SlideShare a Scribd company logo
 a <- 33
b <- 33
if (b > a) {
print("b is greater than a")
} else if (a == b) {
print ("a and b are equal")
}
 a <- 200
b <- 33
if (b > a) {
print("b is greater than a")
} else if (a == b) {
print("a and b are equal")
} else {
print("a is greater than b")
}
 x <- 41
 if (x > 10) {
 print("Above ten")
 if (x > 20) {
 print("and also above 20!")
 } else {
 print("but not above 20.")
 }
 } else {
 print("below 10.")
 }
 [1] "Above ten"
[1] "and also above 20!"
 x<-5
 if(is.nan(x))
 {
 message("x is missing")
 } else if(is.infinite(x))
 {
 message("x is infinite")
 } else if(x > 0)
 {
 message("x is positive")
 } else if(x < 0)
 {
 message("x is negative")
 } else
 {
 message("x is zero")
 }
Loop
 There are three kinds of loops in R:
 Repeat
 While, and for
 they can still come in handy for repeatedly executing code
 Repeat:
 i<-0
 repeat
 {
 print(i)
 i<-i+1
 if(i>=3)
 break
 }
While
 i<-1
 While (i<=4)
 {
 i<-i+1
 print(i)
 }
 Output:
 2
 3
 4
 5
For loop
 for(i in seq(1,10,2))
 { print(i) }
 i<-1
 for(j in 1:3)
 {
 i<-i+1
 print(i)
 }
 Output:
 2
 3
 4
Functions
 A function is a block of code which only runs when
it is called.
 You can pass data, known as parameters, into a
function.
 A function can return data as a result.
Creating and Calling Function in R
 In order to understand functions better, let’s take a look
at what they consist of.
 Typing the name of a function shows you the code that
runs when you call it.
 The terms "parameter" and "argument" can be used for the
same thing: information that are passed into a function.
 From a function's perspective:
 A parameter is the variable listed inside the parentheses
in the function definition.
 An argument is the value that is sent to the function when
it is called.
Example
 Sample<-function(a,b,c)
 {
 print(a)
print(b)
print(c)
print(a+b+c)
}
Sample(2,3,4)
Passing Functions to and from Other
Functions
 Functions can be used just like other variable
types, so we can pass them as arguments to other
functions, and return them from functions.
 One common example of a function that takes
another function as an argument is do.call.
 do.call(function(x, y) x + y, list(1:5, 5:1))
 ## [1] 6 6 6 6 6
do.call()
#create three data frames
df1 <- data.frame(team=c('A', 'B', 'C'), points=c(22, 27, 38))
df2 <- data.frame(team=c('D', 'E', 'F'), points=c(22, 14, 20))
df3 <- data.frame(team=c('G', 'H', 'I'), points=c(11, 15, 18))
#place three data frames into list
df_list <- list(df1, df2, df3)
#row bind together all three data frames
do.call(rbind, df_list)
Variable Scope
 A variable’s scope is the set of places from which you can see the variable.
For example, when you define a variable inside a function, the rest of the
statements in that function will have access to that variable.
 In R subfunctions will also have access to that variable.
 In this next example, the function f takes a variable x and passes it to the
function g. f also defines a variable y, which is within the scope of g, since g
is a sub‐ function of f.
 So, even though y isn’t defined inside g, the example works:
 f <- function(x)
 {
 y <- 1
 g <- function(x)
 {
 (x + y) / 2 #y is used, but is not a formal argument of g }
 g(x)
 }
 f(sqrt(5)) #It works! y is magically found in the environment of f
 ## [1] 1.618
String Manipulation
 String manipulation basically refers to the process of
handling and analyzing strings.
 It involves various operations concerned with
modification and parsing of strings to use and change its
data.
 Paste:
 str <- paste(c(1:3), "4", sep = ":")
 print (str)
 ## "1:4" "2:4" "3:4"
 Concatenation:
 # Concatenation using cat() function
 str <- cat("learn", "code", "tech", sep = ":")
 print (str)
## learn:code:tech
Packages and Visualization
Loading and Packages
 R is not limited to the code provided by the R Core Team.
It is very much a community effort, and
 there are thousands of add-on packages available to
extend it.
 The majority of R packages are currently installed in an
online repository called CRAN (the Comprehensive R
Archive Network1)
 which is maintained by the R Core Team. Installing and
using these add-on packages is an important part of the R
experience
Loading Packages
 To load a package that is already installed on your
machine, you call the library function
 We can load it with the library function:
 library(lattice)
 the functions provided by lattice. For example,
displays a fancy dot plot of the famous Immer’s barley
dataset:
dotplot(
variety ~ yield | site,
data = barley,
groups = year
)
Scatter Plot
 A "scatter plot" is a type of plot used to display the relationship between two
numerical variables, and plots one dot for each observation.
 It needs two vectors of same length, one for the x-axis (horizontal) and one
for the y-axis (vertical):
 Example
 x <- c(5,7,8,7,2,2,9,4,11,12,9,6)
y <- c(99,86,87,88,111,103,87,94,78,77,85,86)
plot(x, y)
P<- ggplot(mtcars,aes(wt,mpg) )
p+geom_point()
P<- ggplot(mtcars,aes(wt,mpg) )
p+geom_line(color=blue)
Box_plot()
ggplot(data = mpg, aes(x = drv, y = hwy,
colour = class)) +
geom_boxplot()
Geom_bar()
g <- ggplot(mpg, aes(class))
# Number of cars in each class:
g + geom_bar()

