Master Thesis                  Towards E-government: Iraqi diplomatic missions’ case study       Heidelberg University of ...
Master Thesis                 Towards E-government: Iraqi diplomatic missions’ case study   Towards E-Government: Iraqi Di...
Master Thesis                          Towards E-government: Iraqi diplomatic missions’ case studyAffidavitHerewith I decl...
Master Thesis                                             Towards E-government: Iraqi diplomatic missions’ case studyTable...
Master Thesis                                            Towards E-government: Iraqi diplomatic missions’ case studyTable ...
Master Thesis                                              Towards E-government: Iraqi diplomatic missions’ case studyList...
Master Thesis                                                 Towards E-government: Iraqi diplomatic missions’ case studyL...
Master Thesis                        Towards E-government: Iraqi diplomatic missions’ case studyList of AbbreviationsICT  ...
Master Thesis                           Towards E-government: Iraqi diplomatic missions’ case studyAbstractE-government re...
e-government               CHAPTER I           General Introduction                                             1.1	 Intro...
Chapter 1E-government is considered to be a key success factor towards a modernizinggovernment. In this regard, government...
Chapter 11.2	 Research Problem and AimsIraqi citizens should be able to obtain consular services or information in minutes...
Chapter 11.4	 Disposition of The StudyThe remaining chapters of this thesis are organized as follows:Chapter two gives a b...
Chapter 1                       Figure (1.1) - shows the thesis structureTowards E-government: Iraqi diplomatic missions’ ...
e-government               CHAPTER II                 Literature Review                                              2.1	 ...
Chapter 22.2       The Concepts of State and GovernmentA state can be defined as an organized political community, residin...
Chapter 22.3       Characteristics of E-Government It all started few years ago,when the world witnessed the explosion in ...
Chapter 2E-government, however, is a term for which there are multiple definitions amongdifferent governments and organiza...
Chapter 2        2.5.1       Government to Citizen Approach        This approach focuses on posting the information to cit...
Chapter 22.6      How Is E-Government Beneficial To Public Administrators         and SocietyTechnology has proved to be v...
Chapter 2        2.6.3     E-government Can Help to Build Trust Between                  Government and Citizens        Bu...
Chapter 2        3.	 Transaction stage: transactions are possible at this stage. For example a            citizen can subm...
Chapter 2Based on the above two models presented and their similarities, there are somedifferences. For instance, Layne an...
Chapter 2             Figure (2.3) - Illustration of e-government maturity around the world The stages are a method for me...
Chapter 21.	 Emerging Stage:The first level of e-government is the Emerging stage. At this level, governmentsstart creatin...
Chapter 22.	 Enhanced Stage:This is the second level of e-government strategy; it focuses on providing means forindividual...
Chapter 23.	 Interactive Stage:At this level governments start to create a national government website that actsas a point...
Chapter 24.	 Transactional Stage:At this advanced level of e-government maturity, individuals can perform transactionselec...
Chapter 25.	 Connected Stage:This stage is considered to be the most sophisticated level of e-governmentimplementation. Du...
Chapter 2    2.8        Descriptive Analysis of E-government in the Arab Region    There are numerous surveys showing how ...
Chapter 22.9     Barriers to E-Government Implementation in Arab CountriesUp to now this literature review has examined th...
Chapter 2In today’s world, when it comes to secure critical data, there is a significant andincreasing demand for informat...
e-government                CHAPTER III               Case Study: Iraqi Diplomatic Missions                               ...
Chapter 3             3.2    Characteristics of the Republic of Iraq             Iraq is a country situated in western Asi...
Chapter 3                                 Total population 30 Million Population                      Annual growth 2.6%...
Chapter 33.4     The Definition of Foreign MissionsDiplomatic Missions abroad are government agencies that are composed of...
Chapter 3The continuous growth of citizens implies the ministries of foreign affairs (MFAs)these days to find the best way...
Chapter 33.7 Functions of the Missions AbroadAccording to the Vienna convention on Consular Relations (Nations, ViennaConv...
Chapter 33.8      Iraqi Diplomatic Missions and Citizens AbroadAs discussed earlier in this chapter, foreign missions are ...
Chapter 39.	 Pass document: in case of lost passport and a citizen wishes to return to Iraq.10.	Issuance of public and pri...
Chapter 3Table (3.3) shows an estimated number of Iraqi citizens living in some countriesaround the world, both legally an...
Chapter 3        3.9.1    Australia        Australia was one of the first countries which took major steps in developing  ...
Chapter 3             1.	 Apply for visa anytime, anywhere 24 hours a day- 7 days a week.             2.	 Making the appli...
Chapter 3       Figure (3.4) - Illustration of the Australian Embassy in Germany and e-visa processing       (Embassy)    ...
Chapter 3        Figure (3.5) - Shows the Bahraini e-visa website (Bahrain, Bahrain eVisas)        In addition to this ser...
Chapter 3       Figure (3.6) - Illustration of the Bahraini Embassy website in London (London)3.10      Consular Web-Based...
Chapter 3        3.10.1      Organizational Requirements        Online consular services are not just a technical aspect; ...
Chapter 3        •	 For fast and efficient delivery of service, documents and requirements           requested from the ci...
e-government               CHAPTER IV                 Conceptualization                                               4.1	...
Chapter 44.2     Research ProcessWhen research problem has been identified, the research objectives and questionsstarted, ...
