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SOCIOEMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN INFANCY 
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. 
This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 
4 
ESSENTIALS OF LIFE-SPAN 
DEVELOPMENT 
JOHN W. SANTROCK 
3e
CHAPTER OUTLINE 
• Emotional and personality development 
• Social orientation and attachment 
• Social contexts 
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. 
This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 4-2
EMOTIONAL AND PERSONALITY 
DEVELOPMENT 
• Emotional development 
• Temperament 
• Personality development 
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. 
This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 4-3
EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT 
• Emotion: Feeling, or affect, that occurs when a 
person is in a state or interaction that is important to 
him or her 
• Play important roles in: 
• Communication with others 
• Behavioral organization 
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. 
This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 4-4
EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT 
• Biological and environmental influences 
• Certain brain regions play a role in emotions 
• Emotion-linked interchanges 
• Provide the foundation for the infant’s developing attachment 
to the parent 
• Social relationships 
• Provide the setting for the development of a rich variety of 
emotions 
• Relationships and culture provide diversity in emotional 
experiences 
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. 
This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 4-5
FIGURE 4.1 - EXPRESSION OF DIFFERENT 
EMOTIONS IN INFANTS 
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. 
This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 4-6
EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT 
• Emotional expression and social relationships 
• Crying 
• Basic cry: Rhythmic pattern usually consisting of: 
• A cry 
• Briefer silence 
• Shorter inspiratory whistle that is higher pitched than the main cry 
• Brief rest before the next cry 
• Anger cry: Variation of the basic cry, with more excess air 
forced through the vocal cords 
• Pain cry: Sudden long, initial loud cry followed by breath holding 
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. 
This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 4-7
EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT 
• Smiling 
• Reflexive smile: Smile that does not occur in response to 
external stimuli 
• Social smile: In response to an external stimulus 
• Fear 
• Stranger anxiety: Fear and wariness of strangers 
• Separation protest: Distressed crying when the caregiver leaves 
• Social referencing: “Reading” emotional cues in 
others to help determine how to act in a particular 
situation 
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. 
This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 4-8
EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT 
• Emotional regulation and coping 
• Caregivers’ actions and contexts can influence emotional 
regulation 
• Soothing a crying infant helps infants develop a sense of 
trust and secure attachment to the caregiver 
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. 
This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 4-9
TEMPERAMENT 
• Individual differences in behavioral styles, emotions, 
and characteristic ways of responding 
• Describing and classifying temperament 
• Chess and Thomas’ classification 
• Easy child: Generally in a positive mood 
• Quickly establishes regular routines in infancy 
• Adapts easily to new experiences 
• Difficult child: Reacts negatively and cries frequently 
• Engages in irregular daily routines 
• Slow to accept change 
• Slow-to-warm-up child: Low activity level 
• Somewhat negative 
• Displays a low intensity of mood 
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. 
This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 4-10
TEMPERAMENT 
• Kagan’s behavioral inhibition 
• Effortful Control (Self-Regulation) - Rothbart and Bates’ 
classification 
• Extraversion/surgency 
• Negative affectivity 
• Effortful control 
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. 
This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 4-11
EMOTIONAL AND PERSONALITY 
DEVELOPMENT 
• Biological foundations and experience 
• Biological influences 
• Gender, culture, and temperament 
• Parents may react differently to an infant’s temperament 
depending on gender 
• Cultural differences in temperament were linked to parent attitude 
and behaviors 
• Goodness of fit: Match between a child’s temperament 
and the environmental demands the child must cope with 
• Strategies for temperament-sensitive parenting: 
• Attention to and respect for individuality 
• Structuring the child’s environment 
• Avoid applying negative labels to the child 
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. 
This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 4-12
PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT 
• Trust 
• Developing sense of self 
• Independence 
• Autonomy versus shame and doubt 
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. 
This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 4-13
SOCIAL ORIENTATION AND 
ATTACHMENT 
• Social orientation and understanding 
• Attachment 
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. 
This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 4-14
SOCIAL ORIENTATION AND 
UNDERSTANDING 
• Social orientation 
• Face-to-face play 
• Locomotion 
• Intention, goal-directed behavior, and cooperation 
• Infants’ social sophistication and insight 
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. 
This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 4-15
ATTACHMENT 
• Attachment: Close emotional bond between two 
people 
• Freud - Infants become attached to the person that 
provides oral satisfaction 
• Harlow - Contact comfort preferred over food 
• Erikson - Trust arises from physical comfort and sensitive care 
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. 
This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 4-16
ATTACHMENT 
• Bowlby - Four phases of attachment 
• Phase 1: From birth to 2 months - Attachment to human figures 
• Phase 2: From 2 to 7 months - Focus on one figure 
• Phase 3: From 7 to 24 months - Specific attachments develop 
• Phase 4: From 24 months on - Become aware of others’ feelings 
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. 