More Related Content

Similar to 欧洲杯外围-欧洲杯外围赛程-欧洲杯外围压注|【​网址​🎉ac99.net🎉​】

欧洲杯投注-欧洲杯投注押注app-欧洲杯投注押注app官网|【​网址​🎉ac10.net🎉​】
欧洲杯投注-欧洲杯投注押注app-欧洲杯投注押注app官网|【​网址​🎉ac10.net🎉​】欧洲杯投注-欧洲杯投注押注app-欧洲杯投注押注app官网|【​网址​🎉ac10.net🎉​】
欧洲杯投注-欧洲杯投注押注app-欧洲杯投注押注app官网|【​网址​🎉ac10.net🎉​】
akrooshsaleem36
 
欧洲杯买球-欧洲杯买球买球推荐-欧洲杯买球买球推荐网站|【​网址​🎉ac10.net🎉​】
欧洲杯买球-欧洲杯买球买球推荐-欧洲杯买球买球推荐网站|【​网址​🎉ac10.net🎉​】欧洲杯买球-欧洲杯买球买球推荐-欧洲杯买球买球推荐网站|【​网址​🎉ac10.net🎉​】
欧洲杯买球-欧洲杯买球买球推荐-欧洲杯买球买球推荐网站|【​网址​🎉ac10.net🎉​】
concepsionchomo153
 
nba-nba买球推荐-nba买球推荐网站|【​网址​🎉ac10.net🎉​】
nba-nba买球推荐-nba买球推荐网站|【​网址​🎉ac10.net🎉​】nba-nba买球推荐-nba买球推荐网站|【​网址​🎉ac10.net🎉​】
nba-nba买球推荐-nba买球推荐网站|【​网址​🎉ac10.net🎉​】
balliuvilla512
 
世预赛下注-世预赛下注投注-世预赛下注投注网|【​网址​🎉ac10.net🎉​】
世预赛下注-世预赛下注投注-世预赛下注投注网|【​网址​🎉ac10.net🎉​】世预赛下注-世预赛下注投注-世预赛下注投注网|【​网址​🎉ac10.net🎉​】
世预赛下注-世预赛下注投注-世预赛下注投注网|【​网址​🎉ac10.net🎉​】
trishahafez481
 
欧洲杯下注-欧洲杯下注下注app-欧洲杯下注盘口app|【​网址​🎉ac22.net🎉​】
欧洲杯下注-欧洲杯下注下注app-欧洲杯下注盘口app|【​网址​🎉ac22.net🎉​】欧洲杯下注-欧洲杯下注下注app-欧洲杯下注盘口app|【​网址​🎉ac22.net🎉​】
欧洲杯下注-欧洲杯下注下注app-欧洲杯下注盘口app|【​网址​🎉ac22.net🎉​】
asjpkomrxo
 
欧洲杯外围-欧洲杯外围开户-欧洲杯外围开户平台|【​网址​🎉ac55.net🎉​】
欧洲杯外围-欧洲杯外围开户-欧洲杯外围开户平台|【​网址​🎉ac55.net🎉​】欧洲杯外围-欧洲杯外围开户-欧洲杯外围开户平台|【​网址​🎉ac55.net🎉​】
欧洲杯外围-欧洲杯外围开户-欧洲杯外围开户平台|【​网址​🎉ac55.net🎉​】
andreassenrolf537
 
欧洲杯买球-欧洲杯买球买球推荐-欧洲杯买球买球推荐网站|【​网址​🎉ac10.net🎉​】
欧洲杯买球-欧洲杯买球买球推荐-欧洲杯买球买球推荐网站|【​网址​🎉ac10.net🎉​】欧洲杯买球-欧洲杯买球买球推荐-欧洲杯买球买球推荐网站|【​网址​🎉ac10.net🎉​】
欧洲杯买球-欧洲杯买球买球推荐-欧洲杯买球买球推荐网站|【​网址​🎉ac10.net🎉​】
ahmedendrise81
 
欧洲杯竞猜-欧洲杯竞猜下注平台-欧洲杯竞猜投注平台|【​网址​🎉ac44.net🎉​】
欧洲杯竞猜-欧洲杯竞猜下注平台-欧洲杯竞猜投注平台|【​网址​🎉ac44.net🎉​】欧洲杯竞猜-欧洲杯竞猜下注平台-欧洲杯竞猜投注平台|【​网址​🎉ac44.net🎉​】
欧洲杯竞猜-欧洲杯竞猜下注平台-欧洲杯竞猜投注平台|【​网址​🎉ac44.net🎉​】
arcosarturo900
 
世预赛买球-世预赛买球竞彩平台-世预赛买球竞猜平台|【​网址​🎉ac123.net🎉​】
世预赛买球-世预赛买球竞彩平台-世预赛买球竞猜平台|【​网址​🎉ac123.net🎉​】世预赛买球-世预赛买球竞彩平台-世预赛买球竞猜平台|【​网址​🎉ac123.net🎉​】
世预赛买球-世预赛买球竞彩平台-世预赛买球竞猜平台|【​网址​🎉ac123.net🎉​】
hanniaarias53
 
