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Opening Remarks - First Annual National Conference on Tobacco and Behavioral Health with Steven Schroeder, MD


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From the the first Annual National Conference on Tobacco and Behavioral Health, which occurred May 19-20, 2014 in Bethesda, MD and was hosted by the Central East Addiction Technology Transfer Center (

In the Opening Remarks, leadership from HHS/SAMHSA and SCLC will share their perspectives on where we have been and where we are today in the effort to reduce tobacco use in this country. Focus will be on the importance of reducing use among the population with Behavioral Health issues.

Steven Schroeder, MD, Distinguished Professor of Health and Health Care, Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, UCSF, where he also heads the Smoking Cessation Leadership Center. The Center, funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and the American Legacy Foundation, works with leaders of more than 50 American health professional organizations and health care institutions to increase the cessation rate for smokers. It has expanded the types of clinician groups that support cessation, developed an alternative cessation message (Ask, Advise, Refer), created new ways to market toll-free telephone quit lines, and engaged the mental health treatment community the first time. Between 1990 and 2002 he was President and CEO, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. During that time the Foundation made grant expenditures of almost $4 billion in pursuit of its mission of improving the health and health care of all Americans. It developed new programs in substance abuse prevention and treatment, care at the end of life, and health insurance expansion for children, among others. Dr. Schroeder graduated with honors from Stanford University and Harvard Medical School , and trained in internal medicine at the Harvard Medical Service of Boston City Hospital and in epidemiology as an EIS Officer of the CDC. He held faculty appointments at Harvard, George Washington, and UCSF. At both George Washington and UCSF he founded medical director of a university-sponsored HMO, and at UCSF he founded its division of general internal medicine. He has published extensively in the fields of clinical medicine, health care financing and organization, prevention, public health, the workforce, and tobacco control. He currently serves as chairman of the International Advisory Committee of the Ben Gurion School of Medicine, is a member of the editorial board of the New England Journal of Medicine, a Director of the James Irvine Foundation, the Charles R. Drew University of Medicine and Science, and the Robina Foundation. He formerly chaired the American Legacy Foundation, was a Council member of the Institute of Medicine, an Overseer of Harvard, and President, the Harvard Medical Alumni Association. He has six honorary doctoral degrees and numerous awards. Schroeder lives in Tiburon, California with his wife Sally, a retired schoolteacher.

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Opening Remarks - First Annual National Conference on Tobacco and Behavioral Health with Steven Schroeder, MD

