SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 7
A Value Proposition:
 The Benefits of Using the Graphical User Interface
Technology in Today’s Freight Forwarding Operations




                   Jeffrey D. Plumley
Executive Summary

In today’s business environment, Graphical User Interface (GUI) technology is the premier
method for accessing Information Technology Applications. Throughout the 1990’s, and
early 2000’s, most companies worked toward the elimination of Character-based User
Interface (CUI), also known as “Green Screen,” or “Dumb Terminal,” for application access.

Most IT investment initiatives require significant cost justification for any business segment.
This is especially true for freight forwarders in this time of intense competition and the
paradigm shift towards lower cost models. Freight forwarders should examine the cost
benefits of upgrading to GUI technologies for application access.
Why Use GUI Technology?
Organizations with experienced green-screen / CUI business application users may experience
resistance to investments in new generation systems built using Web based technology, as well
as to Web Based technology use in general. However, studies show that organizations can
realize tremendous productivity gains, and corresponding Returns on Investment (ROI), by
migrating from a “Green Screen” environment to an advanced Graphical User Interface
(GUI). Most organizations also find that new generations of workers dislike and are dissatisfied
with green- screen applications. Several studies generated results pointing toward the
tremendous benefit of using Web Based technology.

Microsoft Study
In 1990, Microsoft and Group Bull (now known as Temple Barker & Sloane) commissioned an
independent study to identify differences in the performance of graphical and character-based
user interfaces for applications software.
The research results show that Graphical User Interfaces provides benefits over CUI in most
work environments. Some specific results include:
•   GUI users complete tasks faster and more accurately than CUI users
    •   This results in higher productivity for GUI users versus CUI users independent of the application
        accessed
•   Experienced GUI users completed an average of 35 percent more tasks than CUI users in the
    same time: 50 tasks versus 37 tasks
•   GUI users accurately completed a higher percentage of the tasks they attempted: 91 percent
    versus 74 percent
•   These results demonstrate that experienced GUI users accomplished 58 percent more correct
    work in the same time versus users of CUI technology
•   GUI users express both lower frustration and, lower fatigue than CUI users
•   After spending two days learning to use PC’s with GUI applications, GUI novices rated their
    frustration at 2.7 (out of 10), at the same time as CUI novices rated their frustration at 5.3
•   GUI users are better able to self-teach and explore, as well as to learn more capabilities of an
    application versus CUI users
•   GUI novices attempted 23 percent more tasks than CUI novices when given new tasks to
    perform.
These findings support three powerful conclusions for the corporation. Use of Graphical User
Interface generates:
         •   Higher output per work-hour, through higher productivity,
         •   Higher output per employee, as a result of lower frustration levels and reduced
             fatigue, and
         •   Greater return on information technology investment than CUI, as users master more
             capabilities with a smaller amount of training and support
Gartner Group Research
In a research note published in November 1994, the Gartner Group substantiated the Temple
Barker & Sloane study findings. Some of the study highlights include:
•   Users know instinctively that the GUI work environment is more beneficial to them. Industry
    studies demonstrate that the benefits are real and tangible
•   Novice users complete more tasks in a GUI environment than a CUI environment by an
    estimated ratio of 6 to 1
•   Experienced users complete an average of 25 percent more tasks using GUI versus utilizing
    CUI application access
•   Task accuracy can be improved by as much as, or more than, 50 percent
•   The learning curve for new applications is reduced when employing GUI technology
•   Users of Graphical User Interface have fewer support requirements than users of Character-
    based User Interface for application access
•   A GUI leads to improved productivity, quality and ease of use
•   The use of a well-designed GUI can result in overall productivity improvements of up to 45
    percent for novice application users and up to 75 percent for experienced users, compared to
    using the same application with a CUI


Graphical User Interface Technology
Since the time of these studies, the IT Industry has experienced the emergence of advanced GUI
technology. The above studies were based upon early generations of Graphical User Interface
technology. This early GUI technology did not take advantage of the myriad of advancements in
GUI technology now in existence. The advancements in technology over the past twelve years
has likely increased the Return On Investment achieved by earlier GUI technology. The
following study supports this position.
American Medical Informatics Association
In a study published in March of 2000, the American Medical Informatics Association put forth
evidence of significant productivity gains for GUI users versus traditional CUI application
access. In this study, GUI users completed tasks 68% faster compared to legacy character based
application access. Additionally, users of traditional Character Based technology completed
tasks with errors six times higher than their GUI using counterparts. So clearly, the studies of
the early 1990’s are still, if not more, relevant in today’s business environment.
Quantifying Cost Savings
How do these findings translate in cost savings? Using the research study findings, the following
example provides a framework for estimating the Return On Investment from employing GUI
technologies at the user level. The assumptions are easily changed to reflect a company specific
situation.

