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Under the
                                     Mi croscope
                                     20 Sm a l l T o wn s i n
                                         Scotland
Architecture+DesignScotland
Ailtearachd is Dealbhadh na h-Alba


ISBN 978-0-947649-69-2
Under the Microscope
                  20 Small Towns in Scotland
                            by Laura Hart, Joanna Hooi
                      Dr Ombretta Romice and Prof Sergio Porta

             Understanding the form of small towns and identifying common strands in
             their development is a foundation on which appropriate political, economic and
             social strategies can be developed. We hope that An Comann* and Under the
             Microscope, 20 Small Towns in Scotland** can offer such understanding. Their
             clarity permits meaningful comparative analysis from which positive aspects of
             each town can be identified and used to form the basis of each town’s future
             survival. Obviously the issues are a lot more complex than differentiating urban
             morphology and as we move out from the gravitational pull of the central belt,
             different problems overtake monotheism and lack of diversity as major issues, but
             extrapolation of our future is a common purpose. This study is a superb bedrock
             on which to build.

             * “An Comann”, the Gaelic version of “in society, a collection, group or bringing
             together”, is the title of Joanna Hooi and Laura Hart Masters Dissertation in Urban
             Design at Urban Design Studies Unit, Department of Architec ture at the University
             of Strathclyde.

             ** Under the Microscope, 20 Small Towns in Scotland is a joint project developed
             as part of the University of Strathclyde Research and Development Grant Scheme
             in collaboration with Architecture and Design Scotland.

             The Research and Development Grant Scheme was led by Dr Ombretta Romice (PI)
             and Prof Sergio Porta at UDSU, Urban Design Studies Unit, Department of
             Architecture at University of Strathclyde. Joanna Hooi and Laura Hart were the ap-
             pointed researchers and took place between February and September 2009.


             The copyright of this thesis belongs to the author under the terms of the United Kingdom Copyright
             Acts as qualified by University of Strathclyde Regulation 3.49. Due acknowledgement must always be
             made of the use of any material contained in, or derived from, this document.




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contents
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               Introduction                                              4 - 5                             e
                                                                                                           n
                                                                                                           t
               Key                                                       6 - 7
                                                                                                           t
               Concept                                                   8 - 9                             s

               Case Studies
                                                                                                           3
                      Market towns
                             Brechin                                     11   -   18
                             Dingwall                                    19   -   26
                             Forres                                      27   -   34
                             Lanark                                      35   -   47

                      Industrial towns
                              Auchinleck                                 43 - 51
                              Dalry                                      52 - 58
                              Neilston                                   59 - 66

                      Planned towns
                             Castle Douglas                              67 - 74
                             Darvel                                      75 - 82
                             Huntly                                      82 - 90

                      Coastal towns
                              Banff                                      91 - 98
                              Girvan                                     99 - 104
                              North Berwick                              105 - 114

                      Commuter towns
                           Haddington                                    115 - 122
                           Kilsyth                                       123 - 130
                           Queensferry                                   131 - 138

                      Tourist towns
                              Crieff                                     139      -   146
                              Fort William                               148      -   154
                              Nairn                                      155      -   162
                              Peebles                                    163      -   170

               Graphic summary of results
                            Town, block + plot scale comparison tables   172 - 181
                            Stats revealed                               182 - 183

