultsDesignated use vs. open ethos | Twitter as posting mechanism
  31. 31. ank You Board had required too much memory for howto post and these steps were too disconnected from seeingthe displaySI Display used Twitter to make posting easier, but didrequire that posters have a Twitter account
  32. 32. Twitter as posting mechanism: easier, but not without issues Further confounded audience: Twitter users or broader? Twitter syntax made some posts hard to read. Sometimes hard to link Twitter usernames and avatars with identity in community. Some community members did not want to use Twitter on principle. Others did not want to reveal their personal Twitter account to their professional colleagues.Feelings of exclusion for some community members, whileothers felt it was more inclusive.
  33. 33. Twitter as posting mechanism: easier, but not without issues Further confounded audience: Twitter users or broader? Twitter syntax made some posts hard to read. Sometimes hard to link Twitter usernames and avatars with identity in community Some community members did not want to use Twitter on principle. Others did not want to reveal their personal Twitter account to their professional colleagues.Feelings of exclusion for some community members, whileothers felt it was more inclusive.
  34. 34. Twitter as posting mechanism: easier, but not without issues Further confounded audience: Twitter users or broader? Twitter syntax made some posts hard to read. Sometimes hard to link Twitter usernames and avatars with identity in community Some community members did not want to use Twitter on principle. Others did not want to reveal their personal Twitter account to their professional colleagues.Feelings of exclusion for some community members, whileothers felt it was more inclusive.
  35. 35. Twitter as posting mechanism: easier, but not without issues Further confounded audience: Twitter users or broader? Twitter syntax made some posts hard to read. Sometimes hard to link Twitter usernames and avatars with identity in community Some community members did not want to use Twitter on principle. Others did not want to reveal their personal Twitter account to their professional colleagues.Feelings of exclusion for some community members, whileothers felt it was more inclusive.
  36. 36. Twitter as posting mechanism: easier, but not without issues Further confounded audience: Twitter users or broader? Twitter syntax made some posts hard to read. Sometimes hard to link Twitter usernames and avatars with identity in community Some community members did not want to use Twitter on principle. Others did not want to reveal their personal Twitter account to their professional colleagues.Feelings of exclusion for some community members, whileothers felt it was more inclusive.
  37. 37. Twitter as posting mechanism: easier, but not without issues Further confounded audience: Twitter users or broader? Twitter syntax made some posts hard to read. Sometimes hard to link Twitter usernames and avatars with identity in community Some community members did not want to use Twitter on principle. Others did not want to reveal their personal Twitter account to their professional colleagues.Feelings of exclusion for some community members, whileothers felt it was more inclusive.
  38. 38. Design Implications Authoritative vs. User Interpretations Content Lifespan Twitter as posting mechanism Social Context
  39. 39. Design Implications Authoritative vs. User Interpretations Content Lifespan Twitter as posting mechanism Social Context
  40. 40. With SI Display, we created discomfort by going too far towardemphasizing usability over use (Sengers and Gaver 2006).Confounded by a lack of reification of community expectations;no clear feedback process.Recommendations:•  Introduce display with suggested uses (& an invitation to use it other ways)•  Post discussion prompts / content invitations to Twitter or the display•  Add a feedback mechanism (voting posts up and/or down)
  41. 41. Design Implications Authoritative vs. User Interpretations Content Lifespan Twitter as posting mechanism Social Context
  42. 42. SI Display had more time sensitive content, but the “staleness”of outdated announcements became an issue.Recommendation: Parse posts for time; filter out dates in thepast.
  43. 43. Design Implications Authoritative vs. User Interpretations Content Lifespan Twitter as posting mechanism Social Context
  44. 44. Twitter as posting mechanism easier for most barrier for non-Twitterers jargon mixing contextsRecommendations:•  continue using, but give non-Twitter users a way to post (web form, SMS, etc).•  Arguments for accepting some jargon and syntax, or filtering it out / replacing it
  45. 45. Design Implications Authoritative vs. User Interpretations Content Lifespan Twitter as posting mechanism Social Context
  46. 46. Social context Where are the displays? Who will see them? Mixing of audiences Recommendations: •  Map of displays, or video links between them. (also not without problems!) •  Control over to which display one posts, e.g.,: –  @sidisplay: to all of them –  @sistudents: Master’s student lounge –  @sistafffac: staff, faculty, and PhD student lunchroom –  @sipublic: displays in public spaces
  47. 47. Social context how to drive adoption? where are displays? who will look at them?ConclusionsRecommendations: •  Contests vs. open ethos: open ethos preferred over structured Designated useat launch or to drive particular kinds of posts •  Consider go too far in not specifying locations make potential content, but canadding maps of display use; need toor video feeds users feel comfortable with appropriateness ofaudience less for of who is looking at them to make their posts. Need reification. “imagined” •  Keep displays from reaching too and easier than the ank Twitter as posting mechanism: appreciatedbroad of an audience You Board form, but also caused some feelings of exclusion that should be mitigated in future deployments.
  48. 48. Thanks and Tweets:Comparing Two Public DisplaysSean Munson samunson@umich.edu @smunsonEmily Rosengren emirose@umich.edu @emirosePaul Resnick presnick@umich.edu @presnickanks toErica Willar and Alex Burrell, research assistantsJim Leach, Michael Hess, and SI Computing for helping deploy the displaysMorgan Keys, for continuing to push this forwardFunded by the National Science Foundation under grant IIS-0916099.

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