Basic Assumptions

Average Users Yearly Compensation                                 $22,000
Average Users Overhead Burden                                        25%
Average Burdened Compensation                                     $27,500
Workdays Per Year                                                     230
Average Cost Per Workday                                            $120
Number of Users                                                        50
Percentage of User’s Time Spent Using Application                    50%


Gartner estimates productivity gains (increase in more accurate work one user can accomplish in
the same amount of time using GUI technology versus CUI) ranging from 45% to 75%; Temple
Barker & Sloane estimate 58%. If we apply these percentages to the amount of time spent using
the application; it yields the following range of results.

•       Gartner Low Estimate:             45% productivity gain on 50% average time spent using
                                          application = 22.50% Net Productivity Gain
•       Temple, Barker & Sloane           58% gain on 50% average time spent using
                                          application = 29.00% Net Productivity Gain
•       Gartner High Estimate             75% gain on 50% average time spent using
                                          application = 37.50% Net Productivity Gain


What is the value of those productivity gains?

The following is based upon the above assumptions

Net Productivity Gain:                                           22.50%       29%        37.50%
Value Per User Based on $27,500 Total compensation:               $6,187.50  $7,975.00 $10,312.50
Value Per 50 Users:                                            $309,375.00 $398,750.00 $515,625.00


In this scenario, productivity savings range from $309,375 to $515,625 per year based upon 50
users. Larger user communities spending a greater percentage of time using an application
would experience dramatically higher levels of productivity gains as illustrated by the following
chart:
Yearly Value of Productivity Gains from employing advanced GUI Technology


                                                                                    Gartner Low Estimate
    $3,500,000
                                                                                    Temple, Barker & Sloan

    $3,000,000                                                                      Gartner High Estimate


    $2,500,000

    $2,000,000

    $1,500,000

    $1,000,000

     $500,000

             $0
                    50 Users         100           200           300
                                    Users         Users         Users


In addition to these pure numerical calculations, an organization should consider the following:


Quality
• If more work is completed accurately, then the time that would have been spent correcting
  errors is eliminated
• If transaction quality is improved, customer satisfaction is improved


Employee Satisfaction

•   If workers are less frustrated turnover is reduced. Associated recruiting, administration and
    training costs are eliminated.
Final Summary
Clearly the implementation of Graphical User Interface technology provides a high Return On
Investment versus traditional Character-based User Interfaces for application access. More often
than not, these savings will meet, or exceed, the cost of investment to migrate to updated GUI
technology. When this updated GUI technology is used to access new generation applications
providing superior functionality over old legacy systems, the Return On Investment will by and
large be exponentially higher.

Information Sources

I. The Benefits of the Graphical User Interface,, A Report on New Primary Research, Copyright 1990, Second
Publishing 1994, Mercer Management Consulting, Inc. (formerly Temple, Barker & Sloane, Inc.)
2. quot;CUI or GUI? Applications Development & Management Strategies.quot; Research Note, November 23, 1994,
Gartner Group.
3. Comparing Response Time, Errors, and Satisfaction Between Text-based and Graphical User Interfaces During
Nursing Order Tasks, Nancy Staggers, RN, PhD and David Kobus, PhDJ Copyright © 2000, American Medical
Informatics Association, Am Med Inform Assoc. 2000 Mar–Apr; 7(2): 164–176.
http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=61470

More Related Content

What's hot

Solar winds appstack public sector
Solar winds appstack public sectorSolar winds appstack public sector
Solar winds appstack public sector
SolarWinds
 
Test Automation and Service Virtualization Services Offerings from Rational L...
Test Automation and Service Virtualization Services Offerings from Rational L...Test Automation and Service Virtualization Services Offerings from Rational L...
Test Automation and Service Virtualization Services Offerings from Rational L...
IBM Rational software
 
1 s2.0-s2351978920320436-main
1 s2.0-s2351978920320436-main1 s2.0-s2351978920320436-main
1 s2.0-s2351978920320436-main
BelalKAIBA
 

What's hot (15)

Solar winds appstack public sector
Solar winds appstack public sectorSolar winds appstack public sector
Solar winds appstack public sector
 
Lean Kanban India 2015 | Boring Flow Metrics! Having fun with them to make or...
Lean Kanban India 2015 | Boring Flow Metrics! Having fun with them to make or...Lean Kanban India 2015 | Boring Flow Metrics! Having fun with them to make or...
Lean Kanban India 2015 | Boring Flow Metrics! Having fun with them to make or...
 
