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Issue 2: 31/10/2012




Brain & Behaviour
Information for the population

                                                                                                                                   Word count: 1562
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Foetal Alcohol Syndrome: the Ladette legacy?
A new type of woman has evolved over the past 20 years. Out drinking most weekends, this new breed of lady is intent on having a good time and won’t let
female stereotypes hold her back, but is the’ Ladette’ culture to blame for the rise in foetal alcohol syndrome? This article will explore why female alcohol
consumption is on the rise, along with unplanned pregnancies, and how, when the two are combined, the consequences can be dire. As well as the social issues
surrounding this topic the ‘real’ effect of this disorder will be considered. Examining the devastating effects alcohol can have on foetal development, it will
discuss the physical and cognitive anomalies suffered and highlight how these impact on the health and emotional wellbeing of the child and those who are left
to pick up the pieces. Once laid bare, the answer to this question is clear…….

The Ladette

The term ‘Ladette’ was first coined by advertising agency Colette                  Dictionaries, 2012). Although at first glance this may appear to be a new
Dickenson in 1995. It was an expression used to reflect the rise in women          development, historically each generation has had its own breed of female
who were shunning the traditional roles of home maker and wife in favour           which goes against the grain (Jackson & Tinkler, 2007). The 1920’s saw the
of one out drinking and having fun -- a life stereotypically enjoyed by            rise of the ‘Modern Girl’. She was described as having little interest in
young men (Bell, 2008). Since then, this commonly used term, has officially        marriage and more in having fun and just like todays ladette this revolt was
secured its place in the English language (BBC News, 2001), described by           attributed to financial freedom and an increase in disposable income
The Oxford Dictionary as ‘a young woman who behaves in a boisterously              (Jackson & Tinkler, 2007; Drugalcohol info, 2012). The Modern Girl was
assertive or crude manner and engages in heavy drinking sessions’ (Oxford          typically middle class and owed some of her wealth to her Heritage,
today’s ladette is generally working class and is responsible for her own
wealth, thanks to equal rights allowing higher paid positions to be owned by
women (Alcohol Concern, 2012).

Binge drinking

Despite equality between the sexes, on many levels there are physical
differences which mean the effects of alcohol take hold quicker in women.
These are due to factors such as height, body fat, and the amount of water in
the body (Drink aware, 2012; Mumenthaler, 1999). Current government
guidelines are reflective of such differences and recommend that women
consume no more than 2-3 alcohol units per day and men no more than 3-4.
This translates as 1.3 – 1.7 standard (175ml) glasses of wine. Consuming
more than 6 units in one sitting is classed as binge drinking -- typical
amongst the 16 – 24 age groups (Drink aware, 2012). Whether these
recommendations are just not known or just plain ignored is debatable but
between 1998 – 2006 the UK saw a 9% rise in female binge drinking
                                                                                  1.1 Girls night out in Cardiff (Mail Online, 2009)
(Alcohol Concern, 2012).
                                                                                  Foetal Alcohol Syndrome
Alcohol, Promiscuity, and Pregnancy
                                                                                  With an increase in alcohol related pregnancies, attention has to be paid to
Aside from the negative health implications, drinking is commonly known           the effect of alcohol on the developing foetus. Despite the fact other
to cause changes in behaviour, particularly surrounding impulsivity and risk      teratogens (substances which can effect human development) can be equally
taking. One such behaviour associated with alcohol consumption is sexual          as harmful to the unborn child -- such as marijuana and cocaine -- alcohol
activity (Alcohol Concern, 2012; WHO, 2012). Alcohol increases the                abuse is the only type which has a named condition associated with it
likelihood of unprotected sex, particularly in brief sexual encounters. This is   (American Pregnancy Association, 2011). This, along with the estimated 28
thought to be due to its influence over thought processing. Rather than           pregnancies per week which are affected, highlight its prevalence
responding to logic or reason you are more likely to respond to the here and      (www.parliament.uk, 2004).
now of a situation and an attractive individual will likely take priority over            Foetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is a term used since 1973
safe sex (MacDonald et al, 1996).                                                 (Mukherjee, 2005) to describe a set of physical characteristics, as well as
        This is further supported by a study carried out in a sexual health       mental deficits, which are acquired as a direct result of being exposed to
clinic in the south of England. It documented that 86% of people who              alcohol in utero (World Health Organisation, 2012). The severity of the
attended reported binge drinking, with 76% admitting to having had                difficulties suffered can vary quite dramatically and are dependent on two
unprotected sex and a staggeringly low 18% of females admitting that they         factors: firstly the amount of alcohol exposure, and secondly at what point
‘always’ used condoms (Standerwick et al. 2007).                                  during the pregnancy exposure occurs -- children exposed to larger
        From this is it really a surprise to know that women who binge drink      quantities of alcohol in the first trimester are likely to be affected more
have more unwanted pregnancies? Or that ladettes are 40% likelier to have         severely (American Pregnancy Association, 2011; Drinkaware, 2012). For
an abortion? (Borland, 2010).                                                     this reason children who are affected are categorised as having a Foetal
                                                                                  Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD), with FAS sitting at the severe end of
Promiscuity                                                                       the scale (World Health Organisation, 2012).
                                                                                  .
Features                                                                             Blame