               Summary + Conclusion                                      184 -185

               Bibliography                                              186




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introduction
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               ‘An Comann, 5 0 S m a l l T o wn s i n S c o t l a nd , ’ h a s i l l u s t r a t e d t h e f a c t o r s t h a t h a v e i n f l u e n c e d t h e develop -            This is why urban morphology is so important, and is the perspective that drives the activity of the                     i
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 o
               ment of Scot t i s h T o wn s b y p r o v i d i n g a gr a p h i c a l r e s o u r c e o f t h e i r e vo l u t i o n o v e r t h e p a s t 1 5 0 years.                 Urban Design Studies Unit at the Strathclyde University, one that studies the link between form, life,
               Showing com m o n p a t t e r n s a m o n gs t o u r t o wn s i t c o n c l u d e d wi t h t h e p r o m i s e o f a f u r t h e r s t u d y on char -                   processes and dynamics.                                                                                                  n
               acter assessm e n t , wh i c h i s t h e f o c u s o f t h i s v o l u m e .
                                                                                                                                                                                        This study is inevitably reminiscent of the two radical reforms that came to the urban morphology field
               ‘Under the M i c r o s c o p e , 2 0 S m a l l t o w n s i n S c o t l a n d , ’ d e l i v e r s t h i s p r o m i s e b y t e l l i n g a t a l e o f Scottish          through the works of M.R.G Conzen in Britain and Saverio Muratori in Italy between the fourth and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                5
               Small Towns a n d m o r e s p e c i f i c a l l y o f t h e i r f i n e - gr a i n e d u r b a n m o r p h o l o gy . T h i s m e a n s , b y a n d large,               the seventh decade of the 20th Century, then enhanced by scientists like Jeremy Whitehand, Peter J.
               that of the m a ny – a n d p o s s i b l y i n n u m er a b l e – a s p e c t s o f S c o t t i s h Sm a l l T o wn s t h a t c o u l d b e approached                   Larkham, Gianfranco Caniggia, Gian Luigi Maffei and many others including the great French tradition,
               and investiga t e d wi t h g o o d r e a s o n s i n o r d e r t o u n d e r s t a n d h o w t h e y wo r k a n d h a v e d e ve l o p e d , this                        best represented by Panerai-Castex-Depaule study on the urban block, probably one of the single most
               study focuse s o n j u s t o n e o f t h e m , t h e i r f o r m . T h i s i s t h e f i e l d o f u r b a n m o r p h o l o g y , a s i d e - s tream in                important works in the disciplines of the built environment in the whole last Century. As the reader will
               the wider are a o f u r b a n s t u d i e s . D e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t c i t i e s h a ve a l wa y s b e e n d e s c r i b e d a n d i l lustrated            appreciate in this publication, urban morphology allows to understand and explain change through the
               in terms of h o w t h e y l o o k l i k e , u r b a n m o r p h o l o gy i s s t i l l s u r p r i s i n gl y m a r gi n a l f o r t h o s e wh o dig into               observation of form and its alterations through time. As such, it is a clear, unspoilt insight into the
               how cities wo r k a n d t h e i r m u l t i f a c e t e d d y n a m i c s . F o r s o m e r e a s o n s , g e t t i n g i n t o t h e ve r y f o r m of cities           past of a place, a natural, straightforward way to understand its in-depth meaning. Simple progression
               has long bee n c o n s i d e r e d s o m e h o w t r i v i a l , s u p e r - s t r u c t u r a l , m a r g i n a l , c o m p a r e d t o s t u d i e s o n their so -    of figure ground at key time lapses, intertwined with an insight into population changes, major factors
               cietal forms, e c o n o m y o r p o l i c i e s . E v e n t h e r e l a t i v e l y r e c e n t e m p h a s i s o n t h e e n v i r o n me n t h a s left urban          of transformation, economic events of significance, explain how the life and form of towns developed.
               form mostly u n t o u c h e d , a s t h e t e r m “ e n v i r o n m e n t ” i s h e r e i n t e n d e d a s t h e c o m p l e x r e l a t i o n s h ips be -             Structures, types – of built or open space- all respond to a special path of events, and they are key to
               tween resour c e s a n d wa s t e s i n t h e e c o l o gi c a l n e t w o r k , s o m e t h i n g t h a t d o e s n o t p r i n c i p a l l y i n c lude urban          future change.
               form in its p o p u l a r m e a n i n g .
                                                                                                                                                                                        While “An Comann, 50 Small Towns in Scotland* presented this narrative through the story of 50 small
               As for urban p l a n n i n g a n d d e s i gn , i t i s o n l y i n t h e l a s t c o u p l e o f d e c a d e s t h a t t h e f o r m o f c i t i es has                 Scottish towns, selected by size and classified by seven type according to their character, “ Under the
               re-gained ce n t r e s t a ge , a t l e a s t a t t h e f o r e f r o n t o f r e s e a r c h . F o l l o wi n g t h e c r i s i s o f r a t i o n a l -                 Microscope, 20 Small towns in Scotland ” offers an in-depth investigation of 20 towns selected as repre -
               comprehensi v e m o d e l s i n t h e t o d a y ’ s f r a g m e n t e d s o c i e t y , s c i e n t i s t s a n d p r o f e s s i o n a l s b e ga n t urning            sentative of the seven types in An Comann. Each town is located in its landscape and immediate context,
               their eyes ba c k t o t h e s i m p l e a n d t a n g i b l e s t r e e t s , s i d e wa l k s , c o r n e r s , b l o c k s , gr o c e r i e s , t r e e s , gardens,   described through demographic and social/usage figures, but most of all its structure, form and per -
               bridges, ent r a n c e s a n d b u i l d i n g s f a c a d e s , o n l y t o d i s c o ve r t h a t t h e s e we r e n o t a s s i m p l e t h o u ght.                  formance (accessibility, density and others) are illustrated graphically with legible, telling, unequivocal
               Furthermore , b e c a u s e i n U r b a n D e s i gn t h i s r e s u r g e n c e o f i n t e r e s t i n c i t y f o r m c a m e f r o m t h e bottom up,                clarity. Then, each town is meticulously presented through character areas, described through time-
               as part of th e c o m m u n i t y - b a s e d c o u n t e r - m o v e m e n t s a g a i n s t m o d e r n i s m t h a t e m e r g e d s i n c e t h e early              snapshots to explain how overall structure, blocks, plots, frontages, setbacks etc are intrinsically linked
               Sixties of th e l a s t C e n t u r y , wh a t i m m e d i a t e l y a p p e a r e d t o b e n o t s o e a s y t o u n d e r s t a n d i s t h e                         to dynamics such as usage, type, movement and commercial activity.
               relationship b e t we e n u r b a n f o r m a n d u r b a n l i f e . T h i s i s a n e c o l o gi c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p , i n t h e s e n s e that it
               establishes t h e c o l l e c t i v e a n d e m i n e n t l y c o m p l e x p r a c t i c e s t h r o u gh wh i c h h u ma n b e i n gs u s e a nd shape                 Form and performance linked together are an unbeatable narrative, full of insight and, if carefully read,
               and are shap e d b y t h e i r b u i l t e n v i r o n m e n t . T h i s n e w i n t e r e s t i n t o u r b a n f o r m i n t h e f i e l d o f Urban                   holding many answers for the future of our towns. What makes fascinating and useful these volumes is
               Design resul t s f r o m t h e n e e d f o r a n e w h u m a n i s m i n t h e d i s c i p l i n e s o f t h e b u i l t e n vi r o n m e n t , a radical                the clarity and richness that each drawing holds individually, and at the same time the consistency of
               and profound p a r a d i g m s h i f t f r o m t h e wo r l d - a s - a - m a c h i n e . I t i n a u gu r a t e s a c o m p l e t e l y d i f f e r e nt way of         the overall picture that, when read together, they offer. “An Comann” and “20 Small Towns Under the
               understandin g a n d go v e r n i n g c i t i e s .                                                                                                                      Microscope” are a kaleidoscope of information: they are an historic document, tracing development over
                                                                                                                                                                                        centuries. They are a social and economic barometer, showing life changes as a consequence of key
               We should ce l e b r a t e t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f s t u d i e s i n u r b a n m o r p h o l o gy t o d a y , s u c h a s t h e o n e p r esented in               events. They are an urban and social atlas of life traced through our beloved settings. And even more,
               this publicat i o n . U n d e r i t s s e e m i n g l y d i r e c t a n d c o m m u n i c a t i v e m a s k , u n d e r i t s e a s i n e s s a n d simplicity,          they are a clear indication for future development.
               it brings the s e e d s f o r a n e n t i r e l y n e w t h i n k i n g , t h a t s p e a k s o f b u i l t e n v i r o n m e n t b y i n t r o d u c i ng life.

               Look out of y o ur w i n d o ws , p a y a t t e n t i o n t o wh a t y o u d i d t h i s m o r n i n g o n y o u r wa y t o t h e o f f i ce, think                                                                     Sergio Porta and Ombretta Ro mice, UDSU, November 2009.
               of what othe r p e o p l e t h a t y o u k n o w h a v e t o l d y o u a b o u t t h e m s e l v e s a n d t h e i r d a i l y l i f e i n t h e past two
               days or so: t h e wa y s t h e f o r m o f o u r c i t i e s s h a p e s a n d a f f e c t s o u r p e r s o n a l a n d c o l l e c t i v e b e h aviours are
               countless an d p e r v a s i v e . T h e s e wa y s , i n t h e i r c o m p l e x i t y , c o n s t i t u t e o u r e c o l o g i c a l e x i s t e n c e on Earth.




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 k
                                                                                                  e                                         e                                                               k ey buildings                     u                                                   r
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            previous
                                                                                                                                                                                                            s c ho o l s                                                                                    p ha s e                                                                                           k
                                                                                                  t                                         y                                                               hospitals                          t                                                   m        boundary
                                              density:                                                                                                                                                      churches                                                                                                                                                                                           e
                                              [people                                             t                                                                                                                                            e
                                                                                                                                                                                                            halls                                                                                                                                                                                              t
                                              per hectare]                                                                                  b                                                               fire/police stations                                                                   +
                                                                                                  i                                         u
                                                                                                                                                                                                            leisure facilities
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               s
                                                                                                                                                                                                            business park
                                             population                                           n                                         i                                                               c o mm u n i t y c e nt r e        t                                                   s
                                                                                                                                                                                                            museum
                                                                                                  g                                         l                                                               library                            r                                                   t
                                                                                                                                                                                                            c o un c i l o f f i c e s         u                                                   r
                                                                                                                                            d                                                               hotel                                                                                                 perceived          width +        key           perceived         green space                7
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               c                                                   u
                                                                                                                                [1:30000]   i                                 [1:20000]
                                                                                                                                                                                                            rail station
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               t
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            [1:50000]
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  town               length         routes        blocks            + water
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   c
                                                                                                                                            n                                                                                                  u                 primary route                                    boundary
                                                                                                                         key road                            town centre                                                                                                                           t                                                                              [not to scale]
                                                                                                                                            g                origin                                                                            r            secondary route                        u
                                                                                                                         rail
                                                                                                                                            s                boundary                                                                          e                                                   r
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  tertiary route
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   e
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               mode of transport for p e o p l e
                gro wt h                                                                                                                                                                                                                       a g e d 1 6 - 7 4 to e m p l o ym e n t o r s t u d y [%]
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          walkable




 e
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         average
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             train                                                                       distance                         distance
                h o u s in g t y p o l o gy [ % ]                                                                                            tenure [%]
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         travelled to work