美洲杯买球-美洲杯买球怎么押注-美洲杯买球押注怎么玩|【​网址​🎉ac99.net🎉​】
美洲杯买球-美洲杯买球怎么押注-美洲杯买球押注怎么玩|【​网址​🎉ac99.net🎉​】美洲杯买球-美洲杯买球怎么押注-美洲杯买球押注怎么玩|【​网址​🎉ac99.net🎉​】
美洲杯买球-美洲杯买球怎么押注-美洲杯买球押注怎么玩|【​网址​🎉ac99.net🎉​】
kokoparmod677
 
欧洲杯足彩-欧洲杯足彩线上体育买球-欧洲杯足彩买球推荐网站|【​网址​🎉ac55.net🎉​】
欧洲杯足彩-欧洲杯足彩线上体育买球-欧洲杯足彩买球推荐网站|【​网址​🎉ac55.net🎉​】欧洲杯足彩-欧洲杯足彩线上体育买球-欧洲杯足彩买球推荐网站|【​网址​🎉ac55.net🎉​】
欧洲杯足彩-欧洲杯足彩线上体育买球-欧洲杯足彩买球推荐网站|【​网址​🎉ac55.net🎉​】
brunasordi905
 
欧洲杯下注-欧洲杯下注买球网-欧洲杯下注买球网站|【​网址​🎉ac10.net🎉​】
欧洲杯下注-欧洲杯下注买球网-欧洲杯下注买球网站|【​网址​🎉ac10.net🎉​】欧洲杯下注-欧洲杯下注买球网-欧洲杯下注买球网站|【​网址​🎉ac10.net🎉​】
欧洲杯下注-欧洲杯下注买球网-欧洲杯下注买球网站|【​网址​🎉ac10.net🎉​】
brendonbrash97589
 
世预赛买球-世预赛买球比赛投注-世预赛买球比赛投注官网|【​网址​🎉ac10.net🎉​】
世预赛买球-世预赛买球比赛投注-世预赛买球比赛投注官网|【​网址​🎉ac10.net🎉​】世预赛买球-世预赛买球比赛投注-世预赛买球比赛投注官网|【​网址​🎉ac10.net🎉​】
世预赛买球-世预赛买球比赛投注-世预赛买球比赛投注官网|【​网址​🎉ac10.net🎉​】
bljeremy734
 
世预赛投注-世预赛投注投注官网app-世预赛投注官网app下载|【​网址​🎉ac123.net🎉​】
世预赛投注-世预赛投注投注官网app-世预赛投注官网app下载|【​网址​🎉ac123.net🎉​】世预赛投注-世预赛投注投注官网app-世预赛投注官网app下载|【​网址​🎉ac123.net🎉​】
世预赛投注-世预赛投注投注官网app-世预赛投注官网app下载|【​网址​🎉ac123.net🎉​】
bljeremy734
 
欧洲杯体彩-欧洲杯体彩比赛投注-欧洲杯体彩比赛投注官网|【​网址​🎉ac99.net🎉​】
欧洲杯体彩-欧洲杯体彩比赛投注-欧洲杯体彩比赛投注官网|【​网址​🎉ac99.net🎉​】欧洲杯体彩-欧洲杯体彩比赛投注-欧洲杯体彩比赛投注官网|【​网址​🎉ac99.net🎉​】
欧洲杯体彩-欧洲杯体彩比赛投注-欧洲杯体彩比赛投注官网|【​网址​🎉ac99.net🎉​】
lopezkatherina914
 
欧洲杯买球-欧洲杯买球投注网-欧洲杯买球投注网站|【​网址​🎉ac44.net🎉​】
欧洲杯买球-欧洲杯买球投注网-欧洲杯买球投注网站|【​网址​🎉ac44.net🎉​】欧洲杯买球-欧洲杯买球投注网-欧洲杯买球投注网站|【​网址​🎉ac44.net🎉​】
欧洲杯买球-欧洲杯买球投注网-欧洲杯买球投注网站|【​网址​🎉ac44.net🎉​】
rodriguezkiko995
 
欧洲杯赌钱-欧洲杯赌钱足彩竞猜-欧洲杯赌钱竞猜app|【​网址​🎉ac123.net🎉​】
欧洲杯赌钱-欧洲杯赌钱足彩竞猜-欧洲杯赌钱竞猜app|【​网址​🎉ac123.net🎉​】欧洲杯赌钱-欧洲杯赌钱足彩竞猜-欧洲杯赌钱竞猜app|【​网址​🎉ac123.net🎉​】
欧洲杯赌钱-欧洲杯赌钱足彩竞猜-欧洲杯赌钱竞猜app|【​网址​🎉ac123.net🎉​】
stellacovaleda199
 
欧洲杯下注-欧洲杯下注投注官网app-欧洲杯下注哪里有正规的买球网站|【​网址​🎉ac55.net🎉​】
欧洲杯下注-欧洲杯下注投注官网app-欧洲杯下注哪里有正规的买球网站|【​网址​🎉ac55.net🎉​】欧洲杯下注-欧洲杯下注投注官网app-欧洲杯下注哪里有正规的买球网站|【​网址​🎉ac55.net🎉​】
欧洲杯下注-欧洲杯下注投注官网app-欧洲杯下注哪里有正规的买球网站|【​网址​🎉ac55.net🎉​】
siomaranico724
 