The following descriptions relate to FAS                                             As FAS is a 100% preventable condition (PubMed, 2011) and not yet
itself but may present to varying degrees                                            proven to be affected by paternal drinking (Cicero, 1994), can blame lie
in children further down the FASD                                                    largely at the feet of the biological mother?
scale. Image 1.2 depicts a child                                                             Armstrong (2003) argues against, highlighting that other factors
displaying the three most common facial                                              influence development including how effective the body is at breaking
features associated with FAS known as                                                down alcohol, smoking, and maternal age. It could also be argued that there
the triad. These include a thin upper lip,                                           are instances where pregnancy is unknown. Alcohol blackouts are
smooth philtrum (area between the nose                                               increasingly common amongst binge drinkers and it is possible intercourse
and upper lip), and small eye openings                                               could take place and conception occur without recollection (Zorumski,
which have large epicanthal folds (skin                                              2012; White et al, 2004) but is this an acceptable excuse? It may be an
between the nose and the inner corner of                                             argument with would hold up at a university debate but when it comes
the eye) (PubMed, 2011). Affected                                                    down to it and a woman is faced with the difficulties of looking after or
children        also    suffer      growth                                           giving up a child with FAS can she really, hand on heart, say that she could
abnormalities of the head and body                                                   not have prevented it? That she did not know that alcohol was not
(Drinkaware, 2012). A restriction in the 1.2 Child with FAS (adoption UK, 2012)      conducive to healthy development? In an educated society, with access to
size of the head is indicative of the child                                          free contraception, pregnancy is easily preventable (Muella et al, 2008).
having a smaller than average brain and with this comes a degree of cognitive                FAS may not be punishable crime in the eyes of the law (yet) but
deficits.                                                                            should it be? Why should penance only be reserved for the afflicted, those
         Affected children will have broad range of difficulties such as             who have no choice of what they are born into? Reflective of the blame
problems with language, poor short term memory, a difficulty remaining               culture that is now, solicitors are now specialising in compensatory law to
focussed, hyperactivity, difficulty following instructions, and poor social          claim for those caring for a child with FAS (GLP Solicitors, 2012).
skills – all of which will impair their ability to learn (Drinkaware, 2012). As if
all this wasn’t enough to contend with, the medical needs of a child with FAS
can be extensive including: epilepsy, liver damage, kidney and heart defects,
and hearing problems (Drinkaware, 2012). The demands this can place on a
family are often too much to bear, emotionally and physically, often resulting
in the child being taken into foster care (NOFAS, 2009).