                                                                                                                                                O                               P                                    R
                                                                                                                                                            [owns outright,                    [council                           [private
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             bus                                                                         by p e o p l e a g e d
                                                                                                                                                            with a mortgage
                                                                                                                                                            or loan, shared
                                                                                                                                                                                               [local
                                                                                                                                                                                               authority]
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  landlord
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  or letting                                                                                             1 6 - 7 4 to
                                                                                                                                                            ownership]                         scottish
                                                                                                                                                                                               homes]
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  agency]
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             car                                                                         e m p l o ym e n t o r
                detached                  semi                     terraced                 purpose-      part of a      in commercial          o w ne r                        public                              private                                                                                                              s t u d ying [%]
                                          detached                 (including
                                                                   end-
                                                                                            built block
                                                                                            of flats or
                                                                                                          converted
                                                                                                          or shared
                                                                                                                         building               occupied                        h o us i n g                        rented                                   walk
                                                                   terraced)                tenement      house                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  300m
                                                                                                          (including
                                                                                                          bed-sits)                                                                                                                                          cycle
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         % households with                        500m
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             work/study mainly
                 [ r e ma i nd e r o f 1 0 0 % r e s i d e i n c a r a va n o r o t h e r                                                       [remainder of 100% includes employer of a household mem ber and                                                                                                                          1+ car
                 m o b i l e o r t e m p o r a r y s t r uc t ur e ]                                                                            relative or friend of a household member and living rent free]                                               at home                                                                                                                     800m
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               [remainder of 100% travel to work study using underground,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               light rail, motorbik e, moped, taxi or other]




                blo c k +



 y
                plo t s c a l e                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                primary route

                                indicates
                                location of                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    secondary route
                                plot scale
                                diagram
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               hard landscape      set back s     soft landscape          frontage
                                indicates block cut
                                off as larger than
                                                                                                  overal l 1 6 0 0 0 0 m 2 a r e a
                                                                                                                                         no. blocks                            % built form                               % of total
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               vehicle/pedestrian
                                160000m2                                                                                                                                                                                  possible                                                             access through
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          f r o n t a ge                                                       block
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1:2000                                                     no. of buildings             no. of plots
                                                                                                                                                                                                                1:10000

               NB. scales indicated refer to the scale of the diagrams on the individual pages, they are not to scale here.




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               Selection of Analysis                                                                                                                                                                                                              c
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                                                                                                                       phase 1                                 phase 2                            phase 3                                         e
                                                                                                                                                                                                   1959 - 2008                                    t
                                                                                                                          1856 -1900                             1900- 1958                                                                       p
               Generic Patterns of Development Over Time                                                                                                                                                                                          t

                                                                                                                       traditional urban                      suburbanisation with                suburbanisation with
               ‘An Comann’ revealed episodic periods of growth and expansion that could be related to histori-                form                          traditional block pattern              loss of traditional                            9
               cal purpose, role of the settlements and policy relating to building and construction relevant to                                                                                      block pattern
               each period of time. This volume of research goes further and investigates the physical personal-
               ity of the major phases of development for twenty small towns.

               Research takes place at town, block and plot scale to reveal the morphological patterns that have
               attributed to the shapes and form of small towns over time. The case studies remain separated
               by town type. Each town is then analysed in three chronological time frames.

               The following three phases of development were identified;                                                                   19 ha                                  175ha                                491ha
                                                                                                                          population - 4116                      population - 5927                    population - 8640
               Phase 1          -       19th Century industrialisation


               Phase 2          -       Pre war to mid 20th Century


               Phase 3          -       Mid 20th to Early 21st Century


               Digimap was utilised for auto cad and historical maps, google earth further aided the production
               of clear and accurate graphics showing the structure of these small towns. The graphics broadly
               demonstrate scale, growth, density and character. Finer detail is achieved in plot scale.
                                                                                                                      In the 19th C towns were compact       Gradual move to suburban form.        Expansion and suburbanisation
                                                                                                                      units with tight street patterns       The core of the towns remains the     continues. The private house
               Outward sprawl is consistently prevalent and is not proportionate to a rise in population. Within      leading out of or around a main        same. New development takes the       builder is primarily responsible for
               each developmental phase identical street patterns and building types can be seen across the           street. Towns expand from small        form of large urban blocks with       new development. These take the
               selected case studies. It reveals a ‘one size fits all’ approach to building that fails to recognise   compact origins with the arrival of    dethatched, semi-detached and         form of estates on Greenfield
                                                                                                                      industry and railways. Develop-        terraced housing. Housing estates     estates. Core of towns remains
               any element of local history, topography or character supplemented by a lack of clear planning         ment is in a traditional urban form    appear with introduction of           unchanged and new development
               and urban design guidelines to support more sustainable development.                                   and vernacular in style.               council estates and public housing    is primarily housing. The urban
                                                                                                                                                                                                   block is replaced by cul-de-sacs
                                                                                                                                                                                                   and internally orientated estates
                                                                                                                                                                                                   with little or no meaningful
                                                                                                                                                                                                   relationship with the town.




AC2.indd 8-9                                                                                                                                                                                                                       25/11/2009 15:52:18
inchbare




                                                               brechin
                                      newtonmill

                   belliehill

                        little brechin      muirton of
                                            ballochy
                 west muir
                                         brechin
                                                       dun




                  netherton
                                middle drums        barnhead                dundee 26.4 miles
                                          farnell

                                                carcary


                                                                       forfar 12.5 miles


                                                                  west muir 2.3 miles




                 brechin



AC2.indd 10-11                                                                          25/11/2009 15:52:18
origin: 1856                                           transition: 1959
t
o                                                                                                                                            m
w                                                                                                                                            a
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n                                                                                                                                            k
                                                                                                                                             e
                                                                                                                                             t

s
c
                                                                                                                                             13
a
l                                                             1:50000   1:50000

e




                 1:30000                              3000m                                       1:30000             3000m

                           8210                                                                             8203
                                                              1:20000   1:20000
                           154 p/ha                                                                         41 p/ha
                                      8m




                  53ha                                                                 3m
                                      84




                                           131
                                                 1m
                                                                           196ha    38
                                                                                   1 2
                                                                                       44
                                                                                          9   m




AC2.indd 12-13                                                                                                                25/11/2009 15:52:25
current:2008                                           phase 3
t                                                               g       1959 - 2008
o                                                               r                                                                                          m
w                                                               o                                                                                          a
                                                                                                                                                           r
n                                                               w                                                                                          k
                                                                                                                                                           e
                                                                t       phase 2                                                                            t
                                                                         1856 - 1959
s                                                               h
c
                                                                                                                                                           15
a
l                                                     1:50000           phase 1
e                                                                          0 - 1856
                                                                                                                                                800m