Why Google Uses Crowd Testing
Why Google Uses Crowd TestingWhy Google Uses Crowd Testing
Why Google Uses Crowd Testing
 
SolarWinds Application Performance End User Survey (Denmark)
SolarWinds Application Performance End User Survey (Denmark)SolarWinds Application Performance End User Survey (Denmark)
SolarWinds Application Performance End User Survey (Denmark)
 
Test Automation and Service Virtualization Services Offerings from Rational L...
Test Automation and Service Virtualization Services Offerings from Rational L...Test Automation and Service Virtualization Services Offerings from Rational L...
Test Automation and Service Virtualization Services Offerings from Rational L...
 
Mobile DevOps: Rapid Response to Feedback and continuous delivery in a mobile...
Mobile DevOps: Rapid Response to Feedback and continuous delivery in a mobile...Mobile DevOps: Rapid Response to Feedback and continuous delivery in a mobile...
Mobile DevOps: Rapid Response to Feedback and continuous delivery in a mobile...
 
1 s2.0-s2351978920320436-main
1 s2.0-s2351978920320436-main1 s2.0-s2351978920320436-main
1 s2.0-s2351978920320436-main
 
SolarWinds Application Performance End User Survey (UK)
SolarWinds Application Performance End User Survey (UK)SolarWinds Application Performance End User Survey (UK)
SolarWinds Application Performance End User Survey (UK)
 
Wipro six sigma - pushpender singh
Wipro six sigma - pushpender singhWipro six sigma - pushpender singh
Wipro six sigma - pushpender singh
 
Designing a good digital experience - PDA Europe Virtual Conference 2020
Designing a good digital experience - PDA Europe Virtual Conference 2020   Designing a good digital experience - PDA Europe Virtual Conference 2020
Designing a good digital experience - PDA Europe Virtual Conference 2020
 
Overcoming the challenges of hardware based video collaboration
Overcoming the challenges of hardware based video collaborationOvercoming the challenges of hardware based video collaboration
Overcoming the challenges of hardware based video collaboration
 
Using DevOps' Intelligent Insights to Deliver Greater Business Value
Using DevOps' Intelligent Insights to Deliver Greater Business ValueUsing DevOps' Intelligent Insights to Deliver Greater Business Value
Using DevOps' Intelligent Insights to Deliver Greater Business Value
 
Business Assurance: The Quality Implications of Digital Transformation
Business Assurance: The Quality Implications of Digital TransformationBusiness Assurance: The Quality Implications of Digital Transformation
Business Assurance: The Quality Implications of Digital Transformation
 
Integrated Mobility QA: A Strategic Business Enabler for Enhancing End-user E...
Integrated Mobility QA: A Strategic Business Enabler for Enhancing End-user E...Integrated Mobility QA: A Strategic Business Enabler for Enhancing End-user E...
Integrated Mobility QA: A Strategic Business Enabler for Enhancing End-user E...
 
Integrated Mobility QA: A Strategic Business Enabler for Enhancing End-user E...
Integrated Mobility QA: A Strategic Business Enabler for Enhancing End-user E...Integrated Mobility QA: A Strategic Business Enabler for Enhancing End-user E...
Integrated Mobility QA: A Strategic Business Enabler for Enhancing End-user E...
 

