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Service Design: A Toolkit for Assessment,
Insight, and Improvement Workshop
Joe Marquez, MLIS
Annie Downey, PhD, MLIS
Reed College
This is what we are going to cover…
o Define what a service is
o Define service design as a methodology
o Illustrate tools of service design
o Review findings and pitfalls learned during the Reed process
o How to create an effective service design plan for your library
Why Should We Care About Design?
“It must constantly be borne in mind that the object being
worked on is going to be ridden in, sat upon, looked at,
talked into, activated, operated, or in some way used by
people individually or en masse. If the point of contact
between the product and people becomes a point of
friction, then the designer has failed. If, on the other hand,
people are made safer, more comfortable, more desirous
of purchase, more efficient — or just plain happier — by
contact with the product, then the designer has
succeeded.”
- Henry Dreyfuss, Industrial Designer
Dreyfuss, H. (1950). The Industrial Designer and the Businessman. Harvard Business Review, 28(6), 77–85.
What is Design Thinking?
“...it is a discipline that uses the designer’s sensibility and methods to
match people’s needs with what is technologically feasible and
what a viable business strategy can convert into customer value
and market opportunity.”
- Tim Brown, Pres. of IDEO
Brown, T. (2008). Design Thinking. Harvard Business Review, 86(6), 84–92.
A poll.
What is an example of a service?
A. A map of the Library
B. A circulation or reference desk
C. A table where students study
D. The Library website
E. All of the above
What is a service?
“...any activity or benefit that one party can offer another that is
essentially intangible and does not result in the ownership of
anything.”
- Philip Kotler, PhD
Kotler, P. (2001). Principles of marketing (9th ed.). Upper Saddle River, N.J: Prentice Hall.
Services happen here…these are
services
What is a service?
It is an experience.
Everything is a service.
Service Design: What is it?
“Service design is a holistic, co-creative, and user-centered approach
to understanding customer/user behavior for the creation or refining
of services.”
-Us
Marquez, J., & Downey, A. (2015). Service Design: An Introduction to a Holistic Assessment Methodology of Library Services.
Weave: Journal of Library User Experience, 1(2). http://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.3998/weave.12535642.0001.201
Why Does It Matter?
Services do not
operate in a
vacuum, but rather
in tandem with
other established
services.
Services are part of
larger things called
systems or
ecologies.
Elements of Service Design
o Co-creative
o Empathetic
o No Devil’s Advocate (the No Negativity Rule)
o Making the Intangible Tangible
o Service Ecology
Image Source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/wafflewhiffer/3517038705
Tools of Service Design
o Service Blueprints
o Customer Journey Maps
o Design Ethnography
o Journaling
o Surveys
o Space Analysis *
o Scenarios
Source: http://watersfoundation.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/iceberg-wgraphics.png
Phases of Service Design
o Pre-Work
o Observation
o Understanding/
Thinking
o Implementing
o Maintenance and
Continuing Feedback
Loop
Phase: Pre-Work
o buy-in
o communicate
o create teams
o create scope (goals)
o begin scheduling
o ground rules
o assign roles
o draft activities
Source: http://accelerateddevelopment.blogspot.com/2013/05/not-
planning-is-for-losers.html
Phase: Observation
Goals
o gather initial insights
o initial interviews to create a sense of how services/resources are
being used
o survey
Tools
o Ethnography
o Surveys
o Space Analysis
o Personas
Phase: Understanding/Thinking
Goals
o co-create solutions
o visualize behavior
o prototyping
o testing
o refining
o synthesizing
Tools
o Customer Journey
Mapping
o Journaling
o Scenarios
o Prototyping Source: http://www.cooper.com/journal/2015/4/are-you-a-coconut-or-a-peach
A student is looking to find a book. She has a call number on a slip of
paper and is looking at the map by the Reference Desk. A librarian sits at
the desk.
Scenarios
Customer Journey Mapping
Customer Journey Mapping
Journaling
Prototyping
Prototyping
Phase: Implementing
Goals
o Implement &
test
o What metrics
determine
success?
Tools
o Blueprints
Marquez, J., & Downey, A. (2015). Service Design: An Introduction to a Holistic Assessment Methodology of Library Services.
Weave: Journal of Library User Experience, 1(2). http://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.3998/weave.12535642.0001.201
Blueprinting
Maintenance and Continuing Feedback
Loop
o The project does not end at implementation.
o Continue to measure efficacy of service delivery
o Test often, refine as needed
Source: https://blog.smartdraw.com/lean-startup-success/
Service Design, in action
Goal
o Understand how students use the physical library and library
services/resources.