Support

Physical signs are a good indicator of FAS but are not always present if the
child falls lower on the spectrum. Because of this and a woman’s reluctance
to admit drinking whilst pregnant it is not known just how many children are
affected (Drinkaware, 2012). These children, in some ways, suffer more as
support cannot be given to a child who is thought of as ‘normal’. Behavioural
traits and cognitive difficulties may be put down to a broad spectrum learning
difficulty, Attention Deficit Disorder or worse still the child may just be
labelled as disruptive (Drinkaware, 2012). Without the right support in place        1.3 How long before a sentence is attached? (GLP Solicitors, 2012)
how can a child be expected to thrive and reach its full potential?
So……..

With the facts laid bare, it really falls down to opinion whether or not you believe FAS is a consequence of the economic stability of fun loving women or not.
What is known though is that binge drinking is on the rise, prevalent amongst women of child bearing age, and encourages promiscuity and unsafe sex…..a lethal
cocktail when all thrown in the mix. Maybe the real question needs to be ‘what should be done to limit the tragedy of FAS?’ And the answer……….Everything!
The devastating effects of this condition need to be as widely promoted as the toxins that cause it. Emphasis needs to be placed on the spectrum of foetal disorders
that are associated with drinking not just FAS which may primarily be associated with hardened alcoholics rather than party going girls. Aside from the long term
health implications of binge drinking, importance needs to be placed on the imminent dangers, the life long, 100% preventable conditions which will impact on
them, their families, and above all the innocent children affected.

.
    Reporter : Joanne Pritchard


    References

    Adoption UK. (2012). Foetal Alcohol Syndrome. Retrieved 10 Oct, 2012, from http://www.adoptionuk.org/

    Alcohol Concern. (2012). State of the nation – facts and figureson England and alcohol. Retrieved 15 Oct, 2012, from
    http://www.alcoholconcern.org.uk/assets/files/PressAndMedia/state.of.the.nation.pdf

    American Pregnancy Association. (2012) Alcohol and Pregnancy: What you should know. Retrieved 29 Sep, 2012, from
    http://www.americanpregnancy.org/pregnancyhealth/alcohol.html

    Armstrong, E. M. (2003). Conceiving Risk, Bearing Responsibility: Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and the Diagnosis of Moral Disorder. Baltimore: John Hopkins
    University Press.

    BBC News. (2001). Ladette enters dictionary. Retrieved 12 Oct, 2012, from http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/1434906.stm

    Bell, E. (2008). From Mad Girl to Bad Girl. Genders. Retrieved 12 Oct, 2012, from http://www.genders.org/g48/g48_bell.html

    Borland, S. (2012). Highbeam. Retrieved 15 Oct, 2012, from http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-235061899.html

    Cicero, T. J. (1994). Effects of Paternal Exposure to Alcohol on Offspring Development. Alcohol, Health & Research World, 18(1), pp. 37- 41.

    Drinkaware. (2012). Foetal Alcohol Syndrome. Retrieved 25 September, 2012, from http://www.drinkaware.co.uk/alcohol-and-you/family/foetal-alcohol-
    syndrome?gclid=CPn8npvO0LICFaTJtAodshoAIg

    Drugsalcohol info. (2012). Why are women drinking more? Retrieved 29 Sep, 2012, from http://www.drugsalcohol.info/content/why-are-women-drinking-more
GLP Solicitors. (2012). Feotal Alcohol Syndrome Compensation. Retrieved 25 September, 2012, from http://www.foetalalcoholsyndrome.org/

Jackson, C., & Tinkler, P. (2007). ‘Ladettes’ and ‘Modern Girls’: ‘troublesome’ young femininities. The Sociological Review, 55 (2), pp. 251 – 272.
MacDonald, T.K., Zanna, M.P., & Fong G.T. (1996). Why Common Sense goes out the window: Effects of alcohol on intentions to use condoms. Personality
and Social Psychology Bulletin, 22 (8), pp. 763 – 775.