Viewers also liked (7)

ge Related MaterialsPerformance Summary
ge Related MaterialsPerformance Summaryge Related MaterialsPerformance Summary
ge Related MaterialsPerformance Summary
 
Funny Cats
Funny CatsFunny Cats
Funny Cats
 
Das GläSerne Kind
Das GläSerne KindDas GläSerne Kind
Das GläSerne Kind
 
Figures Not In Textbook For Exam 3
Figures Not In Textbook For Exam 3Figures Not In Textbook For Exam 3
Figures Not In Textbook For Exam 3
 
Obama's Speech
Obama's SpeechObama's Speech
Obama's Speech
 
V Congreso Internacional de Competencias Básicas
V Congreso Internacional de Competencias BásicasV Congreso Internacional de Competencias Básicas
V Congreso Internacional de Competencias Básicas
 
Capítulo 3
Capítulo 3Capítulo 3
Capítulo 3
 

Similar to Using Technology to Gain advantage in global Transportation

Mc kinsey, how companies are benefinting from web 2.0
Mc kinsey, how companies are benefinting from web 2.0Mc kinsey, how companies are benefinting from web 2.0
Mc kinsey, how companies are benefinting from web 2.0
landelijkhrteam
 
Mc Kinsey Web2 Benefits
Mc Kinsey Web2 BenefitsMc Kinsey Web2 Benefits
Mc Kinsey Web2 Benefits
Roberto Grossi
 

Similar to Using Technology to Gain advantage in global Transportation (20)

Is Software Testing a Zero Sum Game??
Is Software Testing a Zero Sum Game??Is Software Testing a Zero Sum Game??
Is Software Testing a Zero Sum Game??
 
Forskning i forholdet mellem gevinst og omkostning ved usability-arbejde af J...
Forskning i forholdet mellem gevinst og omkostning ved usability-arbejde af J...Forskning i forholdet mellem gevinst og omkostning ved usability-arbejde af J...
Forskning i forholdet mellem gevinst og omkostning ved usability-arbejde af J...
 
Cloud: To Build or Buy - Can You Justify On-Premises IT?
Cloud: To Build or Buy - Can You Justify On-Premises IT?Cloud: To Build or Buy - Can You Justify On-Premises IT?
Cloud: To Build or Buy - Can You Justify On-Premises IT?
 
Growing Interest in Cloud Based Digital Experiences -- An IDC and IBM Digital...
Growing Interest in Cloud Based Digital Experiences -- An IDC and IBM Digital...Growing Interest in Cloud Based Digital Experiences -- An IDC and IBM Digital...
Growing Interest in Cloud Based Digital Experiences -- An IDC and IBM Digital...
 
HPE ALM Octane | DevOps | Agile
HPE ALM Octane | DevOps | AgileHPE ALM Octane | DevOps | Agile
HPE ALM Octane | DevOps | Agile
 
Addressing the High Cost of Quality
Addressing the High Cost of QualityAddressing the High Cost of Quality
Addressing the High Cost of Quality
 
Case Study on Automation Capability CT ARROW
Case Study on Automation Capability CT ARROWCase Study on Automation Capability CT ARROW
Case Study on Automation Capability CT ARROW
 
Understanding the TCO and ROI of Apache Kafka & Confluent
Understanding the TCO and ROI of Apache Kafka & ConfluentUnderstanding the TCO and ROI of Apache Kafka & Confluent
Understanding the TCO and ROI of Apache Kafka & Confluent
 
Betsol Introduction- 2017
Betsol Introduction- 2017Betsol Introduction- 2017
Betsol Introduction- 2017
 
Productivity Improvement In Sw Industry
Productivity Improvement In Sw IndustryProductivity Improvement In Sw Industry
Productivity Improvement In Sw Industry
 
Mc kinsey, how companies are benefinting from web 2.0
Mc kinsey, how companies are benefinting from web 2.0Mc kinsey, how companies are benefinting from web 2.0
Mc kinsey, how companies are benefinting from web 2.0
 
Mc Kinsey Web2 Benefits
Mc Kinsey Web2 BenefitsMc Kinsey Web2 Benefits
Mc Kinsey Web2 Benefits
 
Listening to the Voice of the Customer: Top 6 Findings from the Revulytics Pr...
Listening to the Voice of the Customer: Top 6 Findings from the Revulytics Pr...Listening to the Voice of the Customer: Top 6 Findings from the Revulytics Pr...
Listening to the Voice of the Customer: Top 6 Findings from the Revulytics Pr...
 