Scope
o Defined by College Librarian
o Changed and refined over time to focus more on space usage
Timeline
o Two+ years
o Plan in fall / implement in spring / data analysis and report writing in
summer
Two groups
o Library Usability Group (LUX) = staff
o Student advisory group = users
SD @ Reed College Library: Yr 1
Assess space usage (SUMA + Gate counts)
o Once each semester
o What questions do you have?
o What will you do with the data?
Create student advisory group
o Establish membership goals
o No library workers
o All grade levels represented
o Selected and self-nominated
o Recruit members
o Emailed invites to all students
o Recruited through Student Senate
o Posted fliers
o 4 Meetings – 2 hours each
SD @ Reed College Library: Yr 1
Meeting One
o Homework: pre-survey
o Get to know one another
o Establish ground rules
o Set up schedule
o Service discussion – what is a service?
o Homework: pay attention to services you like and dislike – come ready
to discuss
+ Meeting Two
o Homework review
o Service discussion pt. 2
o Discuss journals
o Scenarios
o Customer journey (research process)
o Homework: journaling (week in the life)
Customer Journey Maps @ Reed
o Alone or in group
o Rotate around the room and talk to participants
o Take notes
o Debrief
o w/participants
o w/research team
o Sketch out final map
SD @ Reed College Library: Yr 1
Meeting Three
o Service redesign – how would you change at least one service point
in the library? (written)
o Homework review
o What did you learn about yourself from your journal?
o What did you learn about the library from your journal?
o Did you encounter any difficulties?
Meeting Four
o Website review discussion
o “10 Most Important Elements” Prompt
o Reference Desk prototype discussion
o Final questions
Chairs do not slide
properly
Using Journals +
Jammed outlet
Bad scan of article
Just found out about
JSTOR lag
Zotero user
Audience Question: What questions could you ask in a meeting
based on this journal?
Advisory Group Meeting Musts
General tips
o Spend time getting to know members
o Provide contact info for them to follow up with questions / comments
o Supply good food
o Establish ground rules quickly
o Intermingle
o Do both written and spoken activities
o Be mindful of members’ schedules
Library Usability Group roles during meetings
o One person lead
o 2-3 people take DETAILED notes
o Everyone participate in discussions, but let advisers do most of the
talking
Turning the tables….adding student advisers to Library Usability Group
o Students create, plan, and run focus groups
o 2-3 meetings as whole team to develop plan and questions
o Students volunteered for roles
o Marketing /recruiting participants
o Facilitators
o Note takers / helpers
o Analysis (if time)
SD @ Reed College Library: Yr 2
What did we learn from the students?
o students are creatures of habit
o wayfinding
o culture of the library
o hierarchy
o library spaces are consecrated spaces
o naming conventions
o additional services: refilling stations, printing, better website
o chairs, uneven
o small repairs needed throughout library
What did we learn about the process?
o Plan early
o Test often
o Get buy-in early
o Communicate about the process – explain what you are doing and
what you are NOT doing
o Don’t be afraid to ask questions
o Leave all preconceived notions about your students (users) at the
door – approach the process with an open mind
Thinking About Your Service Design Project
o Form team
o Clearly define your project scope
o Formulate questions: what do you want to find out?
o Determine tools based on your questions
o Identify and include stakeholders
o Determine how you will use your advisory group (i.e. what is their
charge?)
o Create advisory group
Any Questions?
???
Thank you!
Annie Downey
e: adowney@reed.edu
Joe Marquez
e: jmarquez@reed.edu
t: @joughm

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Service Design: A Toolkit for Assessment, Insight and Improvement

  • 1. + Service Design: A Toolkit for Assessment, Insight, and Improvement Workshop Joe Marquez, MLIS Annie Downey, PhD, MLIS Reed College
  • 2. This is what we are going to cover… o Define what a service is o Define service design as a methodology o Illustrate tools of service design o Review findings and pitfalls learned during the Reed process o How to create an effective service design plan for your library
  • 3. Why Should We Care About Design? “It must constantly be borne in mind that the object being worked on is going to be ridden in, sat upon, looked at, talked into, activated, operated, or in some way used by people individually or en masse. If the point of contact between the product and people becomes a point of friction, then the designer has failed. If, on the other hand, people are made safer, more comfortable, more desirous of purchase, more efficient — or just plain happier — by contact with the product, then the designer has succeeded.” - Henry Dreyfuss, Industrial Designer Dreyfuss, H. (1950). The Industrial Designer and the Businessman. Harvard Business Review, 28(6), 77–85.
  • 4. What is Design Thinking? “...it is a discipline that uses the designer’s sensibility and methods to match people’s needs with what is technologically feasible and what a viable business strategy can convert into customer value and market opportunity.” - Tim Brown, Pres. of IDEO Brown, T. (2008). Design Thinking. Harvard Business Review, 86(6), 84–92.