                                                                    area
                                                                    0                          500ha




                                                                    population
                                                                    0                         10000

                 1:30000                      3000m

                           6950
                                                                                                                                        1:20000
                                                      1:20000
                           26 p/ha


                                                                        h    tenure [%]                                   a   15.85km      68.22%



                                                                             O P R
                                                                        o                                                 w   0%            100%

                                                                        m                                                 a
                                      1398m                             e     56.9     33.7   5.6                         y
                   267ha
                                     22




                                                                            housing typology [%]
                                      85
                                          m




                                                                             17.71     24.2   14.8     35.1   5.3   2.2


AC2.indd 14-15                                                                                                                              25/11/2009 15:52:36
19th century character area                                                     20th century character area
b                                                                                                                                                                                     m
                                                                                                                                                                                      a
l                                                                                                                                                                                     r
                                                                                                                                                                                      k
o                                                                                                                                                                                     e
c                                                                                                                                                                                     t

k
                 1:10000                      400m                                               1:10000                    400m
                                                        13               37%            70%                                        7                20%        41%                    17




p                                      )
                                 x(m
l                                                                                                                 y(m
                                                                                                                        )


o
                                                   y(
                                                   m




                                                                                                                   a ( m2 )
                                                    )




                                              2
                                           a(m )
t




                                                                                                           x(m
                                                                                                            )
s                          block size                                                                      block size
                           x = 83m                                                                         x= 151m
c                          y = 254m
                           a = 22112m
                                      2
                                                                                                           y= 110m
                                                                                                           a= 11663m2
a
l
e


                           a v e r a ge p l o t                                                            average plot
                           si z e                                                                          size
                           a = 478m 2                                                                      a= 275m2

                                                        1:20 0 0                          200m                                     1:2000                       200m



                                                        1 block =   13         +   28                                              1 block =   14     +   35



AC2.indd 16-17                                                                                                                                                         25/11/2009 15:52:46
21st century character area
b
l
o                                                                                                                                               drummond




                                                                                                                                                              dingwall
                                                                                                                                  to alness


c                                                                                                        heights of brae
                                                                                                                               mount
                                                                                                                               gerald

                                                                                                                   dingwall
k
                                                                                                   bottacks



                                                                                                                                            urquhart

                                                                                                  strathpeffer                         alcaig
                                                                                                                  maryburgh
                                                                                                                                                duncanston
                 1:10000                       400m                                                 jamestown
                                                                                                                                 ryefield

                                                         1                15%            74%                      canon      carntown easter
                                                                                                                                      kinkell
                                                                                                                                                                                 inverness 14.4 miles
                                                                                                                  bridge
                                                                                                                               leanaig
                                                                                                          urray
                                                                                                                  to muir                                to munlochy
                                                                                                                  of ord                          tore
                                                                                                                            balyaird
                                                                                                                                                                            alness 9.4 miles

p
                                                                                                                                                                       fodderty 3 miles
l                                        m)
                                    x(
o                                             a ( m2 )
                           y(m)




t

s                          block size
                           x = 244m
c                          y = 196m
                           a = 45921m2
a
l
e


                           a v e r a ge p l o t
                           si z e
                           a = 340m 2

                                                         1:20 0 0                          200m



                                                         1 block =   37         +   47



AC2.indd 18-19                                                                                                                                                                             25/11/2009 15:52:50
origin: 1876                                                        transition: 1959
t
o                                                                                                                                                       m
w                                                                     36ha
                                                                                                                                                        a
                                                                                                                                                        r
n                                                                                                                                                       k
                                                                                                                                                        e
                                                                                                                                                        t

s
c                                                                  1402m
                                                                                                                                                        21
a




                                                                           83
l




                                                                             3m
                                                                           1:50000   1:50000

e




                 1:30000                              3000m                                                  1:30000             3000m

                           2364             66 p/ha                                                                    3604
                                                                           1:20000   1:20000
                                                                                                                       28 p/ha




                                                                                               1720
                                                                                     127ha




                                                                                                m
                                                                                                  1800
                                                                                                         m




                                  1:50000                1:20000



AC2.indd 20-21                                                                                                                           25/11/2009 15:52:54
current:2008
t                                                                            g
o                                                                            r       phase 3
                                                                                     1959 - 2008                                                                          m
w                                                                            o                                                                                            a
                                                                                                                                                                          r
n                                                                            w                                                                                            k
                                                                                                                                                                          e
                                                                             t                                                                                            t
                                                                                     phase 2
s                                                                            h        1876 - 1959

c
                                                                                                                                                                          23
a
l                                                                  1:50000
                                                                                     phase 1
e                                                                                       0 - 1876

                                                                                                                                                               800m
                                                                                 area
                                                                                 0                          500ha




                                                                                 population
                 1:30000                                   3000m                 0                         10000



                             5080

                                                                   1:20000
                             16 p/ha                                                                                                                   1:20000


                                                                                     h    tenure [%]                                     a   15.06km      69.6%



                                                                                          O P R
                                                                                     o                                                   w   0%            100%

                                                                                     m                                                   a
                                                 29 23 m




                                       25                                            e    61.8      28.5   5.0                           y
                   326 h a                  08
                                                 m
                                                                                         housing typology [%]




                                                                                          28.9      23.6   26.2     17.9   1.49   1.71


AC2.indd 22-23                                                                                                                                             25/11/2009 15:53:03
19th century character area                                                      20th century character area
b                                                                                                                                                                                      m
                                                                                                                                                                                       a
l                                                                                                                                                                                      r
                                                                                                                                                                                       k
o                                                                                                                                                                                      e
c                                                                                                                                                                                      t

k
                 1:10000                     400m                                                 1:10000                    400m
                                                         7                31%            61%                                        5                18%        54%                    25




p
l                                     x(m)

                                                                                                                   x(m
                                                                                                                         )


o                                                                                                                  a (m )
                                                                                                                             2


t
                                                  y(m)




                                             2
                                      a(m )




                                                                                                            y(m)
s                          block size                                                                       block size
                           x = 68m                                                                          x= 138m
c                          y = 109m
                           a = 5791m
                                    2
                                                                                                            y= 143m
                                                                                                            a= 26832m2
a
l
e


                           a v e r a ge p l o t                                                             average plot
                           si z e                                                                           size
                           a = 348m                                                                         a= 123m2

                                                         1:20 0 0                          200m                                     1:2000                       200m



                                                         1 block =   24         +   10                                              1 block =   30     +   95



AC2.indd 24-25                                                                                                                                                          25/11/2009 15:53:07
21st century character area
b
l
o
c
k


                                                                                                                                                     forres
                                                                                                                               findhorn
                 1:10000                         400m
                                                              4                20%            55%
                                                                                                                                    kinloss

                                                                                                                                          to elgin
                                                                                                             kintessack              grange
                                                                                                                   moy house         hall
                                                                                                            dyke
                                                                                                                                  forres


p                                                                                                           blinkbonny
                                                                                                       to nairn
                                                                                                                                     rafford                    inverness 27 miles

l
                                                                                                          whitemire
                                                                                                           conicavel
                                                                                                                       to grantown-
                                                                                                                       on-spey
                                                                                                                                                           nairn 10.7miles
                                                        x(m




o
                                                                                                                                 phorp
                                                         )