This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 4-17
INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN 
ATTACHMENT 
• Strange situation: Observational measure of infant 
attachment 
• Requires the infant to move through a series of: 
• Introductions 
• Separations 
• Reunions with the caregiver and an adult stranger in a 
prescribed order 
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. 
This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 4-18
INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN 
ATTACHMENT 
• Securely attached babies: Use the caregiver as a 
secure base from which to explore the environment 
• Insecure avoidant babies: Avoiding the caregiver 
• Insecure resistant babies: Cling to the caregiver, 
then resist the caregiver by fighting against the 
closeness 
• Insecure disorganized babies: Being disorganized 
and disoriented 
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. 
This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 4-19
CAREGIVING STYLES AND 
ATTACHMENT 
• Maternal sensitivity linked to secure attachment 
• Caregivers of insecurely attached infants tend to 
be: 
• Rejecting 
• Inconsistent 
• Abusive 
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. 
This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 4-20
SOCIAL CONTEXTS 
• The family 
• Child care 
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. 
This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 4-21
FIGURE 4.9 - INTERACTION BETWEEN CHILDREN 
AND THEIR PARENTS: DIRECT AND INDIRECT 
EFFECTS 
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. 
This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 4-22
THE FAMILY 
• Constellation of subsystems 
• Transition to parenthood 
• New parents face disequilibrium and must adapt to it 
• Reciprocal socialization: Bidirectional 
• Children socialize parents, just as parents socialize children 
• Scaffolding: Parents time interactions so that infants 
experience turn taking with the parents 
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. 
This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 4-23
THE FAMILY 
• Managing and guiding infants’ behavior 
• Being proactive and childproofing the environment 
• Engaging in corrective methods 
• Maternal and paternal caregiving 
• Maternal interactions centre on child-care activities 
• Feeding, changing diapers, bathing 
• Paternal interactions tend to be play-centered 
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. 
This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 4-24
FIGURE 4.8 - THE INCREASE IN THE NUMBER OF U.S. 
FATHERS STAYING AT HOME FULL-TIME WITH THEIR 
CHILDREN 
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. 
This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 4-25
CHILD CARE 
• Parental leave 
• Variations in child care 
• Factors that influence the Child Care effects are: 
• Age of the child 
• Type of child care 
• Quality of the program 
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. 
This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 4-26
FIGURE 4.9 - PRIMARY CARE ARRANGEMENTS IN 
THE UNITED STATES FOR CHILDREN UNDER 5 
YEARS OF AGE WITH EMPLOYED MOTHERS 
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. 
This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 4-27
CHILD CARE 
• Strategies parents can follow: 
• Recognize that the quality of your parenting is a key factor 
in your child’s development 
• Make decisions that will improve the likelihood that you will 
be good parents 
• Monitor your child’s development 
• Take some time to find the best child care 
© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. 
This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 4-28

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Santrock essentials 3e_ppt_ch04

  • 1. SOCIOEMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN INFANCY © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 4 ESSENTIALS OF LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT JOHN W. SANTROCK 3e
  • 2. CHAPTER OUTLINE • Emotional and personality development • Social orientation and attachment • Social contexts © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 4-2
  • 3. EMOTIONAL AND PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT • Emotional development • Temperament • Personality development © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 4-3
  • 4. EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT • Emotion: Feeling, or affect, that occurs when a person is in a state or interaction that is important to him or her • Play important roles in: • Communication with others • Behavioral organization © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 4-4
  • 5. EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT • Biological and environmental influences • Certain brain regions play a role in emotions • Emotion-linked interchanges • Provide the foundation for the infant’s developing attachment to the parent • Social relationships • Provide the setting for the development of a rich variety of emotions • Relationships and culture provide diversity in emotional experiences © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 4-5
  • 6. FIGURE 4.1 - EXPRESSION OF DIFFERENT EMOTIONS IN INFANTS © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 4-6
  • 7. EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT • Emotional expression and social relationships • Crying • Basic cry: Rhythmic pattern usually consisting of: • A cry • Briefer silence • Shorter inspiratory whistle that is higher pitched than the main cry • Brief rest before the next cry • Anger cry: Variation of the basic cry, with more excess air forced through the vocal cords • Pain cry: Sudden long, initial loud cry followed by breath holding © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 4-7
  • 8. EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT • Smiling • Reflexive smile: Smile that does not occur in response to external stimuli • Social smile: In response to an external stimulus • Fear • Stranger anxiety: Fear and wariness of strangers • Separation protest: Distressed crying when the caregiver leaves • Social referencing: “Reading” emotional cues in others to help determine how to act in a particular situation © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 4-8