  • 5. A poll. What is an example of a service? A. A map of the Library B. A circulation or reference desk C. A table where students study D. The Library website E. All of the above
  • 6. What is a service? “...any activity or benefit that one party can offer another that is essentially intangible and does not result in the ownership of anything.” - Philip Kotler, PhD Kotler, P. (2001). Principles of marketing (9th ed.). Upper Saddle River, N.J: Prentice Hall.
  • 8. What is a service? It is an experience. Everything is a service.
  • 9. Service Design: What is it? “Service design is a holistic, co-creative, and user-centered approach to understanding customer/user behavior for the creation or refining of services.” -Us Marquez, J., & Downey, A. (2015). Service Design: An Introduction to a Holistic Assessment Methodology of Library Services. Weave: Journal of Library User Experience, 1(2). http://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.3998/weave.12535642.0001.201
  • 10. Why Does It Matter? Services do not operate in a vacuum, but rather in tandem with other established services. Services are part of larger things called systems or ecologies.
  • 11. Elements of Service Design o Co-creative o Empathetic o No Devil’s Advocate (the No Negativity Rule) o Making the Intangible Tangible o Service Ecology Image Source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/wafflewhiffer/3517038705
  • 12. Tools of Service Design o Service Blueprints o Customer Journey Maps o Design Ethnography o Journaling o Surveys o Space Analysis * o Scenarios Source: http://watersfoundation.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/iceberg-wgraphics.png
  • 13. Phases of Service Design o Pre-Work o Observation o Understanding/ Thinking o Implementing o Maintenance and Continuing Feedback Loop
  • 14. Phase: Pre-Work o buy-in o communicate o create teams o create scope (goals) o begin scheduling o ground rules o assign roles o draft activities Source: http://accelerateddevelopment.blogspot.com/2013/05/not- planning-is-for-losers.html
  • 15. Phase: Observation Goals o gather initial insights o initial interviews to create a sense of how services/resources are being used o survey Tools o Ethnography o Surveys o Space Analysis o Personas
  • 16. Phase: Understanding/Thinking Goals o co-create solutions o visualize behavior o prototyping o testing o refining o synthesizing Tools o Customer Journey Mapping o Journaling o Scenarios o Prototyping Source: http://www.cooper.com/journal/2015/4/are-you-a-coconut-or-a-peach
  • 17. A student is looking to find a book. She has a call number on a slip of paper and is looking at the map by the Reference Desk. A librarian sits at the desk. Scenarios
  • 23. Phase: Implementing Goals o Implement & test o What metrics determine success? Tools o Blueprints Marquez, J., & Downey, A. (2015). Service Design: An Introduction to a Holistic Assessment Methodology of Library Services. Weave: Journal of Library User Experience, 1(2). http://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.3998/weave.12535642.0001.201
  • 25. Maintenance and Continuing Feedback Loop o The project does not end at implementation. o Continue to measure efficacy of service delivery o Test often, refine as needed Source: https://blog.smartdraw.com/lean-startup-success/
  • 26. Service Design, in action Goal o Understand how students use the physical library and library services/resources. Scope o Defined by College Librarian o Changed and refined over time to focus more on space usage Timeline o Two+ years o Plan in fall / implement in spring / data analysis and report writing in summer Two groups o Library Usability Group (LUX) = staff o Student advisory group = users
  • 27. SD @ Reed College Library: Yr 1 Assess space usage (SUMA + Gate counts) o Once each semester o What questions do you have? o What will you do with the data? Create student advisory group o Establish membership goals o No library workers o All grade levels represented o Selected and self-nominated o Recruit members o Emailed invites to all students o Recruited through Student Senate o Posted fliers o 4 Meetings – 2 hours each
  • 28. SD @ Reed College Library: Yr 1 Meeting One o Homework: pre-survey o Get to know one another o Establish ground rules o Set up schedule o Service discussion – what is a service? o Homework: pay attention to services you like and dislike – come ready to discuss + Meeting Two o Homework review o Service discussion pt. 2 o Discuss journals o Scenarios o Customer journey (research process) o Homework: journaling (week in the life)
  • 29. Customer Journey Maps @ Reed o Alone or in group o Rotate around the room and talk to participants o Take notes o Debrief o w/participants o w/research team o Sketch out final map
  • 30. SD @ Reed College Library: Yr 1 Meeting Three o Service redesign – how would you change at least one service point in the library? (written) o Homework review o What did you learn about yourself from your journal? o What did you learn about the library from your journal? o Did you encounter any difficulties? Meeting Four o Website review discussion o “10 Most Important Elements” Prompt o Reference Desk prototype discussion o Final questions
  • 31. Chairs do not slide properly Using Journals + Jammed outlet Bad scan of article Just found out about JSTOR lag Zotero user Audience Question: What questions could you ask in a meeting based on this journal?