欧洲杯赌球-欧洲杯赌球买球官方官网-欧洲杯赌球比赛投注官网|【​网址​🎉ac55.net🎉​】
欧洲杯赌球-欧洲杯赌球买球官方官网-欧洲杯赌球比赛投注官网|【​网址​🎉ac55.net🎉​】欧洲杯赌球-欧洲杯赌球买球官方官网-欧洲杯赌球比赛投注官网|【​网址​🎉ac55.net🎉​】
欧洲杯赌球-欧洲杯赌球买球官方官网-欧洲杯赌球比赛投注官网|【​网址​🎉ac55.net🎉​】
valvereliz227
 
世预赛买球-世预赛买球买球网-世预赛买球买球网站|【​网址​🎉ac22.net🎉​】
世预赛买球-世预赛买球买球网-世预赛买球买球网站|【​网址​🎉ac22.net🎉​】世预赛买球-世预赛买球买球网-世预赛买球买球网站|【​网址​🎉ac22.net🎉​】
世预赛买球-世预赛买球买球网-世预赛买球买球网站|【​网址​🎉ac22.net🎉​】
valvereliz227
 

Similar to 欧洲杯外围-欧洲杯外围赛程-欧洲杯外围压注|【​网址​🎉ac99.net🎉​】 (20)

欧洲杯投注-欧洲杯投注押注app-欧洲杯投注押注app官网|【​网址​🎉ac10.net🎉​】
欧洲杯投注-欧洲杯投注押注app-欧洲杯投注押注app官网|【​网址​🎉ac10.net🎉​】欧洲杯投注-欧洲杯投注押注app-欧洲杯投注押注app官网|【​网址​🎉ac10.net🎉​】
欧洲杯投注-欧洲杯投注押注app-欧洲杯投注押注app官网|【​网址​🎉ac10.net🎉​】
 
欧洲杯买球-欧洲杯买球买球推荐-欧洲杯买球买球推荐网站|【​网址​🎉ac10.net🎉​】
欧洲杯买球-欧洲杯买球买球推荐-欧洲杯买球买球推荐网站|【​网址​🎉ac10.net🎉​】欧洲杯买球-欧洲杯买球买球推荐-欧洲杯买球买球推荐网站|【​网址​🎉ac10.net🎉​】
欧洲杯买球-欧洲杯买球买球推荐-欧洲杯买球买球推荐网站|【​网址​🎉ac10.net🎉​】
 
nba-nba买球推荐-nba买球推荐网站|【​网址​🎉ac10.net🎉​】
nba-nba买球推荐-nba买球推荐网站|【​网址​🎉ac10.net🎉​】nba-nba买球推荐-nba买球推荐网站|【​网址​🎉ac10.net🎉​】
nba-nba买球推荐-nba买球推荐网站|【​网址​🎉ac10.net🎉​】
 
世预赛下注-世预赛下注投注-世预赛下注投注网|【​网址​🎉ac10.net🎉​】
世预赛下注-世预赛下注投注-世预赛下注投注网|【​网址​🎉ac10.net🎉​】世预赛下注-世预赛下注投注-世预赛下注投注网|【​网址​🎉ac10.net🎉​】
世预赛下注-世预赛下注投注-世预赛下注投注网|【​网址​🎉ac10.net🎉​】
 
欧洲杯下注-欧洲杯下注下注app-欧洲杯下注盘口app|【​网址​🎉ac22.net🎉​】
欧洲杯下注-欧洲杯下注下注app-欧洲杯下注盘口app|【​网址​🎉ac22.net🎉​】欧洲杯下注-欧洲杯下注下注app-欧洲杯下注盘口app|【​网址​🎉ac22.net🎉​】
欧洲杯下注-欧洲杯下注下注app-欧洲杯下注盘口app|【​网址​🎉ac22.net🎉​】
 
欧洲杯外围-欧洲杯外围开户-欧洲杯外围开户平台|【​网址​🎉ac55.net🎉​】
欧洲杯外围-欧洲杯外围开户-欧洲杯外围开户平台|【​网址​🎉ac55.net🎉​】欧洲杯外围-欧洲杯外围开户-欧洲杯外围开户平台|【​网址​🎉ac55.net🎉​】
欧洲杯外围-欧洲杯外围开户-欧洲杯外围开户平台|【​网址​🎉ac55.net🎉​】
 
欧洲杯买球-欧洲杯买球买球推荐-欧洲杯买球买球推荐网站|【​网址​🎉ac10.net🎉​】
欧洲杯买球-欧洲杯买球买球推荐-欧洲杯买球买球推荐网站|【​网址​🎉ac10.net🎉​】欧洲杯买球-欧洲杯买球买球推荐-欧洲杯买球买球推荐网站|【​网址​🎉ac10.net🎉​】
欧洲杯买球-欧洲杯买球买球推荐-欧洲杯买球买球推荐网站|【​网址​🎉ac10.net🎉​】
 
欧洲杯竞猜-欧洲杯竞猜下注平台-欧洲杯竞猜投注平台|【​网址​🎉ac44.net🎉​】
欧洲杯竞猜-欧洲杯竞猜下注平台-欧洲杯竞猜投注平台|【​网址​🎉ac44.net🎉​】欧洲杯竞猜-欧洲杯竞猜下注平台-欧洲杯竞猜投注平台|【​网址​🎉ac44.net🎉​】
欧洲杯竞猜-欧洲杯竞猜下注平台-欧洲杯竞猜投注平台|【​网址​🎉ac44.net🎉​】
 
