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11-18-081LING 2301Old English Period (p. 55).55  BC  Julius Caesar attempts to invade BritainCE  43-50  Emperor Claudius invades BritainCE  410  Romans withdraw from BritainCE  449  Angles, Saxons and Jutes invade Britain      597  St. Augustine of Canterbury re-introduces* Christianity to the English787  Scandinavian invasion begins (Vikings)878  King Alfred defeats the Danes at Eddington (Ethandun)Treaty of Wedmore (allows a truce b/t Scandinavians who settle on outskirts and the Anglo-Saxons in Alfred’s territory which established a line between Anglo-Saxons and Danes – Danish side referred to as Danelaw.       899  King Alfred dies     1014 King Æthelred driven out by a new wave of Danish (political) aggression     1016  Danish King Cnut rules England     1042  Accession of Edward the Confessor (Æthelred's son) to the throne (died 	w/o an heir in 1066)(* seehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St._Augustine_of_Canterbury for more detail)
11-18-082LING 2301General OE propertiesWhen Anglo-Saxons move in the land was inhabited by Celts/Scots/PictsOE synthetic/fusional rather than analytic/isolatingN, V, Adj, Det, ProN were highly inflected meaning word order would not be very ridgedStrong and weak declensions of nouns and adjectivesStrong and weak conjugations of verbsWord formation by compounding, prefixing and suffixing rather than borrowingGender (like other Indo-European languages) – was a grammatical feature (based on formal linguistic criteria, not logical or "natural" classes)
11-18-083LING 2301OE Consonants (very similar to modern day English){voiced fricatives} were allophones – predictable by rules in context of voiceless segments (no contrast as in present day fan & van)It also included some clusters that no longer exist phonetically: /kn/ /gn/ (knee, gnaw)
11-18-084LING 2301Vowels in OE: A major feature of vowels in OE from Germanic is called "front mutation" or "i-umlaut"If a stressed syllable was followed by an unstressed syllable containing [i] or [j], the vowel sound of the stressed syllable was fronted or raised (or partly assimilated to the following high front [i] or [j]).  The vowel that caused the mutation would then be dropped out of the changed forms (so it does not occur itself in the new forms)	Example:The plural for mūs 'mouse' would have been mūsiz.  The vowel of /-iz/ raised and fronted the /ū/ Then the /iz/ would be droppedThus changed to  mȳs 'mice'http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Germanic_UmlautAlso produced vowel mutation plurals forms such as 'foot'  'feet'And adjectives strang, strengra, strengest & old, elder, eldestAnd some verb forms lie/lay, sit/set
11-18-085LING 2301OE syntax also used case inflections for grammatical function of nouns (different suffixes on nouns showing the following relations within the sentence)  An example of Cases that would be inflected:Nominative case   subjects  the DOG put the bone on the pillow.Accusitive case  direct objectsthe dog put THE BONE on the pillow.Genitive case   Possessivesthe dog put HIS bone on the pillow.Dative case  for indirect objects	the dog put the bone on THE PILLOW.Instrumental case  "with/or by means of" phrase  (rare in OE)the dog chewed the bone WITH HIS TEETH.
11-18-086LING 2301Words from Latin in OE: Some probably from regular Roman lifestreet, wine, butter, pepper, cheese, silk, copper, pound, inch, mile.Some came in with the Church (St. Augustine 597)bishop, candle, creed, mass, monk, priest
11-18-087LING 2301Words Borrowed from Scandinavian (the Danes) into OE:/sk/  shall, fish, shirt, skirt, sky, scalebirth, egg, guess, root, seat, sister, tidingsOther factors from Scandinavian — pronouns (they, them, their) replaced 3rd Pl inflected formsprepositions (till, fro – as in to and fro), infinitives (att + do as in 'ado') and parts of  the verb 'to be'  (are)

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OLD ENGLISH

  • 1. 11-18-081LING 2301Old English Period (p. 55).55 BC Julius Caesar attempts to invade BritainCE 43-50 Emperor Claudius invades BritainCE 410 Romans withdraw from BritainCE 449 Angles, Saxons and Jutes invade Britain 597 St. Augustine of Canterbury re-introduces* Christianity to the English787 Scandinavian invasion begins (Vikings)878 King Alfred defeats the Danes at Eddington (Ethandun)Treaty of Wedmore (allows a truce b/t Scandinavians who settle on outskirts and the Anglo-Saxons in Alfred’s territory which established a line between Anglo-Saxons and Danes – Danish side referred to as Danelaw. 899 King Alfred dies 1014 King Æthelred driven out by a new wave of Danish (political) aggression 1016 Danish King Cnut rules England 1042 Accession of Edward the Confessor (Æthelred's son) to the throne (died w/o an heir in 1066)(* seehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St._Augustine_of_Canterbury for more detail)
  • 2. 11-18-082LING 2301General OE propertiesWhen Anglo-Saxons move in the land was inhabited by Celts/Scots/PictsOE synthetic/fusional rather than analytic/isolatingN, V, Adj, Det, ProN were highly inflected meaning word order would not be very ridgedStrong and weak declensions of nouns and adjectivesStrong and weak conjugations of verbsWord formation by compounding, prefixing and suffixing rather than borrowingGender (like other Indo-European languages) – was a grammatical feature (based on formal linguistic criteria, not logical or "natural" classes)
  • 3. 11-18-083LING 2301OE Consonants (very similar to modern day English){voiced fricatives} were allophones – predictable by rules in context of voiceless segments (no contrast as in present day fan & van)It also included some clusters that no longer exist phonetically: /kn/ /gn/ (knee, gnaw)
  • 4. 11-18-084LING 2301Vowels in OE: A major feature of vowels in OE from Germanic is called "front mutation" or "i-umlaut"If a stressed syllable was followed by an unstressed syllable containing [i] or [j], the vowel sound of the stressed syllable was fronted or raised (or partly assimilated to the following high front [i] or [j]). The vowel that caused the mutation would then be dropped out of the changed forms (so it does not occur itself in the new forms) Example:The plural for mūs 'mouse' would have been mūsiz. The vowel of /-iz/ raised and fronted the /ū/ Then the /iz/ would be droppedThus changed to mȳs 'mice'http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Germanic_UmlautAlso produced vowel mutation plurals forms such as 'foot'  'feet'And adjectives strang, strengra, strengest & old, elder, eldestAnd some verb forms lie/lay, sit/set
  • 5. 11-18-085LING 2301OE syntax also used case inflections for grammatical function of nouns (different suffixes on nouns showing the following relations within the sentence) An example of Cases that would be inflected:Nominative case  subjects the DOG put the bone on the pillow.Accusitive case  direct objectsthe dog put THE BONE on the pillow.Genitive case  Possessivesthe dog put HIS bone on the pillow.Dative case  for indirect objects the dog put the bone on THE PILLOW.Instrumental case  "with/or by means of" phrase (rare in OE)the dog chewed the bone WITH HIS TEETH.
  • 6. 11-18-086LING 2301Words from Latin in OE: Some probably from regular Roman lifestreet, wine, butter, pepper, cheese, silk, copper, pound, inch, mile.Some came in with the Church (St. Augustine 597)bishop, candle, creed, mass, monk, priest
  • 7. 11-18-087LING 2301Words Borrowed from Scandinavian (the Danes) into OE:/sk/ shall, fish, shirt, skirt, sky, scalebirth, egg, guess, root, seat, sister, tidingsOther factors from Scandinavian — pronouns (they, them, their) replaced 3rd Pl inflected formsprepositions (till, fro – as in to and fro), infinitives (att + do as in 'ado') and parts of the verb 'to be' (are)