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  1. 1. Master Thesis Towards E-government: Iraqi diplomatic missions’ case study Heidelberg University of Applied Sciences Germany/Heidelberg Faculty of Informatics Master ThesisTOWARDS E-GOVERNMENT: IRAQI DIPLOMATIC MISSIONS’ CASE STUDY Submitted By SAIF AL-SHOKER Supervised by Prof. Dr.Yass Mohammed Prof. Dr. Gerd Moeckel Company’s Supervisor Dipl. - Ing. Thomas Brandtstaetter February 2012 2
  2. 2. Master Thesis Towards E-government: Iraqi diplomatic missions’ case study Towards E-Government: Iraqi Diplomatic Missions’ case study By SAIF AL-SHOKER Matriculation no: m1000859 A thesis submitted as a pre-requisite for the Degree of Master of Science Thesis Advisory Committee Prof.Dr. Mohammed Yass Dipl-Ing. (BA) Prof. Dr. Gerd Möckel Thomas Brandtstaetter Heidelberg University BÜROTEX of Applied Science Synargos GmbHLudwig-Guttmann-Straße 6 Max-Eyth-Str. 21 69123 Heidelberg 72622 Nürtingen Germany Germany 4
  3. 3. Master Thesis Towards E-government: Iraqi diplomatic missions’ case studyAffidavitHerewith I declare:• That I have composed the chapters for the Master Thesis for Which I am named as the author independently;• That I did not use any other sources and additives then the one’s specified;• That I did not submit this work at any other examination procedure;Heidelberg,(Date)______________________________(Signature)______________________ 5
  4. 4. Master Thesis Towards E-government: Iraqi diplomatic missions’ case studyTable of ContentsAbstract ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������13Chapter One - General Introduction1.1 Introduction  ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������141.2 Research Problem and Aims  ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������161.3 Thesis Outcome  �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������161.4 Disposition of The Study ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������17Chapter Two - E-Government Literature Review2.1 Introduction  ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������192.2 The Concepts of State and Government �����������������������������������������������������������202.3 Characteristics of E-Government: ������������������������������������������������������������������������212.4 Definition of E-Government  ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������212.5 What Are The Types of E-Government Delivery Services �����������������������������22 2.5.1 Government to Citizen Approach ���������������������������������������������������������������23 2.5.2 Government to Employee Government to overnment Approach 23 G2.6 How Is E-Government Beneficial To Public Administrators and Society �����24 2.6.1 E-Government Improves Efficiency �������������������������������������������������������������24 2.6.2 E-Government Improves Services ���������������������������������������������������������������24 2.6.3 E-government Helps to Build Trust Between overnment Citizens  5 G 22.7 Adoption Phases of E-Government  �������������������������������������������������������������������25 2.7.1 Chandler and Emanuel’s Model  �������������������������������������������������������������������25 2.7.2 Layne and Lee’s Model ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������262.8 Descriptive Analysis of E-government in the Arab Region �����������������������������342.9 Barriers to E-Government Implementation in Arab Countries  �������������������352.10 Access Issues ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������35Chapter Three - Case Study: Iraqi Diplomatic Missions3.1. Introduction  ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������373.2 Characteristics of the Republic of Iraq  �������������������������������������������������������������383.3 Iraqi Foreign Ministry  ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������393.4 The Definition of Foreign Missions ���������������������������������������������������������������������403.5 Basic Concept ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������40 7
  5. 5. Master Thesis Towards E-government: Iraqi diplomatic missions’ case studyTable of Contents3.6 Stakeholders �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������413.7 Functions of the Missions Abroad  ����������������������������������������������������������������������423.8 Iraqi Diplomatic Missions and Citizens Abroad  ����������������������������������������������433.9 Comparative Worldwide E-Government Experiences  ����������������������������������45 3.9.1 Australia ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������46 3.9.2 Bahrain ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������48 3.10 Consular Web-Based Services Requirements  ������������������������������������������50 3.10.1 Organizational Requirements ���������������������������������������������������������������������51 3.10.2 Change Management �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������52Chapter Four - Conceptualization4.1.Introduction  �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������534.2 Research Process ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������544.3 Data Collection �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������55 4.3.1 Literature Review ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������55 4.3.2 The Questionnaire �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������56 4.3.3 Interviews ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������56Chapter Five - Design5.1. Introduction  ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������625.2 Architecture Prototype ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������63 5.2.1 User Front-End Web Portal ���������������������������������������������������������������������������64 5.2.2 E-Visa ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������66 5.2.3 Online Appointment System �������������������������������������������������������������������������72 5.2.4 Online Passport System ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������74Chapter Six - Conclusion6.1. Introduction  ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������786.2 Discussion �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������796.3 Conclusion ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������796.4 Thesis Outcomes ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������80Bibliography ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������81Appendix A - Questionnaire����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������84 8
  6. 6. Master Thesis Towards E-government: Iraqi diplomatic missions’ case studyList of FiguresChapter OneFigure (1.1) - shows the thesis structure ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 18Chapter TwoFigure (2.1) - Layne and Lee Model  ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 26Figure (2.2) - Web measure index ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 27Figure (2.3) - Illustration of e-government maturity around the world ����������������������������� 28Figure (2.4) - Illustration of e-government emerging stage ��������������������������������������������������� 29Figure (2.5) - Illustration of e-government enhanced stage �������������������������������������������������� 30Figure (2.6) - Illustration of e-government interactive stage ������������������������������������������������ 31Figure (2.7) - Illustration of e-government transactional stage �������������������������������������������� 32Figure (2.8) - Illustration of e-government connected stage ������������������������������������������������ 33Chapter ThreeFigure (3.1) - Iraq Neighboring countries ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 38Figure (3.2) - Structure of the Iraqi Ministry of foreign affairs ��������������������������������������������� 39Figure (3.3) - Illustration of the Australian e-government portal ���������������������������������������� 46Figure (3.4) - Illustration of the Australian Embassy in Germany and e-visa processing   8 4Figure (3.5) - Shows the Bahraini e-visa website �������������������������������������������������������������������� 49Figure (3.6) - Illustration of the Bahraini Embassy website in London ������������������������������� 50Chapter FourFigure (4.1) - Phases of the research process �������������������������������������������������������������������������� 55Figure (4.2) - Website of the Iraqi Embassy in Stockholm (old version) ���������������������������� 58Figure (4.3) - The new website of the Iraqi Embassy in Oslo ����������������������������������������������� 58Chapter FiveFigure (5.1) - Illustrates the proposed web-application architecture ��������������������������������� 63Figure (5.2) - A proposed design of an Iraqi Diplomatic Mission website taking the IraqiEmbassy in Berlin as a sample ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 64Figure (5.3) - shows the basic view of Bonita soft GUI ��������������������������������������������������������� 66Figure (5.4) - Shows the Process diagram of e-Visa application ������������������������������������������� 67Figure (5.5) - A proposed design showing visa selection ������������������������������������������������������� 68Figure (5.6) - A proposed design showing the user when he/she is prompted to enterpersonal credentials. ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 69Figure (5.7) - A proposed design showing generation of reference number �������������������� 70Figure (5.8) - Shows the Process diagram of online appointment system ������������������������� 72Figure (5.9) - Shows the Process diagram of online passport system �������������������������������� 75 9
  7. 7. Master Thesis Towards E-government: Iraqi diplomatic missions’ case studyList of TablesChapter TwoTable (2.1) - E-government development in the Arab world  ����������������������������������������������� 34Chapter ThreeTable (3.1) - Iraqi’s National Profile sources ����������������������������������������������������������������������������� 39Table (3.2) - Consular functions summary �������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 42Table (3.3) - Estimated number of Iraqi citizens in various countries �������������������������������� 45Chapter FourTable (4.1) - Illustrates the key findings of some of the old Iraqi Diplomatic missions’websites���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 60Table (4.2) - Illustrates the key findings of some of the current Iraqi Diplomatic missions’websites as part of a recent e-government project partially deployed but not successfullycompleted������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 61 10
  8. 8. Master Thesis Towards E-government: Iraqi diplomatic missions’ case studyList of AbbreviationsICT Information and communication technologyG2C Government to CitizenG2G Government to GovernmentG2E Government to EmployeeE-services Electronic servicesMoFA Ministry of Foreign AffairsE-Visa Electronic VisaGUI Graphical user interfaceE-commerce Electronic CommerceBPMN Business Process Model and Notation 11
  9. 9. Master Thesis Towards E-government: Iraqi diplomatic missions’ case studyAbstractE-government represents a key instrument in empowering change, fosteringtechnological innovation in the public sector and government structure. A meanto make a crucial change in society, culture by utilizing the best out of ICT toenhance government functionality. E-government has caught the attention ofmany governments around the world to undertake studies, conduct researchin the efforts to identify factors that may play a significant role in the progressof e-government in terms of reducing administrative costs, providing long-termbenefits and increasing accountability and effective delivery of e-services to thecitizens. Therefore, e-government is identified as a “hot” topic of the day andone of the major priorities in governments’ agenda across the world. However,e-government is not easy to come across because it is not simply a software ratherthan a framework that reflects government policy and the relationship between agovernment and its citizens.This consequently, raises many important critical pointssuch as political, social, cultural and technological issues which must be taken intoaccount and treated carefully when adopting e-government.This thesis investigates on how an e-government system can be adopted and appliedat a diplomatic mission to provide consular services taking Iraq initiative as a casestudy by conducting interviews with Iraqi diplomats as well as carrying out a surveyintended for ordinary Iraqi citizens.Based on the data collected which served as an input for the initial framework tonarrow down the study. The framework was used as a tool to pave the road aheadfor designing a web application and prototyping a model to define the internalworkflow process of some online services. This thesis has made a contribution tothe field of e-government in terms of providing consular services to Iraqi citizenswithin the diplomatic missions abroad. 13
  10. 10. e-government CHAPTER I General Introduction 1.1 Introduction Throughout the 18th and the 19th centuries, the world witnessed the industrial revolution which has created the industrial society, whereas during the 21st century, the humanity has progressed to the information revolution. We are living in an era where the world is connected at all levels due to the revolutionary changes in technology, computers are being connected all over the world which consequently, leads to the use of information technology in almost every aspect of our daily activities reaching from banking, trading, learning, teaching, entertainment to government. As we know, one of the major goals and plans being considered in governments’ policy nowadays is to reduce the administrative size and costs on one hand and to increase the productivity and functionality of government body on the other hand. (Leon J. Osterweil, Lynette I. Millett and Joan D. Winston, 2007).