                                                 2
                                       a(m )
t                                            )
                                                                                                                                                      dyke 4.4 miles
                                       y(m




s                          block size
                           x = 62m
c                          y = 249m
                           a = 16038m 2
a
l
e


                           a v e r a ge p l o t
                           si z e
                           a = 402m2

                                                              1:20 0 0                          200m



                                                              1 block =   21         +   31



AC2.indd 26-27                                                                                                                                                               25/11/2009 15:53:09
origin: 1873                                                                     transition: 1959
t
o                                                                                                                                                                       m
w                                                                        3 8 ha
                                                                                                                                                                        a
                                                                                                                                                                        r
n                                                                                                                                                                       k
                                                                                                                                                                        e
                                                                                                                                                                        t

s
c                                                                             89
                                                                                   0m
                                                                                                                                                                        29
a                                                                            7m
                                                                         3
l                                                                   10
                                                                                        1:50000   1:50000

e




                 1:30000                               3000m                                                                 1:30000             3000m

                           4069             107 p/ha                                                                                   5231
                                                                                        1:20000   1:20000
                                                                                                                                       73 p/ha




                                                                                                     74ha                m
                                                                                                                    07
                                                                                                             16




                                                                                                            1156m
                                  1:50000                 1:20000



AC2.indd 28-29                                                                                                                                           25/11/2009 15:53:12
current:2008
t                                                                      g
o                                                                      r                                                                                                       m
w                                                                      o                                                                                                       a
                                                                                                                                                                               r
n                                                                      w                                                                                                       k
                                                                                                                                                                               e
                                                                       t                                                       800m
                                                                                                                                                                               t

s                                                                      h
                                                                                                                                                phase 1
c                                                                                                                                                0 - 1873
                                                                                                                                                                               31
a
l                                                            1:50000
                                                                                                                                                phase 2
e                                                                                                                                                1873 - 1959




                                                                                                                                                phase 3
                                                                                                                                                1959 - 2008



                                                                                                             population                     area
                                                                                                             0                 10000        0                     500ha
                 1:30000                             3000m

                           8990

                                                             1:20000
                           24 p/ha                                                1:20000



                                                                           h   tenure [%]                                  a           22.66km                 72.1%



                                                                               O P R
                                                                           o                                               w           0%                       100%

                                                                           m                                               a
                                                                           e   63.0    26.6   5.16                         y
                                                 m
                                                 0
                                             5




                                     2686m
                                             8




                  381ha
                                             2




                                                                               housing typology [%]




                                                                               21.3    26.3   25.8    13.8   1.42   1.35


AC2.indd 30-31                                                                                                                                                  25/11/2009 15:53:27
19th century character area                                                        20th century character area
b                                                                                                                                                                                         m
                                                                                                                                                                                          a
l                                                                                                                                                                                         r
                                                                                                                                                                                          k
o                                                                                                                                                                                         e
c                                                                                                                                                                                         t

k
                 1:10000                     400m                                                   1:10000                     400m
                                                           15               34%            50%                                         7                12%        38%                    33




p
l                                             x(
                                                   m
                                                       )

o                                                                                                                           2
                                                                                                                    a (m )
t
                                       2
                                 a(m )




                                                                                                                                  )
                                                                                                                                 y(m
                                                  )
                                              m
                                             y(




                                                                                                                  x(m
                                                                                                                        )

s                          block size                                                                         block size
                           x = 137m                                                                           x= 107m
c                          y = 135m
                           a = 20490m2
                                                                                                              y= 185m
                                                                                                              a= 21229m2
a
l
e


                           a v e r a ge p l o t                                                               average plot
                           si z e                                                                             size
                           a = 319m                                                                           a= 831m2

                                                           1:20 0 0                          200m                                      1:2000                       200m



                                                           1 block =   29         +   34                                               1 block =   18     +   20



AC2.indd 32-33                                                                                                                                                             25/11/2009 15:53:32
21st century character area
b
l
o
c
k


                                                                                                                                             lanark
                                                                                                                  roadmeetings

                                                                                                                              harelaw
                                                                                                                 kilncadzow
                 1:10000                       400m                                                         braidwood

                                                      3                13%            42%          crossford    cartland         carstairs

                                                                                               hazelbank               cleghorn
                                                                                                           nemphlar


                                                                                                                           lanark
                                                                                                 kirkfieldbank
                                                                                                               new lanark


p                                                                                              brocketsbrae
                                                                                                           hawksland
                                                                                                                           hynford bridge                 glasgow 27.7 miles


l                                                                                                                                                    carluke 5.5 miles
o                                   a(m )
                                           2


t                                                                                                                                               kirkfieldbank 1.1 miles
                           x(m
                           )




                                                  )
                                           y(m


s                          block size
                           x = 139m
c                          y = 192m
                           a = 20727m2
a
l
e


                           a v e r a ge p l o t
                           si z e
                           a = 140m2

                                                      1:20 0 0                          200m



                                                      1 block =   16         +   66



AC2.indd 34-35                                                                                                                                                      25/11/2009 15:53:35
Under the Microscope
Under the Microscope
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Under the Microscope