世预赛买球-世预赛买球竞彩平台-世预赛买球竞猜平台|【​网址​🎉ac123.net🎉​】
世预赛买球-世预赛买球竞彩平台-世预赛买球竞猜平台|【​网址​🎉ac123.net🎉​】世预赛买球-世预赛买球竞彩平台-世预赛买球竞猜平台|【​网址​🎉ac123.net🎉​】
世预赛买球-世预赛买球竞彩平台-世预赛买球竞猜平台|【​网址​🎉ac123.net🎉​】
 
美洲杯买球-美洲杯买球怎么押注-美洲杯买球押注怎么玩|【​网址​🎉ac99.net🎉​】
美洲杯买球-美洲杯买球怎么押注-美洲杯买球押注怎么玩|【​网址​🎉ac99.net🎉​】美洲杯买球-美洲杯买球怎么押注-美洲杯买球押注怎么玩|【​网址​🎉ac99.net🎉​】
美洲杯买球-美洲杯买球怎么押注-美洲杯买球押注怎么玩|【​网址​🎉ac99.net🎉​】
 
欧洲杯足彩-欧洲杯足彩线上体育买球-欧洲杯足彩买球推荐网站|【​网址​🎉ac55.net🎉​】
欧洲杯足彩-欧洲杯足彩线上体育买球-欧洲杯足彩买球推荐网站|【​网址​🎉ac55.net🎉​】欧洲杯足彩-欧洲杯足彩线上体育买球-欧洲杯足彩买球推荐网站|【​网址​🎉ac55.net🎉​】
欧洲杯足彩-欧洲杯足彩线上体育买球-欧洲杯足彩买球推荐网站|【​网址​🎉ac55.net🎉​】
 
欧洲杯下注-欧洲杯下注买球网-欧洲杯下注买球网站|【​网址​🎉ac10.net🎉​】
欧洲杯下注-欧洲杯下注买球网-欧洲杯下注买球网站|【​网址​🎉ac10.net🎉​】欧洲杯下注-欧洲杯下注买球网-欧洲杯下注买球网站|【​网址​🎉ac10.net🎉​】
欧洲杯下注-欧洲杯下注买球网-欧洲杯下注买球网站|【​网址​🎉ac10.net🎉​】
 
世预赛买球-世预赛买球比赛投注-世预赛买球比赛投注官网|【​网址​🎉ac10.net🎉​】
世预赛买球-世预赛买球比赛投注-世预赛买球比赛投注官网|【​网址​🎉ac10.net🎉​】世预赛买球-世预赛买球比赛投注-世预赛买球比赛投注官网|【​网址​🎉ac10.net🎉​】
世预赛买球-世预赛买球比赛投注-世预赛买球比赛投注官网|【​网址​🎉ac10.net🎉​】
 
世预赛投注-世预赛投注投注官网app-世预赛投注官网app下载|【​网址​🎉ac123.net🎉​】
世预赛投注-世预赛投注投注官网app-世预赛投注官网app下载|【​网址​🎉ac123.net🎉​】世预赛投注-世预赛投注投注官网app-世预赛投注官网app下载|【​网址​🎉ac123.net🎉​】
世预赛投注-世预赛投注投注官网app-世预赛投注官网app下载|【​网址​🎉ac123.net🎉​】
 
欧洲杯体彩-欧洲杯体彩比赛投注-欧洲杯体彩比赛投注官网|【​网址​🎉ac99.net🎉​】
欧洲杯体彩-欧洲杯体彩比赛投注-欧洲杯体彩比赛投注官网|【​网址​🎉ac99.net🎉​】欧洲杯体彩-欧洲杯体彩比赛投注-欧洲杯体彩比赛投注官网|【​网址​🎉ac99.net🎉​】
欧洲杯体彩-欧洲杯体彩比赛投注-欧洲杯体彩比赛投注官网|【​网址​🎉ac99.net🎉​】
 
欧洲杯买球-欧洲杯买球投注网-欧洲杯买球投注网站|【​网址​🎉ac44.net🎉​】
欧洲杯买球-欧洲杯买球投注网-欧洲杯买球投注网站|【​网址​🎉ac44.net🎉​】欧洲杯买球-欧洲杯买球投注网-欧洲杯买球投注网站|【​网址​🎉ac44.net🎉​】
欧洲杯买球-欧洲杯买球投注网-欧洲杯买球投注网站|【​网址​🎉ac44.net🎉​】
 
欧洲杯赌钱-欧洲杯赌钱足彩竞猜-欧洲杯赌钱竞猜app|【​网址​🎉ac123.net🎉​】
欧洲杯赌钱-欧洲杯赌钱足彩竞猜-欧洲杯赌钱竞猜app|【​网址​🎉ac123.net🎉​】欧洲杯赌钱-欧洲杯赌钱足彩竞猜-欧洲杯赌钱竞猜app|【​网址​🎉ac123.net🎉​】
欧洲杯赌钱-欧洲杯赌钱足彩竞猜-欧洲杯赌钱竞猜app|【​网址​🎉ac123.net🎉​】
 
欧洲杯下注-欧洲杯下注投注官网app-欧洲杯下注哪里有正规的买球网站|【​网址​🎉ac55.net🎉​】
欧洲杯下注-欧洲杯下注投注官网app-欧洲杯下注哪里有正规的买球网站|【​网址​🎉ac55.net🎉​】欧洲杯下注-欧洲杯下注投注官网app-欧洲杯下注哪里有正规的买球网站|【​网址​🎉ac55.net🎉​】
欧洲杯下注-欧洲杯下注投注官网app-欧洲杯下注哪里有正规的买球网站|【​网址​🎉ac55.net🎉​】
 
