How to choosing the right career to follow

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This slide show covers the main points in making the right choice for a career - the key decision points and guidance how to proceed.

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How to choosing the right career to follow

  1. 1. ‘ Needful’ things for Careers Stephanie Morgan, BSc, MSc, PhD Chartered Psychologist [email_address]
  2. 3. Stephanie <ul><li>Systems analyst and systems engineer - punch cards! Cobol! D400 Operating System! P7000 range etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Account Management – Word Processing £7k min per m/c. </li></ul><ul><li>National Sales & Marketing Manager – WP and later PC – Aston Villa and many other photo opportunities! </li></ul><ul><li>Global Commercial Manager (Origin now Atos-Origin). </li></ul><ul><li>Then total switch of careers to Business Psychology - </li></ul>
  3. 4. Session outcomes <ul><li>Knowledge about approaches to career development </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding of individual differences in preferences and their implications for working in computing. </li></ul><ul><li>Awareness of your own decision-making and risk profile and its relevance to your role and your career decisions. </li></ul>
  4. 5. Is your career a plan or a succession of jobs in hindsight? <ul><li>‘ Accidental’ careers can have repercussions... </li></ul><ul><li>Enjoyment? </li></ul><ul><li>Burnout? </li></ul><ul><li>Self-development </li></ul><ul><li>Speed of progression... </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple reasons why people start to consider career: </li></ul><ul><li>Desire for development </li></ul><ul><li>Growing feeling of unease </li></ul><ul><li>Sudden threats or opportunities... </li></ul>Research suggests careers are often random rather than planned but – you can take some control!
  5. 6. Career planning process
  6. 7. So many choices! <ul><li>Large company, small company, public or private sector? </li></ul><ul><li>Setting up on your own or with a partner? </li></ul><ul><li>Switching careers or switching companies? </li></ul><ul><li>Technical or management (or both)? </li></ul><ul><li>UK or International (ex-pat issues) short projects or long? </li></ul><ul><li>Freelance, temporary or contracting? </li></ul><ul><li>Working to live or living to work? </li></ul>
  7. 8. Developing your Career what is important? <ul><li>Knowing what you want </li></ul><ul><li>Knowing what Recruiters want from you </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding your labour market </li></ul><ul><li>Making choices </li></ul><ul><li>Action planning – and implementation! </li></ul>
  8. 9. Knowing what you want <ul><li>Values, beliefs, attitudes </li></ul><ul><li>Interests & motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Skills, knowledge and experience </li></ul><ul><li>Constraints, commitments </li></ul><ul><li>Work context </li></ul><ul><li>Work/life balance </li></ul><ul><li>Your potential </li></ul>
  9. 10. Career Objectives <ul><li>Getting ahead? </li></ul><ul><li>Getting secure? </li></ul><ul><li>Getting high? </li></ul><ul><li>Getting free? </li></ul><ul><li>Getting balanced? </li></ul><ul><li>a need to advance </li></ul><ul><li>solid position </li></ul><ul><li>inspired by work </li></ul><ul><li>Autonomy </li></ul><ul><li>Value non-work </li></ul>Try to put these in order of importance for you – rank 1-5
  10. 11. Personal Review <ul><li>Who are you? </li></ul><ul><li>Where are you now? </li></ul><ul><li>Where do you want to go? </li></ul><ul><li>How can you get there? </li></ul><ul><li>Imagine where you want to be in five years time – discuss with the people next to you (groups of 3 or 4). </li></ul>
  11. 12. Be honest – problems with over-selling yourself!
  12. 13. What sort of personality do you have?
  13. 14. There are many ways to assess personality <ul><li>Consider also: </li></ul><ul><li>Predictive validity weak in terms of performance </li></ul><ul><li>But person-job fit is linked to job satisfaction, burnout etc. </li></ul>See: http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v =kHF0VXPanU8 But consider the validity of this?
  14. 15. Consider the Currency of Life Work Friends Sport Studies Religion Money People Status Power Location Travel Environment Family Options?
  15. 16. Knowing the labour market <ul><li>Wide range of jobs and skills in IT – technical, sales, training, support etc., see SFIA Plus. </li></ul><ul><li>Wide range of companies, large-small, public-private, charities – everyone needs IT! </li></ul><ul><li>Potential for setting up on your own – if you can sell as well – currently 4 out of 5 start-ups fail. </li></ul><ul><li>Many changes, including outsourcing and offshoring... </li></ul><ul><li>These impact upon the ‘flow’ of your career – can tend to be restrictions on entry and mid-range jobs and increase in need for contract and negotiation skills. Do you see this as an issue? </li></ul>
  16. 17. Know what recruiters expect from you <ul><li>High level of intellect and achievement </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility with reliability </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural fit (or make you fit) </li></ul><ul><li>Team work </li></ul><ul><li>Customer focus </li></ul><ul><li>Entrepreneurship </li></ul><ul><li>Decision making capability </li></ul><ul><li>Transferable skills (risk) </li></ul>
  17. 18. Options, Choices and Actions <ul><li>How attractive are options? </li></ul><ul><li>How achievable are options? </li></ul><ul><li>Making choices within currency of life </li></ul><ul><li>Career goals on varied time scale </li></ul><ul><li>Specific actions, including research and networking </li></ul>