  • 32. Advisory Group Meeting Musts General tips o Spend time getting to know members o Provide contact info for them to follow up with questions / comments o Supply good food o Establish ground rules quickly o Intermingle o Do both written and spoken activities o Be mindful of members’ schedules Library Usability Group roles during meetings o One person lead o 2-3 people take DETAILED notes o Everyone participate in discussions, but let advisers do most of the talking
  • 33. Turning the tables….adding student advisers to Library Usability Group o Students create, plan, and run focus groups o 2-3 meetings as whole team to develop plan and questions o Students volunteered for roles o Marketing /recruiting participants o Facilitators o Note takers / helpers o Analysis (if time) SD @ Reed College Library: Yr 2
  • 34. What did we learn from the students? o students are creatures of habit o wayfinding o culture of the library o hierarchy o library spaces are consecrated spaces o naming conventions o additional services: refilling stations, printing, better website o chairs, uneven o small repairs needed throughout library
  • 35. What did we learn about the process? o Plan early o Test often o Get buy-in early o Communicate about the process – explain what you are doing and what you are NOT doing o Don’t be afraid to ask questions o Leave all preconceived notions about your students (users) at the door – approach the process with an open mind
  • 36. Thinking About Your Service Design Project o Form team o Clearly define your project scope o Formulate questions: what do you want to find out? o Determine tools based on your questions o Identify and include stakeholders o Determine how you will use your advisory group (i.e. what is their charge?) o Create advisory group
  • 38. Thank you! Annie Downey e: adowney@reed.edu Joe Marquez e: jmarquez@reed.edu t: @joughm

Editor's Notes

  1. Here is a quote from Henry Dreyfuss. Do you know who he was? Dreyfuss, for those who don’t know, was a highly influential industrial designer in the mid-20th century. His firm worked on telephones, tanks, buildings, cars….you name it, they worked on it. One of the things Dreyfuss figured out is the user experience. It was more than just designing something for aesthetics. Tim Brown agrees. They both understand the importance of getting the designer in the process at an earlier stage than just downstream. Functionality can be aesthetically pleasing...which lends itself to a better user experience. Design is first and foremost about an experience. You enter a building and you get a feeling. It could be a smell, the temperature, seeing others in the same space...it is about feeling. Products provide us with a feeling. As do services.
  2. Here is a quote from Tim Brown, president of IDEO. Does this make sense?
  3. Emphasis on co-creative and user-centered. The keys to SD are in how one conducts research. Are you familiar with the research tool ethnography? I will mention ethnography as a tool, but the entire process lends itself to creating an ethnography on a given user group or customer group. Demographic, if you will. Services don’t happen in a vacuum. They are a co-creation between service provider and customer. If someone is having a bad day, the service experience will suffer.
  4. In order to understand how a service is experienced or how to manage it, we must understand the context in which a service is provided. We must understand the experience as a whole.
  5. Many similarities between Design Thinking and Service Design. The main difference is that service design is focused on the environment in which a service happens. Something called a service ecology.
  6. These are my names for the phases...not an attempt to redefine what has already been defined. Pre-Work - planning Observation - observing behavior and understanding context Understanding/Thinking - testing hypotheses and gathering insights, prototyping Implementing -
  7. Pre-Work – planning These are guides and work that everyone should be doing. It is essential. Just project planning where the team adapts to their library environment.
  8. Pre-Work - planning Observation - observing behavior and understanding context Understanding/Thinking - testing hypotheses and gathering insights, prototyping Implementing -
  9. Pre-Work - planning Observation - observing behavior and understanding context Understanding/Thinking - testing hypotheses and gathering insights, prototyping Implementing -
  10. What do you see here? Wardrobe box? My sons would probably see a rocket ship, or a boat.
  11. I see a reference desk.
  12. Pre-Work - planning Observation - observing behavior and understanding context Understanding/Thinking - testing hypotheses and gathering insights, prototyping Implementing -
  13. service blueprint.
  14. The project does not end at implementation. We then move into a maintenance mode where we constantly assess and measure usage to determine what needs to be tweaked and refined. As younger students and users enter the library environment, we need to continue assessing efficacy of service being delivered or possible mothball services that are no longer needed. The key is to keep the user at the center of the library’s service delivery efforts.
  15. SD @ Reed Our mission started out at looking at the website and grew to include the touchpoints (physical service points) and then to physical space. I was a student in this class last summer and really got a better introduction to design thinking. I had no experience with measuring or assessing space usage. I understand human computer interaction, but not space. I “found” service design and realized this was what we needed to implement.
  16. activities we have done.
  17. activities we have done.