  11. 11. Chapter 1E-government is considered to be a key success factor towards a modernizinggovernment. In this regard, governments are continuously facing new challengesto increase their performance in providing citizens with better access to theirservices.The nature of government functioning has been going through a fast change dueto the impact of technology that made the delivery of services possible over theinternet. This has motivated different governments around the globe to conductresearch on the topic of e-government, which later has evolved to become arecognized research field.In recent years, many governments around the world have taken initiatives inadopting the concept of e-government as a powerful tool to meet citizens’ needsand moving public services towards higher transparency, accountability andefficiency. Among the main reasons why many governments are starting includinge-government in their agenda are to gain trust, confidence and credibility fromtheir citizens. However this vision that e-government is promising in improvingthe overall functionality of any government cannot be accomplished withoutencountering several serious obstacles. The degree of complexity of implementingand maintaining good provision of online services is high. Countries such as Iraqfacing many obstacles is the best example that can be applied for this researchthesis.This research thesis contributes to the issue of the Iraqi diplomatic missions tocitizens’ relationship in providing Iraqi citizens living abroad with good consularservices by addressing the current situation of Information Technology and thedegree of awareness within the Iraqi community living abroad and Diplomaticmember staff.In recent years, many electronic Government projects were launched in Iraq, likecomputerizing all MoFA’s internal processes and creating an intranet. For instance,in 2004, (UNDESA, 2008), the Iraqi Ministry of Science and Technology has launchedan initiative in conjunction with the Italian Ministry of Innovation and Technologiesin providing technical support to construct an intranet connecting differentMinistries and even recently (Iraqi Missions overseas), the Ministry of Foreign Affairshas launched an e-government program to link all its diplomatic missions abroadthrough a web portal but all projects have been largely unsuccessful, or even closeto having been achieved.Towards E-government: Iraqi diplomatic missions’ case study 15
  12. 12. Chapter 11.2 Research Problem and AimsIraqi citizens should be able to obtain consular services or information in minutes orhours as compared to the current situation which is in days, weeks or even months.Diplomatic member staff should be able to deliver their work more efficiently andthis cannot be done without a proper organizational structure.Before conducting this thesis, I started interviewing different Iraqi Diplomatsand Iraqi citizens abroad (who most of them at least went to an embassy oncebefore) and after gathering enough information, the result showed that the generalpublic considers consular affairs as the most important mission of the wholeforeign ministry. Furthermore, Iraqi diplomats may still be a bit confused about thesignificance of consular affairs as part of the whole agenda of the MoFA, but indeed,citizens do not share that sense of perspective.Now days, citizens have more demand for their time, as distances to work haveincreased, rate of dual-income families has increased too. Thus, citizens are lessflexible to visit any Diplomatic Mission during normal working hours. Citizens wantto have access to consular services at their convenience and this thesis discusses asolution to overcome such obstacle.1.3 Thesis OutcomeThis thesis proposes a framework strategy to adopt and implement e-governmentwithin the Diplomatic Missions. In addition, it presents a proposal for a sample webdesign layout to replace the current one. Furthermore, it reviews the current issuesin providing good consular services to citizens and suggests a model presentedin three case studies: E-visa program (along with web illustrations to give thereader clearer vision of the process), online appointment system program and anonline passport system using an evaluation framework based on questionnaire andinterviews results.Towards E-government: Iraqi diplomatic missions’ case study 16
  13. 13. Chapter 11.4 Disposition of The StudyThe remaining chapters of this thesis are organized as follows:Chapter two gives a brief description about the company profile in which theauthor has conducted some research on the topic of e-government. Chapter threeexplains some general concepts of government, state and e-government, in order toprepare the reader to gain further insights about the topic.Then, it reviews differentdefinitions, perspectives and benefits of e-government. It also gives an overview ofthe maturity levels of e-government, provided with some web illustrations. Finally,it identifies some major issues that may prevent the achievement of e-government.This is then, followed by short description about Iraq and its foreign policy inchapter four. Furthermore, this chapter also presents an overview about DiplomaticMissions as a general concept and some examples of worldwide e-governmentimplementation with some web illustrations related to the same topic. At last, thischapter is concluded with a list of consular web-based requirements that contributein the successful delivery of services to citizens.Chapter five provides the research plan on data collection methods and presentsthe methods were used in this thesis. In addition, it shows how information wascollected from questionnaire and interviews to bring together all findings fromprevious chapters to be served as an input to identify the problem and develop aframework to propose a model to build a web application for the Iraqi diplomaticmission in chapter six. Finally, chapter seven presents a conclusion for this thesiswith recommendations for future prospects. A simple framework is shown in figure(1.1) to give the reader an illustration of the thesis structure.Towards E-government: Iraqi diplomatic missions’ case study 17
  14. 14. Chapter 1 Figure (1.1) - shows the thesis structureTowards E-government: Iraqi diplomatic missions’ case study 18
  15. 15. e-government CHAPTER II Literature Review 2.1 Introduction A literature review will be conducted in this chapter, to introduce the reader to the core of this thesis, starting with the definitions and concepts of government, state and e-government.Then, it is followed by discussing the models of implementing e-government and the barriers to its implementation. In addition, this chapter will introduce the maturity level of e-government development presented with some web illustrations to give the reader a clear idea about the research topic as a basis for later chapters.