  • 1. Under the Mi croscope 20 Sm a l l T o wn s i n Scotland Architecture+DesignScotland Ailtearachd is Dealbhadh na h-Alba ISBN 978-0-947649-69-2
  • 2. Under the Microscope 20 Small Towns in Scotland by Laura Hart, Joanna Hooi Dr Ombretta Romice and Prof Sergio Porta Understanding the form of small towns and identifying common strands in their development is a foundation on which appropriate political, economic and social strategies can be developed. We hope that An Comann* and Under the Microscope, 20 Small Towns in Scotland** can offer such understanding. Their clarity permits meaningful comparative analysis from which positive aspects of each town can be identified and used to form the basis of each town’s future survival. Obviously the issues are a lot more complex than differentiating urban morphology and as we move out from the gravitational pull of the central belt, different problems overtake monotheism and lack of diversity as major issues, but extrapolation of our future is a common purpose. This study is a superb bedrock on which to build. * “An Comann”, the Gaelic version of “in society, a collection, group or bringing together”, is the title of Joanna Hooi and Laura Hart Masters Dissertation in Urban Design at Urban Design Studies Unit, Department of Architec ture at the University of Strathclyde. ** Under the Microscope, 20 Small Towns in Scotland is a joint project developed as part of the University of Strathclyde Research and Development Grant Scheme in collaboration with Architecture and Design Scotland. The Research and Development Grant Scheme was led by Dr Ombretta Romice (PI) and Prof Sergio Porta at UDSU, Urban Design Studies Unit, Department of Architecture at University of Strathclyde. Joanna Hooi and Laura Hart were the ap- pointed researchers and took place between February and September 2009. The copyright of this thesis belongs to the author under the terms of the United Kingdom Copyright Acts as qualified by University of Strathclyde Regulation 3.49. Due acknowledgement must always be made of the use of any material contained in, or derived from, this document. AC2.indd 1 25/11/2009 15:52:09
  • 3. contents c m o a n r t k Introduction 4 - 5 e n t Key 6 - 7 t Concept 8 - 9 s Case Studies 3 Market towns Brechin 11 - 18 Dingwall 19 - 26 Forres 27 - 34 Lanark 35 - 47 Industrial towns Auchinleck 43 - 51 Dalry 52 - 58 Neilston 59 - 66 Planned towns Castle Douglas 67 - 74 Darvel 75 - 82 Huntly 82 - 90 Coastal towns Banff 91 - 98 Girvan 99 - 104 North Berwick 105 - 114 Commuter towns Haddington 115 - 122 Kilsyth 123 - 130 Queensferry 131 - 138 Tourist towns Crieff 139 - 146 Fort William 148 - 154 Nairn 155 - 162 Peebles 163 - 170 Graphic summary of results Town, block + plot scale comparison tables 172 - 181 Stats revealed 182 - 183 Summary + Conclusion 184 -185 Bibliography 186 AC2.indd 2-3 25/11/2009 15:52:11
  • 4. introduction i m n a t r r o k d u e c t t ‘An Comann, 5 0 S m a l l T o wn s i n S c o t l a nd , ’ h a s i l l u s t r a t e d t h e f a c t o r s t h a t h a v e i n f l u e n c e d t h e develop - This is why urban morphology is so important, and is the perspective that drives the activity of the i o ment of Scot t i s h T o wn s b y p r o v i d i n g a gr a p h i c a l r e s o u r c e o f t h e i r e vo l u t i o n o v e r t h e p a s t 1 5 0 years. Urban Design Studies Unit at the Strathclyde University, one that studies the link between form, life, Showing com m o n p a t t e r n s a m o n gs t o u r t o wn s i t c o n c l u d e d wi t h t h e p r o m i s e o f a f u r t h e r s t u d y on char - processes and dynamics. n acter assessm e n t , wh i c h i s t h e f o c u s o f t h i s v o l u m e . This study is inevitably reminiscent of the two radical reforms that came to the urban morphology field ‘Under the M i c r o s c o p e , 2 0 S m a l l t o w n s i n S c o t l a n d , ’ d e l i v e r s t h i s p r o m i s e b y t e l l i n g a t a l e o f Scottish through the works of M.R.G Conzen in Britain and Saverio Muratori in Italy between the fourth and 5 Small Towns a n d m o r e s p e c i f i c a l l y o f t h e i r f i n e - gr a i n e d u r b a n m o r p h o l o gy . T h i s m e a n s , b y a n d large, the seventh decade of the 20th Century, then enhanced by scientists like Jeremy Whitehand, Peter J. that of the m a ny – a n d p o s s i b l y i n n u m er a b l e – a s p e c t s o f S c o t t i s h Sm a l l T o wn s t h a t c o u l d b e approached Larkham, Gianfranco Caniggia, Gian Luigi Maffei and many others including the great French tradition, and investiga t e d wi t h g o o d r e a s o n s i n o r d e r t o u n d e r s t a n d h o w t h e y wo r k a n d h a v e d e ve l o p e d , this best represented by Panerai-Castex-Depaule study on the urban block, probably one of the single most study focuse s o n j u s t o n e o f t h e m , t h e i r f o r m . T h i s i s t h e f i e l d o f u r b a n m o r p h o l o g y , a s i d e - s tream in important works in the disciplines of the built environment in the whole last Century. As the reader will the wider are a o f u r b a n s t u d i e s . D e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t c i t i e s h a ve a l wa y s b e e n d e s c r i b e d a n d i l lustrated appreciate in this publication, urban morphology allows to understand and explain change through the in terms of h o w t h e y l o o k l i k e , u r b a n m o r p h o l o gy i s s t i l l s u r p r i s i n gl y m a r gi n a l f o r t h o s e wh o dig into observation of form and its alterations through time. As such, it is a clear, unspoilt insight into the how cities wo r k a n d t h e i r m u l t i f a c e t e d d y n a m i c s . F o r s o m e r e a s o n s , g e t t i n g i n t o t h e ve r y f o r m of cities past of a place, a natural, straightforward way to understand its in-depth meaning. Simple progression has long bee n c o n s i d e r e d s o m e h o w t r i v i a l , s u p e r - s t r u c t u r a l , m a r g i n a l , c o m p a r e d t o s t u d i e s o n their so - of figure ground at key time lapses, intertwined with an insight into population changes, major factors cietal forms, e c o n o m y o r p o l i c i e s . E v e n t h e r e l a t i v e l y r e c e n t e m p h a s i s o n t h e e n v i r o n me n t h a s left urban of transformation, economic events of significance, explain how the life and form of towns developed. form mostly u n t o u c h e d , a s t h e t e r m “ e n v i r o n m e n t ” i s h e r e i n t e n d e d a s t h e c o m p l e x r e l a t i o n s h ips be - Structures, types – of built or open space- all respond to a special path of events, and they are key to tween resour c e s a n d wa s t e s i n t h e e c o l o gi c a l n e t w o r k , s o m e t h i n g t h a t d o e s n o t p r i n c i p a l l y i n c lude urban future change. form in its p o p u l a r m e a n i n g . While “An Comann, 50 Small Towns in Scotland* presented this narrative through the story of 50 small As for urban p l a n n i n g a n d d e s i gn , i t i s o n l y i n t h e l a s t c o u p l e o f d e c a d e s t h a t t h e f o r m o f c i t i es has Scottish towns, selected by size and classified by seven type according to their character, “ Under the re-gained ce n t r e s t a ge , a