Mail Online. (2009). The streets of no shame: The shocking picture that epitomises Britain’s ladette culture. Retrieved 15 Oct, 2012 from
http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1222090/Reveller-pictured-knickers-ankles-shocking-scene-UKs-streets-shame.html

Muella, T. E., Gavin, L. E., & Kulkarni, A. (2008). The Association Between Sex Education and Youth’s Engagement in Sexual Intercourse, Age at First
Intercourse, and Birth Control Use at First Sex. Journal of Adolescent Health, 42(1), pp. 89 – 96.

Mukherjee, R. A. S. (2005) Low level alcohol consumption and the fetus. Retrieved 25 September, 2012, from http://www.bmj.com/content/330/7488/375

Mumenthaler, M.S., Taylor, J.L., O’hara, R., & Yesavage, J.A. (1999). Gender differences in moderate drinking effects. Alcohol Research & Health, 23 (1), pp.
55–64.

NOFAS UK. (2009). Retrieved 29 Sep, 2012, from http://www.networks.nhs.uk/nhs-networks/foetal-alcohol-syndrome-an-spectrum-and-
associated/documents/FAS-eD%20PROJECT%20LITERATURE%20REVIEW-1.pdf

Oxford Dictionaries. (2012). Retrieved 29 Sep, 2012, from, http://oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/ladette?q=Ladette

PubMed. (2011). Foetal Alcohol Syndrome. Retrieved 29 Sep, 2012, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0001909/

Standerwick, K., Davies, C., Tucker, L., & Sheron, N. (2007). Binge drinking, sexual behaviour and sexually transmitted infection in the UK. International
Journal of STD and AIDs, 18, pp. 810 – 813.

World Health Organisation. (2012). Foetal alcohol syndrome: dashed hopes, damaged lives. Retrieved 27 Sep, 2012, from
http://www.who.int/bulletin/volumes/89/6/11-020611/en/

White, A. M., Signer, M.L., Kraus, C.L., & Swartzwelder, H.S. (2004). Experiential aspects of alcohol–induced blackouts among college students. American
Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse. 30 (1), pp. 205-24.

www.Parliment.UK. (2004). Retrieved 15 Oct, 2012, from http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld200304/ldhansrd/vo040512/text/40512-15.htm

Zorumski, C., & Rubin, E. (2012). Binge Drinking in Young Adults and Older People. Retrieved 04 Nov, 2012, from
http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/demystifying-psychiatry/201203/binge-drinking-in-young-adults-and-older-people

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Brain and Behaviour Newspaper Article - Joanne Pritchard