欧洲杯赌球-欧洲杯赌球买球官方官网-欧洲杯赌球比赛投注官网|【​网址​🎉ac55.net🎉​】
欧洲杯赌球-欧洲杯赌球买球官方官网-欧洲杯赌球比赛投注官网|【​网址​🎉ac55.net🎉​】欧洲杯赌球-欧洲杯赌球买球官方官网-欧洲杯赌球比赛投注官网|【​网址​🎉ac55.net🎉​】
欧洲杯赌球-欧洲杯赌球买球官方官网-欧洲杯赌球比赛投注官网|【​网址​🎉ac55.net🎉​】
 
世预赛买球-世预赛买球买球网-世预赛买球买球网站|【​网址​🎉ac22.net🎉​】
世预赛买球-世预赛买球买球网-世预赛买球买球网站|【​网址​🎉ac22.net🎉​】世预赛买球-世预赛买球买球网-世预赛买球买球网站|【​网址​🎉ac22.net🎉​】
世预赛买球-世预赛买球买球网-世预赛买球买球网站|【​网址​🎉ac22.net🎉​】
 

Recently uploaded

HiFi Girls Call Kolkata 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 ...
HiFi Girls Call Kolkata 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 ...HiFi Girls Call Kolkata 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 ...
HiFi Girls Call Kolkata 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 ...
manjugarg389
 
Girls Call Ahmedabad 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in ...
Girls Call Ahmedabad 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in ...Girls Call Ahmedabad 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in ...
Girls Call Ahmedabad 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in ...
gargj3720
 
The 2024 UEFA European Football Championship,
The 2024 UEFA European Football Championship,The 2024 UEFA European Football Championship,
The 2024 UEFA European Football Championship,
ArpitMalhotra16
 
Girls Call Ahmedabad 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in ...
Girls Call Ahmedabad 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in ...Girls Call Ahmedabad 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in ...
Girls Call Ahmedabad 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in ...
gargj3720
 
Female Girls Call Navi Mumbai 🛵🚡9820252231 💃 Choose Best And Top Girl Service...
Female Girls Call Navi Mumbai 🛵🚡9820252231 💃 Choose Best And Top Girl Service...Female Girls Call Navi Mumbai 🛵🚡9820252231 💃 Choose Best And Top Girl Service...
Female Girls Call Navi Mumbai 🛵🚡9820252231 💃 Choose Best And Top Girl Service...
902basic
 
Career and Job Opportunities in AI pervasive world
Career and Job Opportunities in AI pervasive worldCareer and Job Opportunities in AI pervasive world
Career and Job Opportunities in AI pervasive world
Gopi Krishna Nuti
 
VVIP Girls Call Hyderabad 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No...
VVIP Girls Call Hyderabad 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No...VVIP Girls Call Hyderabad 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No...
VVIP Girls Call Hyderabad 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No...
sizukagarg9
 
Girls Call Vadodara 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in City
Girls Call Vadodara 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in CityGirls Call Vadodara 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in City
Girls Call Vadodara 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in City
gargnatasha985
 
High Girls Call Chennai 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 ...
High Girls Call Chennai 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 ...High Girls Call Chennai 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 ...
High Girls Call Chennai 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 ...
susmagarg02
 
Girls Call Dehradun 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in City
Girls Call Dehradun 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in CityGirls Call Dehradun 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in City
Girls Call Dehradun 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in City
gargnatasha985
 
University of Galway diploma
University of Galway diplomaUniversity of Galway diploma
University of Galway diploma
omotef
 
SHAPING PAPER .pptx
SHAPING PAPER                      .pptxSHAPING PAPER                      .pptx
SHAPING PAPER .pptx
jonalynlabalanbasc
 
SJSU degree, fake San Jose State University diploma
SJSU degree, fake San Jose State University diplomaSJSU degree, fake San Jose State University diploma
SJSU degree, fake San Jose State University diploma
GlethDanold
 
Essential Principles of Security| ashokveda.pdf
Essential Principles of Security| ashokveda.pdfEssential Principles of Security| ashokveda.pdf
Essential Principles of Security| ashokveda.pdf
df2608021
 
daily lesson plan in t.l.e. grade 9 week 1
daily lesson plan in t.l.e. grade 9 week 1daily lesson plan in t.l.e. grade 9 week 1
daily lesson plan in t.l.e. grade 9 week 1
manuelpinlac1966
 
Premium Girls Call Mumbai 🎈🔥9930687706 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Girl Service ...
Premium Girls Call Mumbai 🎈🔥9930687706 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Girl Service ...Premium Girls Call Mumbai 🎈🔥9930687706 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Girl Service ...
Premium Girls Call Mumbai 🎈🔥9930687706 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Girl Service ...
3610stuck
 
How to Plan and Scope Facility Management Projects?.PREVIEW.pdf
How to Plan and Scope Facility Management Projects?.PREVIEW.pdfHow to Plan and Scope Facility Management Projects?.PREVIEW.pdf
How to Plan and Scope Facility Management Projects?.PREVIEW.pdf
GAFM ACADEMY
 