Mike Campbell (PTC): PTC Vision for Augmented Reality in the Enterprise
Mike Campbell (PTC): PTC Vision for Augmented Reality in the EnterpriseMike Campbell (PTC): PTC Vision for Augmented Reality in the Enterprise
Mike Campbell (PTC): PTC Vision for Augmented Reality in the Enterprise
 
Spi Cost Roi
Spi Cost RoiSpi Cost Roi
Spi Cost Roi
 
The Power of Business Agility for Innovation, Transformation and Growth
The Power of Business Agility for Innovation, Transformation and GrowthThe Power of Business Agility for Innovation, Transformation and Growth
The Power of Business Agility for Innovation, Transformation and Growth
 
OpenEdge Character UI - Where to go?
OpenEdge Character UI - Where to go?OpenEdge Character UI - Where to go?
OpenEdge Character UI - Where to go?
 
2 feasibility-study
2 feasibility-study2 feasibility-study
2 feasibility-study
 
ProductivityNet Business Plan Overview 2002
ProductivityNet Business Plan Overview 2002ProductivityNet Business Plan Overview 2002
ProductivityNet Business Plan Overview 2002
 
Guiding a Product Roadmap in a Chaotic World
Guiding a Product Roadmap in a Chaotic WorldGuiding a Product Roadmap in a Chaotic World
Guiding a Product Roadmap in a Chaotic World
 