  • 1. Issue 2: 31/10/2012 Brain & Behaviour Information for the population Word count: 1562 Log in | Register | Subscribe Top-picks: Dinner Party Discussions Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Are we predisposed to believe in god ? Are we emotionally capable of dealing with terror attacks? Foetal Alcohol Syndrome: the Ladette legacy? A new type of woman has evolved over the past 20 years. Out drinking most weekends, this new breed of lady is intent on having a good time and won’t let female stereotypes hold her back, but is the’ Ladette’ culture to blame for the rise in foetal alcohol syndrome? This article will explore why female alcohol consumption is on the rise, along with unplanned pregnancies, and how, when the two are combined, the consequences can be dire. As well as the social issues surrounding this topic the ‘real’ effect of this disorder will be considered. Examining the devastating effects alcohol can have on foetal development, it will discuss the physical and cognitive anomalies suffered and highlight how these impact on the health and emotional wellbeing of the child and those who are left to pick up the pieces. Once laid bare, the answer to this question is clear……. The Ladette The term ‘Ladette’ was first coined by advertising agency Colette Dictionaries, 2012). Although at first glance this may appear to be a new Dickenson in 1995. It was an expression used to reflect the rise in women development, historically each generation has had its own breed of female who were shunning the traditional roles of home maker and wife in favour which goes against the grain (Jackson & Tinkler, 2007). The 1920’s saw the of one out drinking and having fun -- a life stereotypically enjoyed by rise of the ‘Modern Girl’. She was described as having little interest in young men (Bell, 2008). Since then, this commonly used term, has officially marriage and more in having fun and just like todays ladette this revolt was secured its place in the English language (BBC News, 2001), described by attributed to financial freedom and an increase in disposable income The Oxford Dictionary as ‘a young woman who behaves in a boisterously (Jackson & Tinkler, 2007; Drugalcohol info, 2012). The Modern Girl was assertive or crude manner and engages in heavy drinking sessions’ (Oxford typically middle class and owed some of her wealth to her Heritage,
  • 2. today’s ladette is generally working class and is responsible for her own wealth, thanks to equal rights allowing higher paid positions to be owned by women (Alcohol Concern, 2012). Binge drinking Despite equality between the sexes, on many levels there are physical differences which mean the effects of alcohol take hold quicker in women. These are due to factors such as height, body fat, and the amount of water in the body (Drink aware, 2012; Mumenthaler, 1999). Current government guidelines are reflective of such differences and recommend that women consume no more than 2-3 alcohol units per day and men no more than 3-4. This translates as 1.3 – 1.7 standard (175ml) glasses of wine. Consuming more than 6 units in one sitting is classed as binge drinking -- typical amongst the 16 – 24 age groups (Drink aware, 2012). Whether these recommendations are just not known or just plain ignored is debatable but between 1998 – 2006 the UK saw a 9% rise in female binge drinking 1.1 Girls night out in Cardiff (Mail Online, 2009) (Alcohol Concern, 2012). Foetal Alcohol Syndrome Alcohol, Promiscuity, and Pregnancy With an increase in alcohol related pregnancies, attention has to be paid to Aside from the negative health implications, drinking is commonly known the effect of alcohol on the developing foetus. Despite the fact other to cause changes in behaviour, particularly surrounding impulsivity and risk teratogens (substances which can effect human development) can be equally taking. One such behaviour associated with alcohol consumption is sexual as harmful to the unborn child -- such as marijuana and cocaine -- alcohol activity (Alcohol Concern, 2012; WHO, 2012). Alcohol increases the abuse is the only type which has a named condition associated with it likelihood of unprotected sex, particularly in brief sexual encounters. This is (American Pregnancy Association, 2011). This, along with the estimated 28 thought to be due to its influence over thought processing. Rather than pregnancies per week which are affected, highlight its prevalence responding to logic or reason you are more likely to respond to the here and (www.parliament.uk, 2004). now of a situation and an attractive individual will likely take priority over Foetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is a term used since 1973 safe sex (MacDonald et al, 1996). (Mukherjee, 2005) to describe a set of physical characteristics, as well as This is further supported by a study carried out in a sexual health mental deficits, which are acquired as a direct result of being exposed to clinic in the south of England. It documented that 86% of people who