  16. 16. Chapter 22.2 The Concepts of State and GovernmentA state can be defined as an organized political community, residing in a territory andpossessing external and internal sovereignty which has internationally recognizedboundaries and recognition by other countries. The scope of a state is much morebeyond its structure and it consists of several elements which can be summarizedas follows (Rosenberg):A defined territory: is a geographical area fixed by definite frontiers, under theauthority and jurisdiction of a government, in which the functions of a state takeplace to exercise such sovereignty and no other state should have power over thecountry’s territory.Government: is the supreme authority by which a state is governed at a given time.It has the role to administer and organize the organs of a state in the followingaspects: political, social, cultural, environmental protection, national defense, foreignand internal affairs and enforcing of state policy (Duursma, 1996, pp. 110 - 119).Permanent population: population is the collection of human beings living togetheras a community. The population of a state represents all people who, in principle,live in a territory on an ongoing basis.Sovereignty: is the authority to govern or rule a group of people over a geographicalarea. The definition of the “Sovereignty” is quite similar to the “Independence” andthey can interchangeably be used together (Chanhchom, 2010).It’s important to keep in mind that state differs from government. As a matter offact, the nature of state is permanently while the nature of government servingthat state is temporarily and changes over time. Each successive government iscomposed of a body of individuals whose role is to enforce laws and legislate newones. They are concerned with administering many areas of human activity such astrade, education, medicine, war and etc (Duursma, 1996, pp. 110 - 119).Towards E-government: Iraqi diplomatic missions’ case study 20
  17. 17. Chapter 22.3 Characteristics of E-Government It all started few years ago,when the world witnessed the explosion in communicationtechnology, which has influenced the society in a spectacular way, especially withthe emergence of the internet. Now that technology has become an integral partof everyday life, it is seen to be as a solution to major problems for governments,in fact, many government agencies around the world started to use ICT tools andinternet to support governance and to have a better relationship with citizens bydelivering more modern services and improving the quality and responsiveness ofthese services to their citizens.Only recently the public sector has come to realize the importance of ICT as a meansto provide high-quality and efficient public services and today, many governmentagencies around the world are facing challenges to set up the prerequisites toenable citizens to have a better and transparent form of access to their services.A brief history of e-government shows that, in the 1990s, some governments tooksome initiatives in adopting e-government solutions, ranging from simple webpresence and one-way communication to two-way communication with citizens.Finally, this moved on with time to more integrated web presence like offeringthe possibility of online payments, downloading or filling online applications, onlinedocumentation and email communication (Leon J. Osterweil, Lynette I. Millett andJoan D. Winston, 2007).2.4 Definition of E-GovernmentFor one to fully realize the idea of E-Government one must first understandwhat government stands for, as we stated before that the role of a governmentis to administer and organize the organs and structures of a state and only whenthe government starts to use the ICT in their day-to-day activities it moves toe-government.Towards E-government: Iraqi diplomatic missions’ case study 21
  18. 18. Chapter 2E-government, however, is a term for which there are multiple definitions amongdifferent governments and organizations. For instance, (Ndou, 2004, p. 3) emphasizedthat the failure of some e-government adoptions is due to the narrow definitiongiven to it.According to OECD (2003), e-government is the use of Information andCommunication Technology (ICT), and particularly the internet to achieve bettergovernment. However this definition is quite general and doesn’t focus on aspecific aspect of how to achieve a better government, while the (World Bank)defines E-government as the use of information technologies ( such as internet) bygovernment agencies to transform relations with citizens and other governmentalbranches as such to provide better delivery of public services to citizens, improveinteractions with business and industry and come up with a more efficientgovernment management, consequently resulting in less corruption, increasedtransparency and/or cost reduction. This definition stated above has focused onthe desired goals without an emphasis on the tools should be used to achieve suchresults.2.5 What Are The Types of E-Government Delivery ServicesE-government offers quite a lot of services to facilitate transactions betweengovernment and other key stakeholders. It focuses on four main customers tobe served: citizens, government agencies, employees and businesses, however, ourmain focus in this research will be mainly the interactions between governmentand citizens, other government entities and employees and they are summarizedas follows:• Government to Citizen Approach• Government to Employee Government to Government ApproachTowards E-government: Iraqi diplomatic missions’ case study 22
  19. 19. Chapter 2 2.5.1 Government to Citizen Approach This approach focuses on posting the information to citizens online through web pages such as ordering of birth/death/marriage certificates, as well as the possibility to enable the government and citizen to communicate and interact with each other using electronic format. Early stages of e-government web sites design were not organized properly, especially the hyperlinks to other government services. This proved to be confusing to citizens as they would spend time searching and going through a lot of web pages till they reach the information they need. Learning lessons from e-commerce sites, to adopt new approaches to bring citizen into satisfaction by using citizen-centric approach and this includes organizing the content around citizen needs and making the web site more structured to reduce the number of clicks to reach the information (Gant, 2008, pp. 16 - 18). This interaction improves the quality of citizens’ lives by providing good government services and a good example of G2C can be found in Dubai’s web portal (www.dubai.ae). 2.5.2 Government to Employee Government to Government Approach Government to employee approach aims to enhance the performance of both government and its employee and this is done by coordinating the internal operations and improving the business processes among them.While this concept is very closely related to the Government to Government approach, its main objective here is to increase the level of cooperation between different government agencies; it provides the means to facilitate the interconnection and communication between government offices at all levels, in different locations by saving time and eliminating redundancies. A good example to be considered is the communications between diplomatic missions and their diplomats worldwide with foreign ministries as an instrument to enhance diplomacy (Gant, 2008, pp. 16 - 18).Towards E-government: Iraqi diplomatic missions’ case study 23
  20. 20. Chapter 22.6 How Is E-Government Beneficial To Public Administrators and SocietyTechnology has proved to be valuable in increasing social productivity and economicgrowth. Embracing e-government will help government to provide better servicesto citizens as well as increased efficiency within government agencies, leading to anoverall environment of more structured government. The benefits to agencies andcitizens are outlined below:• E-governement improves efficiency.• E-governement improves services.• E-government can help to build trust between government and citizens. 2.6.1 E-Government Improves Efficiency With the usage of ICTs, e-government can simplify and make processing tasks and public administration transactions more efficient, resulting in less errors and the saving of time and money. Internet-based applications accessed online can bring significant improvement by enabling the share of data within and between government agencies, leading to an increase in their service processing and delivery capabilities as well as the exchange of data with less time and fewer staff. As well as the provision of information and make it available to citizens 24 hours a day, 7 days a week (OECD, 2003, p. 2). 2.6.2 E-Government Improves Services Citizen satisfaction is considered to be a core element of e-government strategy, successful services are built on user’s requirements and what they need and this can be done by providing these services on the basis of self-serve and make it almost effortless to find information, as the user should not have to understand the complexity of government structures and its inter-relationships.The internet can achieve this goal by making web sites more user-friendly accompanied by a quick government response and enabling governments to appear as a unified structure (Nations, E-Government Survey 2012, 2012, pp. 112-113).Towards E-government: Iraqi diplomatic missions’ case study 24