  • 9. EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT • Emotional regulation and coping • Caregivers’ actions and contexts can influence emotional regulation • Soothing a crying infant helps infants develop a sense of trust and secure attachment to the caregiver © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 4-9
  • 10. TEMPERAMENT • Individual differences in behavioral styles, emotions, and characteristic ways of responding • Describing and classifying temperament • Chess and Thomas’ classification • Easy child: Generally in a positive mood • Quickly establishes regular routines in infancy • Adapts easily to new experiences • Difficult child: Reacts negatively and cries frequently • Engages in irregular daily routines • Slow to accept change • Slow-to-warm-up child: Low activity level • Somewhat negative • Displays a low intensity of mood © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 4-10
  • 11. TEMPERAMENT • Kagan’s behavioral inhibition • Effortful Control (Self-Regulation) - Rothbart and Bates’ classification • Extraversion/surgency • Negative affectivity • Effortful control © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 4-11
  • 12. EMOTIONAL AND PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT • Biological foundations and experience • Biological influences • Gender, culture, and temperament • Parents may react differently to an infant’s temperament depending on gender • Cultural differences in temperament were linked to parent attitude and behaviors • Goodness of fit: Match between a child’s temperament and the environmental demands the child must cope with • Strategies for temperament-sensitive parenting: • Attention to and respect for individuality • Structuring the child’s environment • Avoid applying negative labels to the child © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 4-12
  • 13. PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT • Trust • Developing sense of self • Independence • Autonomy versus shame and doubt © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 4-13
  • 14. SOCIAL ORIENTATION AND ATTACHMENT • Social orientation and understanding • Attachment © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 4-14
  • 15. SOCIAL ORIENTATION AND UNDERSTANDING • Social orientation • Face-to-face play • Locomotion • Intention, goal-directed behavior, and cooperation • Infants’ social sophistication and insight © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 4-15
  • 16. ATTACHMENT • Attachment: Close emotional bond between two people • Freud - Infants become attached to the person that provides oral satisfaction • Harlow - Contact comfort preferred over food • Erikson - Trust arises from physical comfort and sensitive care © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 4-16
  • 17. ATTACHMENT • Bowlby - Four phases of attachment • Phase 1: From birth to 2 months - Attachment to human figures • Phase 2: From 2 to 7 months - Focus on one figure • Phase 3: From 7 to 24 months - Specific attachments develop • Phase 4: From 24 months on - Become aware of others’ feelings © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 4-17
  • 18. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN ATTACHMENT • Strange situation: Observational measure of infant attachment • Requires the infant to move through a series of: • Introductions • Separations • Reunions with the caregiver and an adult stranger in a prescribed order © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 4-18
  • 19. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN ATTACHMENT • Securely attached babies: Use the caregiver as a secure base from which to explore the environment • Insecure avoidant babies: Avoiding the caregiver • Insecure resistant babies: Cling to the caregiver, then resist the caregiver by fighting against the closeness • Insecure disorganized babies: Being disorganized and disoriented © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 4-19
  • 20. CAREGIVING STYLES AND ATTACHMENT • Maternal sensitivity linked to secure attachment • Caregivers of insecurely attached infants tend to be: • Rejecting • Inconsistent • Abusive © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 4-20
  • 21. SOCIAL CONTEXTS • The family • Child care © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 4-21
  • 22. FIGURE 4.9 - INTERACTION BETWEEN CHILDREN AND THEIR PARENTS: DIRECT AND INDIRECT EFFECTS © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 4-22
  • 23. THE FAMILY • Constellation of subsystems • Transition to parenthood • New parents face disequilibrium and must adapt to it • Reciprocal socialization: Bidirectional • Children socialize parents, just as parents socialize children • Scaffolding: Parents time interactions so that infants experience turn taking with the parents © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 4-23
  • 24. THE FAMILY • Managing and guiding infants’ behavior • Being proactive and childproofing the environment • Engaging in corrective methods • Maternal and paternal caregiving • Maternal interactions centre on child-care activities • Feeding, changing diapers, bathing • Paternal interactions tend to be play-centered © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 4-24
  • 25. FIGURE 4.8 - THE INCREASE IN THE NUMBER OF U.S. FATHERS STAYING AT HOME FULL-TIME WITH THEIR CHILDREN © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 4-25
  • 26. CHILD CARE • Parental leave • Variations in child care • Factors that influence the Child Care effects are: • Age of the child • Type of child care • Quality of the program © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 4-26
  • 27. FIGURE 4.9 - PRIMARY CARE ARRANGEMENTS IN THE UNITED STATES FOR CHILDREN UNDER 5 YEARS OF AGE WITH EMPLOYED MOTHERS © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 4-27
  • 28. CHILD CARE • Strategies parents can follow: • Recognize that the quality of your parenting is a key factor in your child’s development • Make decisions that will improve the likelihood that you will be good parents • Monitor your child’s development • Take some time to find the best child care © 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. 4-28