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CRVS: Gender and emergencies

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Presentation by Anir Chowdhury (a2i) at the international conference on innovations in Civil Registration and Vital Statistics (CRVS) systems - Ottawa on 27-28 February 2018. See more at http://crvsinnovations.net

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CRVS: Gender and emergencies

  1. 1. CRVS: Gender and Emergencies Anir Chowdhury Policy Advisor, a2i, Prime Minister’s Office, Bangladesh Advisor to National CRVS Steering Committee Cabinet Focal Point for Bloomberg D4H Initiative IDRC CRVS Innovations Conference February 28, 2018
  2. 2. Citizen’s Lifecycle with Government SOCIAL SAEFTY NET SERVICES The citizen is born A citizen is coming The citizen is immunized Enrolled in school Becoming a voter Completes exams Marrying another citizen Migration HEALTH SYSTEM EDUCATION SYSTEM VOTER ID SYSTEM CRVS: BIRTH, DEATH, CoD, MARRIAGE, DIVORCE, ADOPTION, MIGRATION IN/OUT, INTERNAL MOVEMENT BIRTH REGISTRATION MARRIAGE REGISTRATION DEATH REGISTRAT IONMIGRATION Whose lens? Citizen’s? Government’s? DP’s?
  3. 3. Gender and Emergencies: Bangladesh 6th Climate Vulnerable Nation + Recent Rohingya Influx  Women and children largest victims of emergencies whether natural or man-made  Less likely to move – men migrate more quickly  Women harder to reach with emergency response  CR documents lost  CR information often not enough to determine the kind of response (income, land ownership, disability, family structure)  Head of household usually men – when men have migrated to earn income, who represents the household?  Gender-based violence and trafficking rampant during and after emergencies CR is Critical!
  4. 4. Innovations That Have Helped Tremendously  131 years 1873-2004: 8%  13 years 2004-2017: 90+%  How 1. Electronic birth / death registration system (permanent storage – ability to reissue new docs) 2. Creation of 4,500 rural Digital Centres run by entrepreneurs (solving unavailability of tech HR in govt.) 3. Linking to service delivery (80% registration during primary school enrolment) 4. Recent linking to biometrically verified National ID system (document not needed)
  5. 5. Recent Innovations * Perform de- duplication based on parents’ ID * Assign NID * Queue NID for future bio- metric data collection and de- duplication NID Authority / Bangladesh Election Commission * Generate birth certificate * Notify NID Authority Local Government * Register the event during household visit * Assign Unique ID * Notify BRIS with parents’ NID Health/Family Planning MCCoD in facilities and VA in communities for Death Registration
  6. 6. Result: Increased Birth Registration within 45 Days 690 753 5108 14981 14316 15142 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 2014-15 2015-16 2016-17 < 45 days Total
  7. 7. Result: Increased Death Registration within 45 Days 6 7 1728 1861 1799 1875 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2014-15 2015-16 2016-17 < 45 days
  8. 8. Result: Availability of Intl. Standard Underlying Cause of Death Data: Adult
  9. 9. Result: Availability of Intl. Standard Underlying Cause of Death Data: Child
  10. 10. CRVS in Bangladesh  CRVS+ISDP A database of all population with UID and relationship structure A set of technical and interoperability standards A platform connected to all registrars, service delivery agencies and statistics offices Central authentication Convergence of all ID systems 123456789 Data visualization for policy makers and operational management
  11. 11. Moving to CR-based Service Delivery  13M school stipends to mother’s mobile financial accounts  Universal electronic payment system for money transfers during emergencies  Digitizing land records and transfer of ownership linked to National ID  Checking women’s age with mobile phone during marriage  Improved targeting during emergencies plannedCR information is not sufficient to target properly. Need nuanced information such as income, asset ownership, livestock ownership, disability, female-headed household, etc.
  12. 12. Forced Displacement – Rohingya Migration from Myanmar  4 decades of Rohingya crisis  1970s-1990s: 250K in Bangladesh. All but 20K repatriated against their will.  1990s: 250K migrated to Bangladesh.  Starting August 2017: 600K more.  February 2018 Total: 1,076,521 (about 50-50 male/female, underage 37%)  Registration  Conducted by Department of Immigration and Passports with Biometric with 10 fingerprints. Sex-disaggregated. Age difficult to ascertain – no original CR docs.  No deduplication yet, so full benefits of biometric not exploited  Multiple registration done by organization in silo databases (UNHCR, WFP, UN Women, UNFPA, UNICEF, BRAC, and more)
  13. 13. Displaced Population: Results of Electronic Registration  Much better targeting  Identification of female-headed households which are more vulnerable (but demarcation of households vs. family difficult)  Movement can’t be tracked  can’t help prevent trafficking  300K have SIMs through family members already living in Bangladesh. Newly entered Rohingyas can’t have SIMs. Incentive for registration Positive: food, NFI, health services Negative: targeted for repatriation
  14. 14. A Forgotten Displacement Story: Biharis  People who migrated from UP, Bihar, Rajasthan pre- 1970  600K linguistic minorities in 116 camps, very high illiteracy  May 2008 ruling: 150K born in independent Bangladesh are eligible, but lack of “address” in the camp slowing down CR  After ruling, improved access to education, health, local and overseas employment, finances, safety nets, reduced sexual harassment  Similar results for people living in Indian-Bangladesh border enclaves who recently got moved to Bangladesh/India Need to think practically about Rohingyas in addition to repatriation
  15. 15. Upcoming Innovations in Bangladesh Blockchain ID SmartPhone for the Illiterate Mobile Identit y Account Financial Biometric Communication Merged ID
  16. 16. Needs of Individuals in Emergency  Food and NFI  Health services  Education and Skills  Movement  Protection against human trafficking  Protection against GBV, early marriage  Financial inclusion CRVS Response 1. What responses are most appropriate in the short term? 2. What resilience do we need to build for long term? 3. What data do we need to capture? 4. Who should capture this data? 5. Where should we store this data and in what format to ensure interoperability? 6. How should we share this data through interoperable platforms, including cross-border? 7. How should we set up organizational coordination before and during emergencies? Human-Centred Design for CRVS in Emergencies CR should by specific use cases in emergencies. Data interoperability is key!

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