  21. 21. Chapter 2 2.6.3 E-government Can Help to Build Trust Between Government and Citizens Building trust between government and citizens is considered to be fundamental to good governance. E-government provides the means to increase participation of citizens in policy process.For instance, e-government can provide opportunities to citizens to express themselves, that their voice can be heard, through web comment forums as well as to provide them with the possibility to submit suggestions, ideas. Ultimately, this approach in turn can help government to better understand citizens’ needs which will consequently increase the accountability of the government itself and prevent corruption (Blind, 2006).2.7 Adoption Phases of E-GovernmentSeveral stages can be noticed in the implementation of e-government. This sectionwill give an overview of some existent models of different stages as proposed bydifferent authors.The process of establishing an e-government system passes throughdifferent stages, until it reaches its final stage and regardless the different stages ofeach proposed model, there are many similarities between these approaches. Forexample, it starts from the immature to the mature where the latter provides fullintegration of government information and services within different governmentagencies at different levels. For example, it starts with simple information postedon the web, then two-way communication facilities, transaction process at a laterstage until it reaches a stage where it seamlessly ties together different ministries.The various models of the stages of e-government can be summarized below:• Chandler and Emanuel’s Model• Layne and Lee’s Model 2.7.1 Chandler and Emanuel’s Model Chandler and Emanuel (Geoffrey K. Louise Y.) broke up e-government implementation process into four stages: 1. Information stage: where it displays the availability of government services on the web. 2. Interaction stage: where the interactions between government and citizens are enhanced, represented in two way communication.Towards E-government: Iraqi diplomatic missions’ case study 25
  22. 22. Chapter 2 3. Transaction stage: transactions are possible at this stage. For example a citizen can submit a form online. 4. Integration stage: integration of services is fully realized across different government entities. 2.7.2 Layne and Lee’s Model Layne and Lee (Karen Layne Jungwoo Lee, 2001) developed e-government implementation to go through four stages. Layne and Lee study proposes a ‘stages of growth’ model in order to reach a fully functional e-government, see figure (2.1). • Cataloguing phase: in this phase, initial efforts are taken to make government information and its services available to the public through the creation of websites. • Transaction phase: further efforts are considered to enable citizens to interact with their government electronically. • Vertical integration phase: This level and last level focuses on the differentiation between government functions and government levels. This phase takes into account the integration of different government levels within the same functional areas. • Horizontal integration phase: this last level, in contrast to the previous phase, focuses on integrating different government systems across different functions. Figure (2.1) - Layne and Lee Model (Karen Layne Jungwoo Lee, 2001)Towards E-government: Iraqi diplomatic missions’ case study 26
  23. 23. Chapter 2Based on the above two models presented and their similarities, there are somedifferences. For instance, Layne and Lee (2001) divide integration phase into verticaland horizontal phases, which in turn gives more focus on the level of integration ofdata and services. This enables the citizens to access government services withoutto worry about which agency is responsible for. This model also focuses on thelevels of organizational and technological aspects.It can be noticed that Layne and Lee (2001) move to the transaction phase withoutmentioning the interaction phase. On the other hand, Chandler and Emanuel’s modelmentions the interaction stage. In addition, the model gives little consideration tothe technical security aspect at the transaction stage. Figure (2.2) - Web measure indexAs countries move upwards in developing their e-government systems to becomemore sophisticated in terms of content delivery and user satisfaction, they face alot of challenges. According to the United Nations, (DESA, 2008), see figure(2.2),the progress towards a solid e-government system is classified into five stagesare Emerging, Enhanced, Interactive, Transactional and connected, based on thefunctionalities, facilities and services available on the web. Figure (2.3) shows theavailability of e-government around the world and as it can be noticed that mostArab countries still at early stages of e-government maturity.Towards E-government: Iraqi diplomatic missions’ case study 27
  24. 24. Chapter 2 Figure (2.3) - Illustration of e-government maturity around the world The stages are a method for measuring progress of e-government implementation. They represent how a country is successful socially, economically and in its political will. In this research, the five stages of e-government development are presented with some web illustrations and are as follows: 1. Emerging Stage 2. Enhanced Stage 3. Interactive Stage 4. Transactional Stage 5. Connected StageTowards E-government: Iraqi diplomatic missions’ case study 28
  25. 25. Chapter 21. Emerging Stage:The first level of e-government is the Emerging stage. At this level, governmentsstart creating websites and provide basic information about the different types ofgovernment agencies. These websites provide links to Ministries, regional and localauthorities and diplomatic missions abroad.The content of such websites is static and provide information about the type ofservices being offered, working hours, contact information and etc. Figure (2.4) - Illustration of e-government emerging stage (D.C., 2004)Towards E-government: Iraqi diplomatic missions’ case study 29
  26. 26. Chapter 22. Enhanced Stage:This is the second level of e-government strategy; it focuses on providing means forindividuals to communicate with government agencies and search for informationwhich is regularly updated.At some point, a home page may act as a point of entry to other governmentalagencies and provide some features like downloading some useful documents forgreater interaction between citizen and agencies. Figure (2.5) - Illustration of e-government enhanced stage (Stockholm, 2005)Towards E-government: Iraqi diplomatic missions’ case study 30
  27. 27. Chapter 23. Interactive Stage:At this level governments start to create a national government website that actsas a point of entry to a wide variety of services and information, users may lookup into the databases to retrieve specific information. At this moment, someenhanced features begin to emerge like securing sites, user log-in and passwordand downloading applications with the possibility to submit them online. Figure (2.6) - Illustration of e-government interactive stage (Government S. , 2012)Towards E-government: Iraqi diplomatic missions’ case study 31
  28. 28. Chapter 24. Transactional Stage:At this advanced level of e-government maturity, individuals can perform transactionselectronically like, for example, making processing payments, submitting applicationforms, applying for visas and passports just to name a few. The outcome of thise-government stage is to try to minimize the interaction with government staff andautomate these processes as best to improve the efficiency of the services offered. Figure (2.7) - Illustration of e-government transactional stage (Canada, 2011)Towards E-government: Iraqi diplomatic missions’ case study 32
  29. 29. Chapter 25. Connected Stage:This stage is considered to be the most sophisticated level of e-governmentimplementation. During this phase, governments transform themselves into aconnected entity using a fully integrated ICT and back office infrastructure thatresponds to the needs of its citizens. Data is either exchanged vertically betweendifferent levels of government or horizontally between different Ministries. Inaddition, the integration takes place across all government sectors from local,regional authorities and external institutions. Connected government can besummarized as follows:• Horizontal connection among different agencies• Vertical connection among central and local agencies.• Infrastructure connection.• Connection between governments and citizens.• Connection among stakeholders. Figure (2.8) - Illustration of e-government connected stage (Government S. L., 2009)Towards E-government: Iraqi diplomatic missions’ case study 33
  30. 30. Chapter 2 2.8 Descriptive Analysis of E-government in the Arab Region There are numerous surveys showing how governments are progressing in the adoption of e-government in terms of the previous five stages discussed earlier. According to the UN survey conducted in 2010 (UN2010), most of these countries indicate that they fall within the enhanced and interactive stages. This survey measures the significant differences between developed and developing countries in terms of the quality of online services. Professor West (West, 2005) observes, “Most governments around the world have gone no further than the billboard or partial service-delivery states of e-Government. They have made little progress at portal development, placing services online, or incorporating interactive features onto their websites. Not only are they failing to use technology to transform the public sector, their efforts mostly consist of no meaningful change or small steps forward”. E-government development World e-government Country index value development ranking 2010 2008 2010 2008 Bahrain 0.73 0.57 13 42 United Arab Emirates 0.53 0.63 49 32 Kuwait 0.52 0.52 50 57 Jordan 0.52 0.54 51 50 Saudi Arabia 0.51 0.49 58 70 Qatar 0.49 0.53 62 53 Tunisia 0.48 0.34 66 124 Egypt 0.45 0.47 86 79 Oman 0.45 0.46 82 84 Lebanon 0.43 0.48 93 74 Libya 0.37 0.35 114 120 Morocco 0.32 0.29 126 140 Algeria 0.31 0.35 131 121 Syria 0.31 0.36 133 119 Iraq 0.29 0.26 136 151 Sudan 0.25 0.21 154 161 Yemen 0.21 0.21 164 164  Table (2.1) - E-government development in the Arab world (UN2010) Towards E-government: Iraqi diplomatic missions’ case study 34