  1. 1. Tobacco Control should be a Mainstay of Behavioral Health Steven A. Schroeder, MD National Conference on Tobacco and Behavioral Health The Smoking Cessation Leadership Center and Rx for Change May 19, 2014
  2. 2. 1964 Surgeon General Report on Smoking and Health
  3. 3. 50 Years of Tobacco Control JAMA
  4. 4. It’s a New Era
  5. 5. Topics for Today Review history of SCLC Brief review of harm from tobacco, especially in Behavioral Health (BH) populations Brief review of SCLC BH partnerships A few epidemiology facts Next steps
  6. 6. History of Smoking Cessation Leadership Center (SCLC) Story of Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and tobacco control Results --$500 million grant projects, 1990- 2003 --Hailed by Joel Fleishman in “The Foundation” (2007) as one of 12 high impact foundation programs of 20th century
  7. 7. Genesis of SCLC Started at UCSF in 2003 with RWJF grant Purpose: improve health professionals’ smoking cessation efforts Knew data re smoking/BH but…. So, initially worked with non-behavioral health professional groups Subsequent contract from Legacy Foundation starting July 2006 for BH
  8. 8. How SCLC Does its Work Identify existing champions and amplify their voices Technical assistance Work with relevant federal and state agencies Small grants Educational offerings: webinars, conferences, publications, web site We value flexibility, customer service
  9. 9. Facts About Smoking and Health
  10. 10. Tobacco’s Deadly Toll 480,000 deaths in the U.S. each year 4.8 million deaths world wide each year Current trends show >8 million deaths annually by 2030 42,000 deaths in the U.S. due to second-hand smoke exposure >16 million in U.S. with smoking related diseases 45.3 million smokers in U.S. (78.4% daily smokers, averaging 14.6 cigarettes/day, 2012)
  11. 11. Flegal JAMA 2005, Mokdad JAMA 2004 Tobacco: Leading Preventable Cause of Death 0 50000 100000 150000 200000 250000 300000 350000 400000 450000 Tobacco O besity Alcohol Infections Toxins M VA G uns AnnualDeathsin 2000
  12. 12. Health Consequences of Smoking U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The Health Consequences of Smoking: A Report of the Surgeon General, 2010. Cancers – Acute myeloid leukemia – Bladder and kidney – Cervical – Colon, liver, pancreas – Esophageal – Gastric – Laryngeal – Lung – Oral cavity and pharyngeal – Prostate (↓survival) Pulmonary diseases – Acute (e.g., pneumonia) – Chronic (e.g., COPD) – Tuberculosis Cardiovascular diseases – Abdominal aortic aneurysm – Coronary heart disease – Cerebro-vascular disease – Peripheral arterial disease – Type 2 diabetes mellitus Reproductive effects – Reduced fertility in women – Poor pregnancy outcomes (ectopic pregnancy, congenital anomalies, low birth weight, preterm delivery) – Infant mortality; childhood obesity Other effects: cataract; osteoporosis; Crohns; periodontitis,; poor surgical outcomes; Alzheimers; rheumatoid arthritis; less sleep
  13. 13. Never Too Late to Quit* Age of quitting smoking Years of life saved 25-34 10 35-44 9 45-54 8 55-64 4 * Jha, NEJM Jan 24, 2013
  14. 14. Smoking and Mental Illness: The Heavy Burden 200,000 annual deaths from smoking occur among patients with CMI and/or substance abuse This population consumes 40% of all cigarettes sold in the United States -- higher prevalence -- smoke more -- more likely to smoke down to the butt People with CMI die earlier than others, and smoking is a large contributor to that early mortality Social isolation from smoking compounds the social stigma
  15. 15. Benefits of Tobacco Control in the Unites States, 1964-2012* 17.7 smoking-related deaths occurred 8 million such deaths prevented Preventing smoking-related deaths accounted for 30% of life expectancy gains during that period! People with mental illness did not benefit as much from these declines in smoking rates ** * Holford ; **Cook : JAMA, 2014
  16. 16. SCLC Enters Behavioral Health Cautiously
  17. 17. Individual Champions but Scanty Organizational Buy-in Bob Glover, Joe Parks, and National Association of State Mental Health Program Directors Doug Ziedonis and Jill Williams Chad Morris Sharon Hall and Jodi Prochaska Daryl Sharp Other notables
  18. 18. SCLC, Smoking, and BH Early contacts --Bob Glover and NASMHPD (smoke free psych hospital project) --NAMI --SAMHSA: Gail Hutchings/Terry Cline Lansdowne Summit, 2007 Two key arguments: health toll and exposure to second hand smoke
  19. 19. Lansdowne summit, 2007--30 leaders Objectives – Raise awareness – Normalize smoking cessation as part of behavioral health treatment Core strategies – Outreach to Key Players and Stakeholders – Develop Data – Provide Person-Centered Education/ Embrace Consumer-Driven Process – Promote Provider-Motivated Education – Promote Staff Wellness and Smoking Cessation – Assess and Strengthen the Effectiveness of Quitlines National Behavioral Health Partnership for Tobacco Cessation and Wellness
  20. 20. The Behavioral Health Partnership, Lansdowne + American Legacy Foundation American Psychiatric Nurses Association American Psychiatric Association Association for Behavioral Health and Wellness Bazelon Center for Mental Health Law Behavioral Health Policy Collaborative California Smokers’ Helpline Campaign for Mental Health Reform Carter Center Mental Health Program Community Anti-Drug Coalitions of America Depression and Bipolar Support Alliance Mental Health America Mental Health Association of Southeastern PA National Alliance on Mental Illness National Association of County Behavioral Healthcare Directors National Association of Psychiatric Health Systems National Association of Social Workers National Association of State Mental Health Program Directors (NASMHPD) National Research Institute National Council of Community Behavioral Healthcare National Empowerment Center Ohio Department of Mental Health Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration/Center for Mental Health Services Smoking Cessation Research and Policy Center at Oregon Health & Science University Smoking Cessation Leadership Center University of California San Francisco Department of Psychiatry University of Massachusetts Memorial Medical Center