t l e a s t a t t h e f o r e f r o n t o f r e s e a r c h . F o l l o wi n g t h e c r i s i s o f r a t i o n a l - Microscope, 20 Small towns in Scotland ” offers an in-depth investigation of 20 towns selected as repre - comprehensi v e m o d e l s i n t h e t o d a y ’ s f r a g m e n t e d s o c i e t y , s c i e n t i s t s a n d p r o f e s s i o n a l s b e ga n t urning sentative of the seven types in An Comann. Each town is located in its landscape and immediate context, their eyes ba c k t o t h e s i m p l e a n d t a n g i b l e s t r e e t s , s i d e wa l k s , c o r n e r s , b l o c k s , gr o c e r i e s , t r e e s , gardens, described through demographic and social/usage figures, but most of all its structure, form and per - bridges, ent r a n c e s a n d b u i l d i n g s f a c a d e s , o n l y t o d i s c o ve r t h a t t h e s e we r e n o t a s s i m p l e t h o u ght. formance (accessibility, density and others) are illustrated graphically with legible, telling, unequivocal Furthermore , b e c a u s e i n U r b a n D e s i gn t h i s r e s u r g e n c e o f i n t e r e s t i n c i t y f o r m c a m e f r o m t h e bottom up, clarity. Then, each town is meticulously presented through character areas, described through time- as part of th e c o m m u n i t y - b a s e d c o u n t e r - m o v e m e n t s a g a i n s t m o d e r n i s m t h a t e m e r g e d s i n c e t h e early snapshots to explain how overall structure, blocks, plots, frontages, setbacks etc are intrinsically linked Sixties of th e l a s t C e n t u r y , wh a t i m m e d i a t e l y a p p e a r e d t o b e n o t s o e a s y t o u n d e r s t a n d i s t h e to dynamics such as usage, type, movement and commercial activity. relationship b e t we e n u r b a n f o r m a n d u r b a n l i f e . T h i s i s a n e c o l o gi c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p , i n t h e s e n s e that it establishes t h e c o l l e c t i v e a n d e m i n e n t l y c o m p l e x p r a c t i c e s t h r o u gh wh i c h h u ma n b e i n gs u s e a nd shape Form and performance linked together are an unbeatable narrative, full of insight and, if carefully read, and are shap e d b y t h e i r b u i l t e n v i r o n m e n t . T h i s n e w i n t e r e s t i n t o u r b a n f o r m i n t h e f i e l d o f Urban holding many answers for the future of our towns. What makes fascinating and useful these volumes is Design resul t s f r o m t h e n e e d f o r a n e w h u m a n i s m i n t h e d i s c i p l i n e s o f t h e b u i l t e n vi r o n m e n t , a radical the clarity and richness that each drawing holds individually, and at the same time the consistency of and profound p a r a d i g m s h i f t f r o m t h e wo r l d - a s - a - m a c h i n e . I t i n a u gu r a t e s a c o m p l e t e l y d i f f e r e nt way of the overall picture that, when read together, they offer. “An Comann” and “20 Small Towns Under the understandin g a n d go v e r n i n g c i t i e s . Microscope” are a kaleidoscope of information: they are an historic document, tracing development over centuries. They are a social and economic barometer, showing life changes as a consequence of key We should ce l e b r a t e t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f s t u d i e s i n u r b a n m o r p h o l o gy t o d a y , s u c h a s t h e o n e p r esented in events. They are an urban and social atlas of life traced through our beloved settings. And even more, this publicat i o n . U n d e r i t s s e e m i n g l y d i r e c t a n d c o m m u n i c a t i v e m a s k , u n d e r i t s e a s i n e s s a n d simplicity, they are a clear indication for future development. it brings the s e e d s f o r a n e n t i r e l y n e w t h i n k i n g , t h a t s p e a k s o f b u i l t e n v i r o n m e n t b y i n t r o d u c i ng life. Look out of y o ur w i n d o ws , p a y a t t e n t i o n t o wh a t y o u d i d t h i s m o r n i n g o n y o u r wa y t o t h e o f f i ce, think Sergio Porta and Ombretta Ro mice, UDSU, November 2009. of what othe r p e o p l e t h a t y o u k n o w h a v e t o l d y o u a b o u t t h e m s e l v e s a n d t h e i r d a i l y l i f e i n t h e past two days or so: t h e wa y s t h e f o r m o f o u r c i t i e s s h a p e s a n d a f f e c t s o u r p e r s o n a l a n d c o l l e c t i v e b e h aviours are countless an d p e r v a s i v e . T h e s e wa y s , i n t h e i r c o m p l e x i t y , c o n s t i t u t e o u r e c o l o g i c a l e x i s t e n c e on Earth. AC2.indd 4-5 25/11/2009 15:52:11
  • 5. m k r a town s c a l e s k o f o i nd i c a t e s e r y k e e k ey buildings u r previous s c ho o l s p ha s e k t y hospitals t m boundary density: churches e [people t e halls t per hectare] b fire/police stations + i u leisure facilities s business park population n i c o mm u n i t y c e nt r e t s museum g l library r t c o un c i l o f f i c e s u r d hotel perceived width + key perceived green space 7 c u [1:30000] i [1:20000] rail station t [1:50000] town length routes blocks + water c n u primary route boundary key road town centre t [not to scale] g origin r secondary route u rail s boundary e r tertiary route e mode of transport for p e o p l e gro wt h a g e d 1 6 - 7 4 to e m p l o ym e n t o r s t u d y [%] walkable e average train distance distance h o u s in g t y p o l o gy [ % ] tenure [%] travelled to work O P R [owns outright, [council [private bus by p e o p l e a g e d with a mortgage or loan, shared [local authority] landlord or letting 1 6 - 7 4 to ownership] scottish homes] agency] car e m p l o ym e n t o r detached semi terraced purpose- part of a in commercial o w ne r public private s t u d ying [%] detached (including end- built block of flats or converted or shared building occupied h o us i n g rented walk terraced) tenement house 300m (including bed-sits) cycle % households with 500m work/study mainly [ r e ma i nd e r o f 1 0 0 % r e s i d e i n c a r a va n o r o t h e r [remainder of 100% includes employer of a household mem ber and 1+ car m o b i l e o r t e m p o r a r y s t r uc t ur e ] relative or friend of a household member and living rent free] at home 800m [remainder of 100% travel to work study using underground, light rail, motorbik e, moped, taxi or other] blo c k + y plo t s c a l e primary route indicates location of secondary route plot scale diagram hard landscape set back s soft landscape frontage indicates block cut off as larger than overal l 1 6 0 0 0 0 m 2 a r e a no. blocks % built form % of total vehicle/pedestrian 160000m2 possible access through f r o n t a ge block 1:2000 no. of buildings no. of plots 1:10000 NB. scales indicated refer to the scale of the diagrams on the individual pages, they are not to scale here. AC2.indd 6-7 25/11/2009 15:52:15