Verified Girls Call Mumbai 9920725232 Unlimited Short Providing Girls Service...
Verified Girls Call Mumbai 9920725232 Unlimited Short Providing Girls Service...Verified Girls Call Mumbai 9920725232 Unlimited Short Providing Girls Service...
Verified Girls Call Mumbai 9920725232 Unlimited Short Providing Girls Service...
shanihomely
 
VVIP Girls Call Hyderabad 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No...
VVIP Girls Call Hyderabad 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No...VVIP Girls Call Hyderabad 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No...
VVIP Girls Call Hyderabad 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No...
juligarg18
 
Exclusive Girls Call Mumbai 👀 9820252231 👀 Cash Payment With Room DeliveryDel...
Exclusive Girls Call Mumbai 👀 9820252231 👀 Cash Payment With Room DeliveryDel...Exclusive Girls Call Mumbai 👀 9820252231 👀 Cash Payment With Room DeliveryDel...
Exclusive Girls Call Mumbai 👀 9820252231 👀 Cash Payment With Room DeliveryDel...
87tomato
 

Recently uploaded (20)

HiFi Girls Call Kolkata 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 ...
HiFi Girls Call Kolkata 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 ...HiFi Girls Call Kolkata 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 ...
HiFi Girls Call Kolkata 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 ...
 
Girls Call Ahmedabad 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in ...
Girls Call Ahmedabad 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in ...Girls Call Ahmedabad 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in ...
Girls Call Ahmedabad 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in ...
 
The 2024 UEFA European Football Championship,
The 2024 UEFA European Football Championship,The 2024 UEFA European Football Championship,
The 2024 UEFA European Football Championship,
 
Girls Call Ahmedabad 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in ...
Girls Call Ahmedabad 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in ...Girls Call Ahmedabad 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in ...
Girls Call Ahmedabad 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in ...
 
Female Girls Call Navi Mumbai 🛵🚡9820252231 💃 Choose Best And Top Girl Service...
Female Girls Call Navi Mumbai 🛵🚡9820252231 💃 Choose Best And Top Girl Service...Female Girls Call Navi Mumbai 🛵🚡9820252231 💃 Choose Best And Top Girl Service...
Female Girls Call Navi Mumbai 🛵🚡9820252231 💃 Choose Best And Top Girl Service...
 
Career and Job Opportunities in AI pervasive world
Career and Job Opportunities in AI pervasive worldCareer and Job Opportunities in AI pervasive world
Career and Job Opportunities in AI pervasive world
 
VVIP Girls Call Hyderabad 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No...
VVIP Girls Call Hyderabad 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No...VVIP Girls Call Hyderabad 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No...
VVIP Girls Call Hyderabad 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No...
 
Girls Call Vadodara 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in City
Girls Call Vadodara 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in CityGirls Call Vadodara 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in City
Girls Call Vadodara 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in City
 
High Girls Call Chennai 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 ...
High Girls Call Chennai 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 ...High Girls Call Chennai 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 ...
High Girls Call Chennai 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 ...
 
Girls Call Dehradun 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in City
Girls Call Dehradun 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in CityGirls Call Dehradun 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in City
Girls Call Dehradun 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in City
 
University of Galway diploma
University of Galway diplomaUniversity of Galway diploma
University of Galway diploma
 
SHAPING PAPER .pptx
SHAPING PAPER                      .pptxSHAPING PAPER                      .pptx
SHAPING PAPER .pptx
 
SJSU degree, fake San Jose State University diploma
SJSU degree, fake San Jose State University diplomaSJSU degree, fake San Jose State University diploma
SJSU degree, fake San Jose State University diploma
 
Essential Principles of Security| ashokveda.pdf
Essential Principles of Security| ashokveda.pdfEssential Principles of Security| ashokveda.pdf
Essential Principles of Security| ashokveda.pdf
 
daily lesson plan in t.l.e. grade 9 week 1
daily lesson plan in t.l.e. grade 9 week 1daily lesson plan in t.l.e. grade 9 week 1
daily lesson plan in t.l.e. grade 9 week 1
 
Premium Girls Call Mumbai 🎈🔥9930687706 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Girl Service ...
Premium Girls Call Mumbai 🎈🔥9930687706 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Girl Service ...Premium Girls Call Mumbai 🎈🔥9930687706 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Girl Service ...
Premium Girls Call Mumbai 🎈🔥9930687706 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Girl Service ...
 
How to Plan and Scope Facility Management Projects?.PREVIEW.pdf
How to Plan and Scope Facility Management Projects?.PREVIEW.pdfHow to Plan and Scope Facility Management Projects?.PREVIEW.pdf
How to Plan and Scope Facility Management Projects?.PREVIEW.pdf
 
Verified Girls Call Mumbai 9920725232 Unlimited Short Providing Girls Service...
Verified Girls Call Mumbai 9920725232 Unlimited Short Providing Girls Service...Verified Girls Call Mumbai 9920725232 Unlimited Short Providing Girls Service...
Verified Girls Call Mumbai 9920725232 Unlimited Short Providing Girls Service...
 
VVIP Girls Call Hyderabad 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No...
VVIP Girls Call Hyderabad 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No...VVIP Girls Call Hyderabad 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No...
VVIP Girls Call Hyderabad 000XX00000 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No...
 
Exclusive Girls Call Mumbai 👀 9820252231 👀 Cash Payment With Room DeliveryDel...
Exclusive Girls Call Mumbai 👀 9820252231 👀 Cash Payment With Room DeliveryDel...Exclusive Girls Call Mumbai 👀 9820252231 👀 Cash Payment With Room DeliveryDel...
Exclusive Girls Call Mumbai 👀 9820252231 👀 Cash Payment With Room DeliveryDel...
 