  31. 31. Chapter 22.9 Barriers to E-Government Implementation in Arab CountriesUp to now this literature review has examined the basic principles of e-governmentand its impact on a country’s development. In this section, focus is moved towardsthe challenges that most Arab countries are facing in establishing e-governmentsystem.Like many other developed countries around the world, Arab countries whichrepresent 5% of the world population, are putting efforts in implementinge-government. Such efforts may help them to support accountability andtransparency, and at some phases to be competitive with other developed countries.One of the most common complaints that Arab citizens are now suffering is thequantity and complexity of government formalities and paperwork (UNDP, 2001).So the first step towards a successful implementation of e-government is to makeplans to simplify the organizational and administrative aspects as a whole.Many technical and non-technical issues emerge as e-government becomes broaderin scope and its complexity increases, such issues have to be closely monitored andcontrolled, as they are considered to be crucial to the successful implementationof an effective e-government.According to Heeks (Dada), most developing countries fail to implemente-government and the main reason to such failure is the presence of a gap betweenthe current reality and the plans to implement a future e-government system. Thisis due to the inconsistency in the physical, economic and social aspects.2.10 Access IssuesMany users feel that using websites to carry on transactions with e-governmentagencies (such as, name, ID number, credit card details and personal information)are not safe. They feel that websites are not enough secured as their informationmay be manipulated or misused by other third parties or hackers. This lack ofsecurity has created less willingness to go for online services.In order to overcome security challenges, governments must provide the meansto protect their websites as well as associated data - repositories (archives) and toprovide a secure access point to citizens to gain citizens trust, this can be achievedpartially through public awareness by using TV, campaigns, seminars, etc.Towards E-government: Iraqi diplomatic missions’ case study 35
  32. 32. Chapter 2In today’s world, when it comes to secure critical data, there is a significant andincreasing demand for information security based on the concept of applyingcryptographic services and consequently using cryptographic keys. So it allcomes to securing the keys so the overall system can be secured and assured.Some critical keys for instance must be securely generated and imported at acorresponding crypto node. This cannot be done without the proper handling ofthe key management so the outcome can be reduced.Taking into consideration what have been mentioned, so the establishment ofcryptographic infrastructures will demand more than the conventional systemintegration which requires ultimately, a profound system-planning and processintegration.11 Source: In Personal communication with Brandtstaetter, T. (2011). Cyber Crime.Towards E-government: Iraqi diplomatic missions’ case study 36
  33. 33. e-government CHAPTER III Case Study: Iraqi Diplomatic Missions 3.1 Introduction Now days many governments around the globe are considering more and more to develop and to find the best strategies to efficiently deliver e-government services to citizens, in order to support and speed up the process of modernization of public sector. In the previous chapter, I gave an overview of e-government in general, its benefits as well as various issues that affect the implementation of e-government such as the economic, cultural, political and social impacts, which are different in each country; therefore there is no standard model to be applied in all countries. However, utilizing and learning the lessons from other e-government initiatives is indispensable to avoid future problems that might prevent the adoption of e-government. Therefore, this chapter illustrates brief information about Iraq, some statistics about displaced Iraqis around the world, its diplomatic missions abroad which is the main focus of this research, as well as a brief description of the services offered.
  34. 34. Chapter 3 3.2 Characteristics of the Republic of Iraq Iraq is a country situated in western Asia, confined geographically from the northeast He by Zagros Mountains, the Syrian Desert from the west and the Arabian Desertof Applied eidelberg University from the south. Iraq neighboring countries are Syria,Turkey, Iran, Jordan, Kuwait and Saudi Arabia see figure (3.1). It occupies 438,317 squaret: Iraqi diplo Master Thesis Towards E-g T governmen kilometers. According miss omatic to sions’ ca the Iraqi Central Organization for Statistics, the total population reached 30 million in 2009 and a growth rate of 2.6%. (UNdata). Figure (3.1) - - Iraq Neigh countries (Geology, 2007) Figure (10) Iraq Neighboring hboring countries  Total population 30 Million nPopulation p  Annu growth 2 ual 2.6% Towards E-government: Iraqi diplomatic missions’ case study 38  Popu ulation aged 0 – 14 years 40.7%
  35. 35. Chapter 3  Total population 30 Million Population  Annual growth 2.6%  Population aged 0 – 14 years 40.7% Area  438,317 square kilometers Currency  Iraqi Dinar (IQD)  Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, Phosphates, Economy sulfur  Nominal GDP (2010): $82.2 Billion  Arabic Official language  Kurdish Table (3.1) - Iraqi’s National Profile sources (UNdata)3.3 Iraqi Foreign MinistryThe ministry of foreign affairs of the republic of Iraq is in charge of the Iraqi’sforeign policy and diplomacy. It is also in charge of all diplomatic missions abroad.As of now, Iraq has a diplomatic representation in almost 35 countries aroundthe world to provide Iraqi citizens with the necessary information and consularservices. Figure (4.2) illustrates the various departments within the Ministry.Figure (3.2) - Structure of the Iraqi Ministry of foreign affairs (MoFA, Ministry Structure)Towards E-government: Iraqi diplomatic missions’ case study 39
  36. 36. Chapter 33.4 The Definition of Foreign MissionsDiplomatic Missions abroad are government agencies that are composed of agroup of people (Diplomats) from one state operating in another state. Embassiesand consulates which are government representations in a foreign country operateunder the government sector of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. A state can haveonly one embassy in another state to represent it. Instead, a country can havemultiple consulates to represent the latter in another country. It can be noticedthat consulates and embassies are different, an embassy is considered to be largerin representation, generally situated in a country’s capital. While a consulate is justa small version of an Embassy located in bigger cities but not in the capital city(Wikipedia).3.5 Basic ConceptAs has been mentioned, Embassies play a significant role in foreign policy as theyrepresent their government in another country. Embassies main task is to informits government about all the events in the host country. In addition, embassieshelp in preparing treaties and exchange messages between its government and thehost government. While consulates major task is to promote trade and establishcommercial links between the government it represents and the host governmentin which it resides. Given the difference roles addressed to both embassies andconsulates to represent their government, they both provide their own citizensliving in the host country with public services which will be of our interest in thisresearch (Borders, 2004).Consular services provided by a diplomatic mission are at the forefront as theyare considered as point of contact for citizens overseas. They didn’t receive thatmuch of attention by e-government strategy and they only started to be adoptedby different countries in the last few years to take part of the e-government plan.Development of consular affairs needs to be understood as it contributes instrengthening the relationship between the government and its citizens abroad.(Borders, 2004)Towards E-government: Iraqi diplomatic missions’ case study 40