  • 6. m c a o r n k Selection of Analysis c e phase 1 phase 2 phase 3 e 1959 - 2008 t 1856 -1900 1900- 1958 p Generic Patterns of Development Over Time t traditional urban suburbanisation with suburbanisation with ‘An Comann’ revealed episodic periods of growth and expansion that could be related to histori- form traditional block pattern loss of traditional 9 cal purpose, role of the settlements and policy relating to building and construction relevant to block pattern each period of time. This volume of research goes further and investigates the physical personal- ity of the major phases of development for twenty small towns. Research takes place at town, block and plot scale to reveal the morphological patterns that have attributed to the shapes and form of small towns over time. The case studies remain separated by town type. Each town is then analysed in three chronological time frames. The following three phases of development were identified; 19 ha 175ha 491ha population - 4116 population - 5927 population - 8640 Phase 1 - 19th Century industrialisation Phase 2 - Pre war to mid 20th Century Phase 3 - Mid 20th to Early 21st Century Digimap was utilised for auto cad and historical maps, google earth further aided the production of clear and accurate graphics showing the structure of these small towns. The graphics broadly demonstrate scale, growth, density and character. Finer detail is achieved in plot scale. In the 19th C towns were compact Gradual move to suburban form. Expansion and suburbanisation units with tight street patterns The core of the towns remains the continues. The private house Outward sprawl is consistently prevalent and is not proportionate to a rise in population. Within leading out of or around a main same. New development takes the builder is primarily responsible for each developmental phase identical street patterns and building types can be seen across the street. Towns expand from small form of large urban blocks with new development. These take the selected case studies. It reveals a ‘one size fits all’ approach to building that fails to recognise compact origins with the arrival of dethatched, semi-detached and form of estates on Greenfield industry and railways. Develop- terraced housing. Housing estates estates. Core of towns remains any element of local history, topography or character supplemented by a lack of clear planning ment is in a traditional urban form appear with introduction of unchanged and new development and urban design guidelines to support more sustainable development. and vernacular in style. council estates and public housing is primarily housing. The urban block is replaced by cul-de-sacs and internally orientated estates with little or no meaningful relationship with the town. AC2.indd 8-9 25/11/2009 15:52:18
  • 7. inchbare brechin newtonmill belliehill little brechin muirton of ballochy west muir brechin dun netherton middle drums barnhead dundee 26.4 miles farnell carcary forfar 12.5 miles west muir 2.3 miles brechin AC2.indd 10-11 25/11/2009 15:52:18
  • 8. origin: 1856 transition: 1959 t o m w a r n k e t s c 13 a l 1:50000 1:50000 e 1:30000 3000m 1:30000 3000m 8210 8203 1:20000 1:20000 154 p/ha 41 p/ha 8m 53ha 3m 84 131 1m 196ha 38 1 2 44 9 m AC2.indd 12-13 25/11/2009 15:52:25
  • 9. current:2008 phase 3 t g 1959 - 2008 o r m w o a r n w k e t phase 2 t 1856 - 1959 s h c 15 a l 1:50000 phase 1 e 0 - 1856 800m area 0 500ha population 0 10000 1:30000 3000m 6950 1:20000 1:20000 26 p/ha h tenure [%] a 15.85km 68.22% O P R o w 0% 100% m a 1398m e 56.9 33.7 5.6 y 267ha 22 housing typology [%] 85 m 17.71 24.2 14.8 35.1 5.3 2.2 AC2.indd 14-15 25/11/2009 15:52:36
  • 10. 19th century character area 20th century character area b m a l r k o e c t k 1:10000 400m 1:10000 400m 13 37% 70% 7 20% 41% 17 p ) x(m l y(m ) o y( m a ( m2 ) ) 2 a(m ) t x(m ) s block size block size x = 83m x= 151m c y = 254m a = 22112m 2 y= 110m a= 11663m2 a l e a v e r a ge p l o t average plot si z e size a = 478m 2 a= 275m2 1:20 0 0 200m 1:2000 200m 1 block = 13 + 28 1 block = 14 + 35 AC2.indd 16-17 25/11/2009 15:52:46
  • 11. 21st century character area b l o drummond dingwall to alness c heights of brae mount gerald dingwall k bottacks urquhart strathpeffer alcaig maryburgh duncanston 1:10000 400m jamestown ryefield 1 15% 74% canon carntown easter kinkell inverness 14.4 miles bridge leanaig urray to muir to munlochy of ord tore balyaird alness 9.4 miles p fodderty 3 miles l m) x( o a ( m2 ) y(m) t s block size x = 244m c y = 196m a = 45921m2 a l e a v e r a ge p l o t si z e a = 340m 2 1:20 0 0 200m 1 block = 37 + 47 AC2.indd 18-19 25/11/2009 15:52:50
  • 12. origin: 1876 transition: 1959 t o m w 36ha a r n k e t s c 1402m 21 a 83 l 3m 1:50000 1:50000 e 1:30000 3000m 1:30000 3000m 2364 66 p/ha 3604 1:20000 1:20000 28 p/ha 1720 127ha m 1800 m 1:50000 1:20000 AC2.indd 20-21 25/11/2009 15:52:54
  • 13. current:2008 t g o r phase 3 1959 - 2008 m w o a r n w k e t t phase 2 s h 1876 - 1959 c 23 a l 1:50000 phase 1 e 0 - 1876 800m area 0 500ha population 1:30000 3000m 0 10000 5080 1:20000 16 p/ha 1:20000 h tenure [%] a 15.06km 69.6% O P R o w 0% 100% m a 29 23 m 25 e 61.8 28.5 5.0 y 326 h a 08 m housing typology [%] 28.9 23.6 26.2 17.9 1.49 1.71 AC2.indd 22-23 25/11/2009 15:53:03
  • 14. 19th century character area 20th century character area b m a l r k o e c t k 1:10000 400m 1:10000 400m 7 31% 61% 5 18% 54% 25 p l x(m) x(m ) o a (m ) 2 t y(m) 2 a(m ) y(m) s block size block size x = 68m x= 138m c y = 109m a = 5791m 2 y= 143m a= 26832m2 a l e a v e r a ge p l o t average plot si z e size a = 348m a= 123m2 1:20 0 0 200m 1:2000 200m 1 block = 24 + 10 1 block = 30 + 95 AC2.indd 24-25 25/11/2009 15:53:07
  • 15. 21st century character area b l o c k forres findhorn 1:10000 400m 4 20% 55% kinloss to elgin kintessack grange moy house hall dyke forres p blinkbonny to nairn rafford inverness 27 miles l whitemire conicavel to grantown- on-spey nairn 10.7miles x(m o phorp ) 2 a(m ) t ) dyke 4.4 miles y(m s block size x = 62m c y = 249m a = 16038m 2 a l e a v e r a ge p l o t si z e a = 402m2 1:20 0 0 200m 1 block = 21 + 31 AC2.indd 26-27 25/11/2009 15:53:09
  • 16. origin: 1873 transition: 1959 t o m w 3 8 ha a r n k e t s c 89 0m 29 a 7m 3 l 10 1:50000 1:50000 e 1:30000 3000m 1:30000 3000m 4069 107 p/ha 5231 1:20000 1:20000 73 p/ha 74ha m 07 16 1156m 1:50000 1:20000 AC2.indd 28-29 25/11/2009 15:53:12
  • 17. current:2008 t g o r m w o a r n w k e t 800m t s h phase 1 c 0 - 1873 31 a l 1:50000 phase 2 e 1873 - 1959 phase 3 1959 - 2008 population area 0 10000 0 500ha 1:30000 3000m 8990 1:20000 24 p/ha 1:20000 h tenure [%] a 22.66km 72.1% O P R o w 0% 100% m a e 63.0 26.6 5.16 y m 0 5 2686m 8 381ha 2 housing typology [%] 21.3 26.3 25.8 13.8 1.42 1.35 AC2.indd 30-31 25/11/2009 15:53:27
  • 18. 19th century character area 20th century character area b m a l r k o e c t k 1:10000 400m 1:10000 400m 15 34% 50% 7 12% 38% 33 p l x( m ) o 2 a (m ) t 2 a(m ) ) y(m ) m y( x(m ) s block size block size x = 137m x= 107m c y = 135m a = 20490m2 y= 185m a= 21229m2 a l e a v e r a ge p l o t average plot si z e size a = 319m a= 831m2 1:20 0 0 200m 1:2000 200m 1 block = 29 + 34 1 block = 18 + 20 AC2.indd 32-33 25/11/2009 15:53:32
  • 19. 21st century character area b l o c k lanark roadmeetings harelaw kilncadzow 1:10000 400m braidwood 3 13% 42% crossford cartland carstairs hazelbank cleghorn nemphlar lanark kirkfieldbank new lanark p brocketsbrae hawksland hynford bridge glasgow 27.7 miles l carluke 5.5 miles o a(m ) 2 t kirkfieldbank 1.1 miles x(m ) ) y(m s block size x = 139m c y = 192m a = 20727m2 a l e a v e r a ge p l o t si z e a = 140m2 1:20 0 0 200m 1 block = 16 + 66 AC2.indd 34-35 25/11/2009 15:53:35