  21. 21. SCLC Grant Recipients/BH American Psychiatric Nurse Association Depression and Bi-Polar Support Alliance Mental Health America National Association of State Mental Health Program Directors (NASMHPD) National Research Institute (NASMHPD) National Council for Community Behavioral Healthcare University of Colorado at Denver Community Anti Drug Coalitions of America National Association of State Alcohol and Drug National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI)
  22. 22. Progress NASMHPD Developed technical assistance tool kit addressing how to implement smoking cessation in psychiatric hospital settings Featured smoking cessation as a plenary topic during its recent National Summit of State Psychiatric Hospital Superintendents Promoted 1-800-QUIT NOW
  23. 23. National Research Institute 20 41 49 79 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 2005 2006 2008 2011 %SmokeFree%SmokeFree%SmokeFree%SmokeFree YearYearYearYear Percent of Smoke Free State Psychiatric Hospitals *Response rates: 2005 – 55%, 2006 – 82%, 2008 – 75%, 2011 – 80% Source: Schacht L, Ortiz G, Lane M. Smoking Policies and Practices in State Psychiatric Hospitals 2011. National Association of State Mental Health Program Directors Research Institute, Inc. Feb 29, 2012.
  24. 24. Work with SAMHSA Created SAMHSA’s Tobacco- Free Initiative Trained SAMHSA staff in Washington SCLC in-kind technical assistance to grantees and states. Tobacco prevention and treatment is part of strategic initiative 24In-Service Training Poster: July 7, 2008
  25. 25. 100 Pioneers for Smoking Cessation (2009) Phase 1: $1,000 + SCLC TA to grantees for smoking cessation and smoke-free facilities Phase 1 raised rates of cessation intervention from 20% to 50% Phase 2, 2010: 25 sites got additional $2,000 for program expansion Key was identification and support of existing BH programs
  26. 26. Purpose: launch state-wide collaborative among behavioral health providers, consumers, public health groups, and other stakeholders to create and implement action plans to reduce smoking prevalence among behavioral health consumers and staff and foster smoke-free living. Each set a goal to reduce smoking prevalence in MH and SA in 3-5 years time. 2010 – New York 2011 – Arizona – Oklahoma – Maryland – North Carolina 2012 – Texas – Arkansas 2013 – Mississippi SAMHSA Leadership Academies for Wellness Wellness and Smoking Cessation 26
  27. 27. SAMHSA PARTNERSHIP Represents over 38 states, Blue flags = Phase I Pioneers Yellow flags = Phase II Pioneers , Pink flags = Academy States (NY, AZ, OK, MD, NC, TX, AR)27
  28. 28. AJPH Article, May 2014 Source: Santhosh L, Meriwether M, Saucedo C, Reyes R, Cheng C, Clark B, Tipperman D. From the Sidelines to the Frontline: How the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Embraced Smoking Cessation. Am J Pub Health 2014; 104(5): 796-802.
  29. 29. Online, interactive, educational initiative promoting the idea of wellness in both mind and body Smoking not in 1999 version Healthy eating, exercise, smoking & substance abuse Consumer success stories
  30. 30. Nation’s leading drug abuse prevention organization 5,000 community anti-drug coalitions in the country. Survey indicates tobacco is 3rd priority – 59% of Coalitions are addressing tobacco directly – 35% are directly involved or connected to another collaborative addressing smoking cessation – 77% collect data on tobacco Collaborating with SCLC on a CTG National Networks Dissemination project Workshops, webinars, materials created and shared
  31. 31. Behavioral Health Advisory Forum Screening and Training NAQC standard optional question(s) for the Minimal Data Set* – Do you have any mental health issues or emotional challenges, such as an anxiety disorder, depression disorder, bipolar disorder, alcohol/drug abuse, or schizophrenia? – Do you believe that these mental health issues or emotional challenges will interfere with your ability to quit? Developed a standardized training curriculum for quitline tobacco treatment specialists * Do Quitlines Have a Role in Serving the Tobacco Cessation Needs of Persons with Mental Illnesses and Substance Use Disorders? The Behavioral Health Advisory Forum (BHAF), Background Report, September 2010.
  32. 32. APNA Addresses Smoking Special issue of JAPNA (Feb/March 2009) devoted to smoking APNA adopts policy statement: All nurses working with BH populations: --demonstrate smoking cessation competencies --Intervene in the practice settings --Act to change attitudinal, institutional and organizational barriers to improve cessation
  33. 33. APNA Smoking Cessation Policies (cont) --Take action at state level through APNA chapters --Advocate for policy and system-wide changes --Expand smoking cessation education --Increase each year by 5% # psych nurses who refer smokers to treatment --Increase each year by 5% # who provide cessation best practices
  34. 34. APNA as Lonely Pioneer, to Date No other BH health professional organization has yet adopted similar policies!
  35. 35. Federal Agencies now Acknowledge BH population in Smoking Cessation Efforts CDC SAMHSA ASH ? HRSA Can’t achieve tobacco control goals without attention to behavioral health!
  36. 36. Vision for Smoking and BH All organizations representing BH clinicians and consumers designate smoking cessation as highest priority All BH clinicians either directly intervene or refer to appropriate resource All relevant federal, state, and local governmental organizations assure access to smoking cessation for BH, smoke-free grounds, and non-smoking staff