欧洲杯外围-欧洲杯外围赛程-欧洲杯外围压注|【​网址​🎉ac99.net🎉​】

  • 1.  a <- 33 b <- 33 if (b > a) { print("b is greater than a") } else if (a == b) { print ("a and b are equal") }  a <- 200 b <- 33 if (b > a) { print("b is greater than a") } else if (a == b) { print("a and b are equal") } else { print("a is greater than b") }
  • 2.  x <- 41  if (x > 10) {  print("Above ten")  if (x > 20) {  print("and also above 20!")  } else {  print("but not above 20.")  }  } else {  print("below 10.")  }  [1] "Above ten" [1] "and also above 20!"
  • 3.  x<-5  if(is.nan(x))  {  message("x is missing")  } else if(is.infinite(x))  {  message("x is infinite")  } else if(x > 0)  {  message("x is positive")  } else if(x < 0)  {  message("x is negative")  } else  {  message("x is zero")  }
  • 4. Loop  There are three kinds of loops in R:  Repeat  While, and for  they can still come in handy for repeatedly executing code  Repeat:  i<-0  repeat  {  print(i)  i<-i+1  if(i>=3)  break  }
  • 5. While  i<-1  While (i<=4)  {  i<-i+1  print(i)  }  Output:  2  3  4  5
  • 6. For loop  for(i in seq(1,10,2))  { print(i) }  i<-1  for(j in 1:3)  {  i<-i+1  print(i)  }  Output:  2  3  4
  • 7. Functions  A function is a block of code which only runs when it is called.  You can pass data, known as parameters, into a function.  A function can return data as a result.
  • 8. Creating and Calling Function in R  In order to understand functions better, let’s take a look at what they consist of.  Typing the name of a function shows you the code that runs when you call it.  The terms "parameter" and "argument" can be used for the same thing: information that are passed into a function.  From a function's perspective:  A parameter is the variable listed inside the parentheses in the function definition.  An argument is the value that is sent to the function when it is called.
  • 9. Example  Sample<-function(a,b,c)  {  print(a) print(b) print(c) print(a+b+c) } Sample(2,3,4)
  • 10. Passing Functions to and from Other Functions  Functions can be used just like other variable types, so we can pass them as arguments to other functions, and return them from functions.  One common example of a function that takes another function as an argument is do.call.  do.call(function(x, y) x + y, list(1:5, 5:1))  ## [1] 6 6 6 6 6
  • 11. do.call() #create three data frames df1 <- data.frame(team=c('A', 'B', 'C'), points=c(22, 27, 38)) df2 <- data.frame(team=c('D', 'E', 'F'), points=c(22, 14, 20)) df3 <- data.frame(team=c('G', 'H', 'I'), points=c(11, 15, 18)) #place three data frames into list df_list <- list(df1, df2, df3) #row bind together all three data frames do.call(rbind, df_list)
  • 12. Variable Scope  A variable’s scope is the set of places from which you can see the variable. For example, when you define a variable inside a function, the rest of the statements in that function will have access to that variable.  In R subfunctions will also have access to that variable.  In this next example, the function f takes a variable x and passes it to the function g. f also defines a variable y, which is within the scope of g, since g is a sub‐ function of f.
  • 13.  So, even though y isn’t defined inside g, the example works:  f <- function(x)  {  y <- 1  g <- function(x)  {  (x + y) / 2 #y is used, but is not a formal argument of g }  g(x)  }  f(sqrt(5)) #It works! y is magically found in the environment of f  ## [1] 1.618
  • 14. String Manipulation  String manipulation basically refers to the process of handling and analyzing strings.  It involves various operations concerned with modification and parsing of strings to use and change its data.  Paste:  str <- paste(c(1:3), "4", sep = ":")  print (str)  ## "1:4" "2:4" "3:4"  Concatenation:  # Concatenation using cat() function  str <- cat("learn", "code", "tech", sep = ":")  print (str) ## learn:code:tech
  • 16. Loading and Packages  R is not limited to the code provided by the R Core Team. It is very much a community effort, and  there are thousands of add-on packages available to extend it.  The majority of R packages are currently installed in an online repository called CRAN (the Comprehensive R Archive Network1)  which is maintained by the R Core Team. Installing and using these add-on packages is an important part of the R experience
  • 17. Loading Packages  To load a package that is already installed on your machine, you call the library function  We can load it with the library function:  library(lattice)  the functions provided by lattice. For example, displays a fancy dot plot of the famous Immer’s barley dataset: dotplot( variety ~ yield | site, data = barley, groups = year )
  • 18. Scatter Plot  A "scatter plot" is a type of plot used to display the relationship between two numerical variables, and plots one dot for each observation.  It needs two vectors of same length, one for the x-axis (horizontal) and one for the y-axis (vertical):  Example  x <- c(5,7,8,7,2,2,9,4,11,12,9,6) y <- c(99,86,87,88,111,103,87,94,78,77,85,86) plot(x, y)
  • 21. Box_plot() ggplot(data = mpg, aes(x = drv, y = hwy, colour = class)) + geom_boxplot()
  • 22. Geom_bar() g <- ggplot(mpg, aes(class)) # Number of cars in each class: g + geom_bar()