alcohol in utero (World Health Organisation, 2012). The severity of the attended reported binge drinking, with 76% admitting to having had difficulties suffered can vary quite dramatically and are dependent on two unprotected sex and a staggeringly low 18% of females admitting that they factors: firstly the amount of alcohol exposure, and secondly at what point ‘always’ used condoms (Standerwick et al. 2007). during the pregnancy exposure occurs -- children exposed to larger From this is it really a surprise to know that women who binge drink quantities of alcohol in the first trimester are likely to be affected more have more unwanted pregnancies? Or that ladettes are 40% likelier to have severely (American Pregnancy Association, 2011; Drinkaware, 2012). For an abortion? (Borland, 2010). this reason children who are affected are categorised as having a Foetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD), with FAS sitting at the severe end of Promiscuity the scale (World Health Organisation, 2012). .
  • 3. Features Blame The following descriptions relate to FAS As FAS is a 100% preventable condition (PubMed, 2011) and not yet itself but may present to varying degrees proven to be affected by paternal drinking (Cicero, 1994), can blame lie in children further down the FASD largely at the feet of the biological mother? scale. Image 1.2 depicts a child Armstrong (2003) argues against, highlighting that other factors displaying the three most common facial influence development including how effective the body is at breaking features associated with FAS known as down alcohol, smoking, and maternal age. It could also be argued that there the triad. These include a thin upper lip, are instances where pregnancy is unknown. Alcohol blackouts are smooth philtrum (area between the nose increasingly common amongst binge drinkers and it is possible intercourse and upper lip), and small eye openings could take place and conception occur without recollection (Zorumski, which have large epicanthal folds (skin 2012; White et al, 2004) but is this an acceptable excuse? It may be an between the nose and the inner corner of argument with would hold up at a university debate but when it comes the eye) (PubMed, 2011). Affected down to it and a woman is faced with the difficulties of looking after or children also suffer growth giving up a child with FAS can she really, hand on heart, say that she could abnormalities of the head and body not have prevented it? That she did not know that alcohol was not (Drinkaware, 2012). A restriction in the 1.2 Child with FAS (adoption UK, 2012) conducive to healthy development? In an educated society, with access to size of the head is indicative of the child free contraception, pregnancy is easily preventable (Muella et al, 2008). having a smaller than average brain and with this comes a degree of cognitive FAS may not be punishable crime in the eyes of the law (yet) but deficits. should it be? Why should penance only be reserved for the afflicted, those Affected children will have broad range of difficulties such as who have no choice of what they are born into? Reflective of the blame problems with language, poor short term memory, a difficulty remaining culture that is now, solicitors are now specialising in compensatory law to focussed, hyperactivity, difficulty following instructions, and poor social claim for those caring for a child with FAS (GLP Solicitors, 2012). skills – all of which will impair their ability to learn (Drinkaware, 2012). As if all this wasn’t enough to contend with, the medical needs of a child with FAS can be extensive including: epilepsy, liver damage, kidney and heart defects, and hearing problems (Drinkaware, 2012). The demands this can place on a family are often too much to bear, emotionally and physically, often resulting in the child being taken into foster care (NOFAS, 2009). Support Physical signs are a good indicator of FAS but are not always present if the child falls lower on the spectrum. Because of this and a woman’s reluctance to admit drinking whilst pregnant it is not known just how many children are affected (Drinkaware, 2012). These children, in some ways, suffer more as support cannot be given to a child who is thought of as ‘normal’. Behavioural traits and cognitive difficulties may be put down to a broad spectrum learning difficulty, Attention Deficit Disorder or worse still the child may just be labelled as disruptive (Drinkaware, 2012). Without the right support in place 1.3 How long before a sentence is attached? (GLP Solicitors, 2012) how can a child be expected to thrive and reach its full potential?