  37. 37. Chapter 3The continuous growth of citizens implies the ministries of foreign affairs (MFAs)these days to find the best way possible to assist them anywhere around the world,as foreign ministries are trying to avoid criticism by the public, they are starting toappreciate the market value of consular affairs and putting all the efforts to upgradethe quality of these services as a mean to improve the government image amongthe public (Maaike H. and Jan M.).3.6 Stakeholders1. National citizens: individuals living in the host country are considered the main stakeholder in a diplomatic mission residing in that host country as it has a direct impact on increasing the quality and efficiency of consular services.2. Foreign nationals: foreigners wishing to stay in the sending country that may require a prior visa, have also an impact on the improvement of the consular services.3. Diplomatic mission staff: employees of the diplomatic mission can contribute directly and indirectly towards a successful and efficient provision of consular services.4. Institutions of the host country: the exchange of messages between the authorities of the host country and the diplomatic mission as well as the embassies and consulates of other countriesTowards E-government: Iraqi diplomatic missions’ case study 41
  38. 38. Chapter 33.7 Functions of the Missions AbroadAccording to the Vienna convention on Consular Relations (Nations, ViennaConvention 1963), consular functions can be summarized in the table below: 1 The receiving state has the duty to protect the interests of the sending state and its citizens, within the limits granted by international low. 2 To issue passports ( including diplomatic, service and ordinary passports) and travel documents to nationals of the sending state on one hand and issuing visas or documents to foreign individuals wishing to visit the sending state 3 Giving appropriate assistance to nationals of the sending state. 4 Engaging in notary services such as authentication, legalization and civil registrar services, provided that such services do not contradict with the laws and regulations of the receiving state. 5 To transmit judicial documents to be used as evidence for the courts of the sending state Table (3.2) - Consular functions summaryTowards E-government: Iraqi diplomatic missions’ case study 42
  39. 39. Chapter 33.8 Iraqi Diplomatic Missions and Citizens AbroadAs discussed earlier in this chapter, foreign missions are considered to be a pointof contact where citizens can get assistance, consular services and further guidancein case of emergency and so on. Iraqi diplomatic missions are of no difference, theyprovide various consular services (MoFA, MoFA consular services) and they can besummarized as follows:1. Issuance of passport: issuing a new passport in case of previous expired passport or passport loss2. Issuance of birth certificate: it is issued when an Iraqi child is born abroad, the family’s newborn should present the birth certificate issued by the competent authorities in the country in which the birth took place, and the Iraqi mission then issues the Iraqi birth certificate in accordance with the foreign birth certificate.3. Marriage and divorce registration: foreign countries have their own rules and regulations of marriage and divorce. Iraqi missions abroad provide their citizens to register a marriage or divorce in the records of the civil affairs department in accordance with Iraqi personal status law.4. Issuance of the civil status ID issued in case of renewal or lost.5. Issuance of the civil status ID: issued in case of renewal or lost.6. Iraqi nationality certificate: Iraqi missions provide their citizens with the possibility of: • Issuing an Iraqi nationality certificate. • Discarding the Iraqi nationality on citizen request. • Reclaiming Iraqi citizenship7. Issuance of criminal record certificate.8. Issuance of life certificateTowards E-government: Iraqi diplomatic missions’ case study 43
  40. 40. Chapter 39. Pass document: in case of lost passport and a citizen wishes to return to Iraq.10. Issuance of public and private authorizations.11. Ratifications.12. Issuance of certificate of origin.13. Issuance of entry visa to Iraq for foreign nationals.All these services are part of the functions offered by the Iraqi missions abroad,it should be pointed out that Iraqi missions face some considerably significantchallenges one of them is the surge in appointments that can take rather long aswell as most of these consular services mentioned previously take considerablyalong time to be processed, it takes sometimes up to few months to receive apassport or an ID. This has created a lot of frustration among the Iraqi nationals tohave to wait up few months to get their documents processed and delivered.These challenges are arising more and more among the various Iraqi missionsabroad, due to problems in the appointment system and inefficient documentissuing process.According to some Iraqi diplomats, appointments are taken up weeks in advance,till they are made available, which is the main reason for the backlog. Another issueis arising which contributes directly to the backlog, is the significant increase in Iraqinationals abroad. The dramatic increase of Iraqi nationals between 1990 and 2011went far beyond the Iraqi missions’ capacity to meet their citizens’ needs.Towards E-government: Iraqi diplomatic missions’ case study 44
  41. 41. Chapter 3Table (3.3) shows an estimated number of Iraqi citizens living in some countriesaround the world, both legally and undocumented and it is continuously rising. Country Estimated Number of Citizens Syria 1,200,001 Jordan 750,0001 Egypt 100,0001 Iran 202,1002 Lebanon 40,0001 Turkey 10,0001 Gulf States 200,0001 Germany 150.0003 Sweden 70,0003 Norway 24,5054 United Kingdom 250,0005 Denmark 12,6002 U.S. 90,0006 Netherlands 50,0005 Australia 11,1001 Table (3.3) - Estimated number of Iraqi citizens in various countries3.9 Comparative Worldwide E-Government ExperiencesMany countries around the world have taken major steps in the adoption ofE-government systems. It is not limited to advanced nations but also in developingcountries which are applying best practice solutions to build efficient systems.Many countries have been successful in implementing e-government solutions intheir relevant Ministries and foreign missions. In this regard, strategies and policiesapplied by some successful countries like Australia and Bahrain are assessed. Theultimate goal is to identify factors and lessons that may serve in the implementationof e-government system.• Australia• Bahrain1 Source retrieved from UNHCR Statistics on Displaced Iraqis around the world as of April 2007. Check www.unhcr.org for updates.2 Source retrieved from UNHCR on Iraqi Refugee and Asylum-seeker statistics as of March 2003. Checkwww.unhcr.org for updates.3 Source retrieved from a survey conducted by the European Council on Refugees and Exiles as of April 2004. Check www.ecre.orgfor updates.4 Source retrieved from Statistics Norway as of January 2009. Check www.ssb.no for updates.5 Source retrieved from the New York Times, published on Wednesday. January 19. 2005.6 Source retrieved from the US Census in 2000 by the Population Reference Bureau. Check www.prb.org for updates.Towards E-government: Iraqi diplomatic missions’ case study 45
  42. 42. Chapter 3 3.9.1 Australia Australia was one of the first countries which took major steps in developing and implementing an efficient e-government. One of its successful projects was the E-visa (Gov, 2003) (http://www.immi.gov.au/e_visa/) program launched in December 2000, by enabling people from different countries around the world to lodge visa applications directly through the website. Figure (3.3) - Illustration of the Australian e-government portal (Government A.) As it can be seen from figure (3.3) above, the e-Visa website is rich of different functionalities, enabling applicants to submit their applications online without the need to use paper-based application or to be present at the Embassy. In addition, it allows them to know about the status of their submitted applications; with some features like printing a copy of their application, being notified of any missing documents needed to be upload or approval notification via email. Helpdesk is provided either by phone or email to further assist applicants. Finally, this program has brought a lot of benefits as follows:Towards E-government: Iraqi diplomatic missions’ case study 46
  43. 43. Chapter 3 1. Apply for visa anytime, anywhere 24 hours a day- 7 days a week. 2. Making the application process more simplified. 3. Time to process applications was significantly reduced to as little as about 20 minutes. 4. The requirement of sending the passport via post across the border was removed. 5. Paper work was significantly reduced In realizing such compact program, the project also had to face some obstacles like: 1. Changing the whole paper-work process to electronic process, required legislative change. 2. It took more than the expected time to investigate the best technologies available to achieve the task. 3. Dealing with visas meant to meet an acceptable technical level of encryption while maintaining at the same time a high speed of connection. Figure (3.4), illustrates the current website of the Australian Embassy in Berlin. It provides audio and visual content, properly marked up, not dependent only on colors, very well structured with good navigation mechanism and provides clear information with easy guidelines for users as well as a lot of options regarding times, services in a very handful way.Towards E-government: Iraqi diplomatic missions’ case study 47