Using Technology to Gain advantage in global Transportation

  • 1. A Value Proposition: The Benefits of Using the Graphical User Interface Technology in Today’s Freight Forwarding Operations Jeffrey D. Plumley
  • 2. Executive Summary In today’s business environment, Graphical User Interface (GUI) technology is the premier method for accessing Information Technology Applications. Throughout the 1990’s, and early 2000’s, most companies worked toward the elimination of Character-based User Interface (CUI), also known as “Green Screen,” or “Dumb Terminal,” for application access. Most IT investment initiatives require significant cost justification for any business segment. This is especially true for freight forwarders in this time of intense competition and the paradigm shift towards lower cost models. Freight forwarders should examine the cost benefits of upgrading to GUI technologies for application access.
  • 3. Why Use GUI Technology? Organizations with experienced green-screen / CUI business application users may experience resistance to investments in new generation systems built using Web based technology, as well as to Web Based technology use in general. However, studies show that organizations can realize tremendous productivity gains, and corresponding Returns on Investment (ROI), by migrating from a “Green Screen” environment to an advanced Graphical User Interface (GUI). Most organizations also find that new generations of workers dislike and are dissatisfied with green- screen applications. Several studies generated results pointing toward the tremendous benefit of using Web Based technology. Microsoft Study In 1990, Microsoft and Group Bull (now known as Temple Barker & Sloane) commissioned an independent study to identify differences in the performance of graphical and character-based user interfaces for applications software. The research results show that Graphical User Interfaces provides benefits over CUI in most work environments. Some specific results include: • GUI users complete tasks faster and more accurately than CUI users • This results in higher productivity for GUI users versus CUI users independent of the application accessed • Experienced GUI users completed an average of 35 percent more tasks than CUI users in the same time: 50 tasks versus 37 tasks • GUI users accurately completed a higher percentage of the tasks they attempted: 91 percent versus 74 percent • These results demonstrate that experienced GUI users accomplished 58 percent more correct work in the same time versus users of CUI technology • GUI users express both lower frustration and, lower fatigue than CUI users • After spending two days learning to use PC’s with GUI applications, GUI novices rated their frustration at 2.7 (out of 10), at the same time as CUI novices rated their frustration at 5.3 • GUI users are better able to self-teach and explore, as well as to learn more capabilities of an application versus CUI users • GUI novices attempted 23 percent more tasks than CUI novices when given new tasks to perform. These findings support three powerful conclusions for the corporation. Use of Graphical User Interface generates: • Higher output per work-hour, through higher productivity, • Higher output per employee, as a result of lower frustration levels and reduced fatigue, and • Greater return on information technology investment than CUI, as users master more capabilities with a smaller amount of training and support
  • 4. Gartner Group Research In a research note published in November 1994, the Gartner Group substantiated the Temple Barker & Sloane study findings. Some of the study highlights include: • Users know instinctively that the GUI work environment is more beneficial to them. Industry studies demonstrate that the benefits are real and tangible • Novice users complete more tasks in a GUI environment than a CUI environment by an estimated ratio of 6 to 1 • Experienced users complete an average of 25 percent more tasks using GUI versus utilizing CUI application access • Task accuracy can be improved by as much as, or more than, 50 percent • The learning curve for new applications is reduced when employing GUI technology • Users of Graphical User Interface have fewer support requirements than users of Character- based User Interface for application access • A GUI leads to improved productivity, quality and ease of use • The use of a well-designed GUI can result in overall productivity improvements of up to 45 percent for novice application users and up to 75 percent for experienced users, compared to using the same application with a CUI Graphical User Interface Technology Since the time of these studies, the IT Industry has experienced the emergence of advanced GUI technology. The above studies were based upon early generations of Graphical User Interface technology. This early GUI technology did not take advantage of the myriad of advancements in GUI technology now in existence. The advancements in technology over the past twelve years has likely increased the Return On Investment achieved by earlier GUI technology. The following study supports this position. American Medical Informatics Association In a study published in March of 2000, the American Medical Informatics Association put forth evidence of significant productivity gains for GUI users versus traditional CUI application access. In this study, GUI users completed tasks 68% faster compared to legacy character based application access. Additionally, users of traditional Character Based technology completed tasks with errors six times higher than their GUI using counterparts. So clearly, the studies of the early 1990’s are still, if not more, relevant in today’s business environment.
  • 5. Quantifying Cost Savings How do these findings translate in cost savings? Using the research study findings, the following example provides a framework for estimating the Return On Investment from employing GUI technologies at the user level. The assumptions are easily changed to reflect a company specific situation. Basic Assumptions Average Users Yearly Compensation $22,000 Average Users Overhead Burden 25% Average Burdened Compensation $27,500 Workdays Per Year 230 Average Cost Per Workday $120 Number of Users 50 Percentage of User’s Time Spent Using Application 50% Gartner estimates productivity gains (increase in more accurate work one user can accomplish in the same amount of time using GUI technology versus CUI) ranging from 45% to 75%; Temple Barker & Sloane estimate 58%. If we apply these percentages to the amount of time spent using the application; it yields the following range of results. • Gartner Low Estimate: 45% productivity gain on 50% average time spent using application = 22.50% Net Productivity Gain • Temple, Barker & Sloane 58% gain on 50% average time spent using application = 29.00% Net Productivity Gain • Gartner High Estimate 75% gain on 50% average time spent using application = 37.50% Net Productivity Gain What is the value of those productivity gains? The following is based upon the above assumptions Net Productivity Gain: 22.50% 29% 37.50% Value Per User Based on $27,500 Total compensation: $6,187.50 $7,975.00 $10,312.50 Value Per 50 Users: $309,375.00 $398,750.00 $515,625.00 In this scenario, productivity savings range from $309,375 to $515,625 per year based upon 50 users. Larger user communities spending a greater percentage of time using an application would experience dramatically higher levels of productivity gains as illustrated by the following chart:
  • 6. Yearly Value of Productivity Gains from employing advanced GUI Technology Gartner Low Estimate $3,500,000 Temple, Barker & Sloan $3,000,000 Gartner High Estimate $2,500,000 $2,000,000 $1,500,000 $1,000,000 $500,000 $0 50 Users 100 200 300 Users Users Users In addition to these pure numerical calculations, an organization should consider the following: Quality • If more work is completed accurately, then the time that would have been spent correcting errors is eliminated • If transaction quality is improved, customer satisfaction is improved Employee Satisfaction • If workers are less frustrated turnover is reduced. Associated recruiting, administration and training costs are eliminated.
  • 7. Final Summary Clearly the implementation of Graphical User Interface technology provides a high Return On Investment versus traditional Character-based User Interfaces for application access. More often than not, these savings will meet, or exceed, the cost of investment to migrate to updated GUI technology. When this updated GUI technology is used to access new generation applications providing superior functionality over old legacy systems, the Return On Investment will by and large be exponentially higher. Information Sources I. The Benefits of the Graphical User Interface,, A Report on New Primary Research, Copyright 1990, Second Publishing 1994, Mercer Management Consulting, Inc. (formerly Temple, Barker & Sloane, Inc.) 2. quot;CUI or GUI? Applications Development & Management Strategies.quot; Research Note, November 23, 1994, Gartner Group. 3. Comparing Response Time, Errors, and Satisfaction Between Text-based and Graphical User Interfaces During Nursing Order Tasks, Nancy Staggers, RN, PhD and David Kobus, PhDJ Copyright © 2000, American Medical Informatics Association, Am Med Inform Assoc. 2000 Mar–Apr; 7(2): 164–176. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=61470