  • 4. So…….. With the facts laid bare, it really falls down to opinion whether or not you believe FAS is a consequence of the economic stability of fun loving women or not. What is known though is that binge drinking is on the rise, prevalent amongst women of child bearing age, and encourages promiscuity and unsafe sex…..a lethal cocktail when all thrown in the mix. Maybe the real question needs to be ‘what should be done to limit the tragedy of FAS?’ And the answer……….Everything! The devastating effects of this condition need to be as widely promoted as the toxins that cause it. Emphasis needs to be placed on the spectrum of foetal disorders that are associated with drinking not just FAS which may primarily be associated with hardened alcoholics rather than party going girls. Aside from the long term health implications of binge drinking, importance needs to be placed on the imminent dangers, the life long, 100% preventable conditions which will impact on them, their families, and above all the innocent children affected. . Reporter : Joanne Pritchard References Adoption UK. (2012). Foetal Alcohol Syndrome. Retrieved 10 Oct, 2012, from http://www.adoptionuk.org/ Alcohol Concern. (2012). State of the nation – facts and figureson England and alcohol. Retrieved 15 Oct, 2012, from http://www.alcoholconcern.org.uk/assets/files/PressAndMedia/state.of.the.nation.pdf American Pregnancy Association. (2012) Alcohol and Pregnancy: What you should know. Retrieved 29 Sep, 2012, from http://www.americanpregnancy.org/pregnancyhealth/alcohol.html Armstrong, E. M. (2003). Conceiving Risk, Bearing Responsibility: Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and the Diagnosis of Moral Disorder. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press. BBC News. (2001). Ladette enters dictionary. Retrieved 12 Oct, 2012, from http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/1434906.stm Bell, E. (2008). From Mad Girl to Bad Girl. Genders. Retrieved 12 Oct, 2012, from http://www.genders.org/g48/g48_bell.html Borland, S. (2012). Highbeam. Retrieved 15 Oct, 2012, from http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-235061899.html Cicero, T. J. (1994). Effects of Paternal Exposure to Alcohol on Offspring Development. Alcohol, Health & Research World, 18(1), pp. 37- 41. Drinkaware. (2012). Foetal Alcohol Syndrome. Retrieved 25 September, 2012, from http://www.drinkaware.co.uk/alcohol-and-you/family/foetal-alcohol- syndrome?gclid=CPn8npvO0LICFaTJtAodshoAIg Drugsalcohol info. (2012). Why are women drinking more? Retrieved 29 Sep, 2012, from http://www.drugsalcohol.info/content/why-are-women-drinking-more
  • 5. GLP Solicitors. (2012). Feotal Alcohol Syndrome Compensation. Retrieved 25 September, 2012, from http://www.foetalalcoholsyndrome.org/ Jackson, C., & Tinkler, P. (2007). ‘Ladettes’ and ‘Modern Girls’: ‘troublesome’ young femininities. The Sociological Review, 55 (2), pp. 251 – 272. MacDonald, T.K., Zanna, M.P., & Fong G.T. (1996). Why Common Sense goes out the window: Effects of alcohol on intentions to use condoms. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 22 (8), pp. 763 – 775. Mail Online. (2009). The streets of no shame: The shocking picture that epitomises Britain’s ladette culture. Retrieved 15 Oct, 2012 from http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1222090/Reveller-pictured-knickers-ankles-shocking-scene-UKs-streets-shame.html Muella, T. E., Gavin, L. E., & Kulkarni, A. (2008). The Association Between Sex Education and Youth’s Engagement in Sexual Intercourse, Age at First Intercourse, and Birth Control Use at First Sex. Journal of Adolescent Health, 42(1), pp. 89 – 96. Mukherjee, R. A. S. (2005) Low level alcohol consumption and the fetus. Retrieved 25 September, 2012, from http://www.bmj.com/content/330/7488/375 Mumenthaler, M.S., Taylor, J.L., O’hara, R., & Yesavage, J.A. (1999). Gender differences in moderate drinking effects. Alcohol Research & Health, 23 (1), pp. 55–64. NOFAS UK. (2009). Retrieved 29 Sep, 2012, from http://www.networks.nhs.uk/nhs-networks/foetal-alcohol-syndrome-an-spectrum-and- associated/documents/FAS-eD%20PROJECT%20LITERATURE%20REVIEW-1.pdf Oxford Dictionaries. (2012). Retrieved 29 Sep, 2012, from, http://oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/ladette?q=Ladette PubMed. (2011). Foetal Alcohol Syndrome. Retrieved 29 Sep, 2012, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0001909/ Standerwick, K., Davies, C., Tucker, L., & Sheron, N. (2007). Binge drinking, sexual behaviour and sexually transmitted infection in the UK. International Journal of STD and AIDs, 18, pp. 810 – 813. World Health Organisation. (2012). Foetal alcohol syndrome: dashed hopes, damaged lives. Retrieved 27 Sep, 2012, from http://www.who.int/bulletin/volumes/89/6/11-020611/en/ White, A. M., Signer, M.L., Kraus, C.L., & Swartzwelder, H.S. (2004). Experiential aspects of alcohol–induced blackouts among college students. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse. 30 (1), pp. 205-24. www.Parliment.UK. (2004). Retrieved 15 Oct, 2012, from http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld200304/ldhansrd/vo040512/text/40512-15.htm Zorumski, C., & Rubin, E. (2012). Binge Drinking in Young Adults and Older People. Retrieved 04 Nov, 2012, from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/demystifying-psychiatry/201203/binge-drinking-in-young-adults-and-older-people