  44. 44. Chapter 3 Figure (3.4) - Illustration of the Australian Embassy in Germany and e-visa processing (Embassy) 3.9.2 Bahrain The Bahraini Government started the project e-Visa and was first implemented in October 2005 (Bahrain, UN - Bahrain eVisa System, 2005) as the first of its kind in the Middle East and one of the best in the world. It is an online e-Visa system application service destined for the payment and processing of visas.The system is connected in the backend with the General Directorate Nationality, passports and residence database to monitor and provide clearance for each processed application on individual basis. In addition to that, the system is based on workflow-driven mechanism; the system also provides various types of visas allowing more and more groups of people to benefit from this system: foreign nationals resident in Bahrain who intend to have multiple re-entry visas; more opportunities for applicants seeking to work within companies residing in Bahrain and visitors. See figure (3.5).Towards E-government: Iraqi diplomatic missions’ case study 48
  45. 45. Chapter 3 Figure (3.5) - Shows the Bahraini e-visa website (Bahrain, Bahrain eVisas) In addition to this service, the Bahraini Diplomatic missions around the world provide a lot of good consular services in a very structured, simple and handful way. As in the figure (3.6), which shows the website of the Embassy of the Bahrain in London, it provides either national citizens or travelers wishing to visit the country with good consular services like: passport services; legalization; visas; and traveler guide, all handled and processed electronically through the website and via post. The website also gives an insight about the country like its foreign policy, government structure, economy and tourism just to name a few.This feature is useful for companies seeking to invest, individuals wishing to travel, students seeking education and valuable information for other governmental entities for mutual cooperation The website is connected to the main e-Visa website so individuals can apply directly without the need to wait, provided with instructions and guidelines on how to successfully complete an application.Towards E-government: Iraqi diplomatic missions’ case study 49
  46. 46. Chapter 3 Figure (3.6) - Illustration of the Bahraini Embassy website in London (London)3.10 Consular Web-Based Services RequirementsTo successfully and efficiently deliver consular services to citizens, there are basicbut important requirements that must be fulfilled.These requirements are differentand vary from a country to country. Countries like Iraq, which is still lagging farbehind its developed counterparts in e-government, especially in providing efficientconsular services to citizens abroad. Such countries must make more efforts tomeet these requirements, which are considered a key success factor to improvethe diplomatic missions’ internal workflow process and consequently resulting in ahigher level of citizen satisfaction. The requirements are as follows:• Organizational Requirements• Change ManagementTowards E-government: Iraqi diplomatic missions’ case study 50
  47. 47. Chapter 3 3.10.1 Organizational Requirements Online consular services are not just a technical aspect; providing them requires change management. There are several requirements at the organizational level which affect the overall provision of such services and they are illustrated as follows: 1. Organizational Structure In every diplomatic mission, it is essential to consider the organizational structure, its objectives and its managerial divisions, based on a form of organizational hierarchy, this is necessary when applying e-government concept. In addition, modern technology must be able to best fulfill the needs of the organizational aspects, as it will lead to enhance and improve government performance in meeting the needs of its citizens. 2. Work Procedures In order to apply modern technologies and utilize them for better delivery of consular services to citizens, the internal workflow process inside the organization must be highly qualified and efficient. Both simple and complex procedures within the organization are considered important as they represent the stages of services from process to delivery. This approach is of mutual benefit as for citizens to have more satisfaction with the available services and for diplomatic missions as well to help them deliver services more easily and with less expense for the state, it also facilitates their internal work process. There are some focal points that need to be considered as they represent the first steps towards the successful implementation of e-government within the diplomatic missions’ framework and they are detailed as follows: • Reforming of administrative work process is the first step towards providing online consular services. This means the re-engineering of procedures and processes like changing the forms, reports and records in a way that it fits in the broad usage of modern technologies. • Clear scope and definition of the transactions so they can be automated or at least monitored automatically.Towards E-government: Iraqi diplomatic missions’ case study 51
  48. 48. Chapter 3 • For fast and efficient delivery of service, documents and requirements requested from the citizen should be reduced as much as possible. • Providing guidelines and instructions for citizens before lodging an application in websites. • Keep the organizational work process and delivery of services updated with the latest state of technology and innovation. 3. Centralization and Decentralization The Ministry of Foreign Affairs is no other than a global organization of a country that works for the interests of its citizens abroad through its diplomatic missions. So it can be described as a huge network of organizations (represented by a central organization which is the Ministry and its representatives abroad) and its level of interaction and coordination is affected by the degree of centralization or decentralization which requires the following: • Enabling transparency means that roles, tasks and responsibilities must be defined for both at the central and local level. • Defining how information is transmitted between the Ministry and its diplomatic missions abroad. • Define certain priorities and technologies within this network to guarantee high quality of performance. In addition, set some monitoring mechanisms to maintain it. 3.10.2 Change Management Shifting the services provided by diplomatic missions from its traditional way to make them available online using e-government requires great efforts and patience. So, Change Management addresses these internal and external workflow processes and adapts them to the new environment. Within the context of e-government, Change Management takes care of how diplomatic staff members make the transition from traditional paper- work to a more sophisticated system-aided process. This is achieved by providing staff members with the required up-to-date technical education, system support, possible training and documentation for computer usage.Towards E-government: Iraqi diplomatic missions’ case study 52
  49. 49. e-government CHAPTER IV Conceptualization 4.1 Introduction So far I have used exploratory research as we have seen in the literature review chapter to enrich the reader with the basic concepts of e-government. According to Yin (1994), the research design is “the logical sequence that connects the empirical data to a study’s initial research questions and, ultimately, to its conclusion”. The following sections outline the research process, chosen data collection, design and implementation.The main purpose of this chapter is to outline the research strategies that will be used by the researcher for the thesis.
  50. 50. Chapter 44.2 Research ProcessWhen research problem has been identified, the research objectives and questionsstarted, it is necessary to indicate how the research objective would be achieved(Walliman, 2001).In light of this, the first step towards the accomplishment of this thesis is to identifythe research problem and get reliable information. I have done this by going throughscientific published articles and other sources mainly available on the internet. I havealso studied different e-government initiatives adopted and implemented in differentcountries, the challenges they had to encounter. In addition, I have analyzed differentcases of e-government success and failure, the gap between design requirementsand reality. Furthermore, I made a comparative study of different governmentalwebsites, i.e. advantages and disadvantages (mainly diplomatic missions’ websites)and their online services provided to the public.In the second part of the thesis, I have collected enough information regardinge-government in Iraq and the current status of the Iraqi diplomatic missions’websites which are presented in this thesis through statistics. The first step to takewhen creating a research, according to (Yin 1994), is to make an evaluation of theresearch strategy.Generally speaking, there are five types of research strategies a researcher canfollow when conducting social science research: through experiments, surveys,archival analysis, history and case studies. For the purpose of this thesis, a survey wasperformed on people to understand their needs, as well as some interviews weremade with some diplomatic employees to understand and expand my knowledgeabout the internal work process within the diplomatic missions. These interviewsand questionnaires were the main data collection strategies I have used in order todraw the steps towards the design and implementation of a prototype. Figure (5.1),the phases of the research process are presented.Towards E-government: Iraqi diplomatic missions’ case study 54

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