  18. 19. Goal Setting in Career Management <ul><li>Planning is difficult! </li></ul><ul><li>But you can set goals – make them SMART. </li></ul><ul><li>Must include feedback mechanism. </li></ul><ul><li>Check them regularly for progress (implementation is the hardest part) </li></ul>
  19. 20. Decision Making and Risk <ul><li>An important aspect both in terms of reaching SFIA levels 6 and 7 </li></ul><ul><li>… and in succeeding in your own career plans is understanding how you approach decisions, how good you are at implementing them, and your ‘vulnerability’ to risk. </li></ul><ul><li>Structured decision making helps you gather information, look at options, assess your use of intuition, thought-engaged choice, decisional confidence, and implementation persistence. </li></ul>
  20. 21. Why look at decision making style? <ul><li>We make decisions all the time – crucial to career planning. </li></ul><ul><li>Personality Traits and Cognitive Ability tests do not access these elements </li></ul>'... our society has largely neglected the fact that sound judgement and decision making are the crux of many professions' (Smith et al 2004) Problem solving Decision making Task switching Planning Controlling action Directed mental action
  21. 22. So What is wrong with our decision-making? Anchoring Stereotypes Halo effects Over-confidence Poor use heuristics Risk blindness Recency Bias Poor Estimating Biases Illusory correlations Conjunction fallacies Self Correcting chance Satisficing
  22. 23. DASA is a test of the following process Goals Options Choice Sequence Action Feedback Executive Function People differ in where they pay attention
  23. 24. Summary of DASA factors and component scales Proactive Cognition Action Deciding Decision flow Organisation Attention & Persistence Resources trivial decisions Intuition Thought engaged choice Resources important decisions Decisional resource regulation Opportunity scanning Creating new options Decisional confidence
  24. 25. Example actions from DASA scores <ul><li>Low thought-engaged choice? </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t jump at the first job you are offered! </li></ul><ul><li>Set yourself a goal that you will reflect more on important decisions and consider the consequences of actions. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep a note of your deliberations for the next five important decisions you make, and assess the changes in your decision making style. </li></ul>
  25. 26. Attention and Persistence. <ul><li>If Low – you may not give enough effort to planning. </li></ul><ul><li>Set a goal that you will force yourself to continue for an additional 20 minutes on a task you were about to give up on. </li></ul><ul><li>If you feel yourself getting distracted remind yourself of a reward you will give yourself if you persist and achieve your extra 20 minutes. Keep a log of your progress. (consider e.g. Of exam revision – is evidence doing this really works!) </li></ul>
  26. 27. Attention and Persistence <ul><li>If High – you may actually go past the stage of performing. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep a log of tedious tasks you are doing and assess whether there are times when you should have stopped for a break and had a drink or some food, which may have helped you to complete the task more quickly or effectively. </li></ul><ul><li>If you find this is happening set yourself a goal to take a break after a certain amount of time in these circumstances. Record the next five tedious tasks and assess how taking a break improves your efficiency. </li></ul>
  27. 28. Assess your DASA profiles <ul><li>Consider the implications for career planning. </li></ul><ul><li>Allocate some actions to your feedback with clear goals and how to assess progress. </li></ul>
  28. 29. Where are we? <ul><li>Importance of knowing yourself </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding what you want – the currency of life. </li></ul><ul><li>Career planning cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Options </li></ul><ul><li>Labour market </li></ul><ul><li>Decision making </li></ul>
  29. 30. Personal action planning <ul><li>Write a personal action plan that considers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What you want to achieve in your career </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What you can do to improve your DM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What steps you can take to achieve the goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When and how you will monitor progress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who will help you </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Priorities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Set goals that are realistic, achievable and challenging – not too far into the future! </li></ul>
  30. 31. Continuing your development <ul><li>Learn continuously, formally and informally </li></ul><ul><li>Plan for the future </li></ul><ul><li>Use both positive and negative work experiences to learn from </li></ul><ul><li>Ask other people to coach you </li></ul><ul><li>Keep learning about your business sector, and any other sectors that interest you </li></ul>
  31. 32. For those doing manual DASA 5.0 3.0 2.0 1.0 0.0 4.0 5.0 3.0 2.0 1.0 0.0 4.0 Decisional confidence Creating new Options Opportunity Scanning Creating new options Opportunity scanning Resources imp decisions Intuition Thought engaged choice Resources trivial decisions Attention & persistence Organisation Decisional resource regulation Decision flow = Sub A DC CO OS RI RT IN TE DR DF AP OR Proactive Cognition Deciding Action 25% ‘tile 25%-75% ‘tile 75% ‘tile
  32. 33. Further Reading <ul><li>Baruch, Y. (2004) Managing Careers: Theory and practice. Prentice Hall. </li></ul><ul><li>Bazerman, M. & Moore, (2008). Judgment in managerial decision making. 7th edition. New York: Wiley </li></ul><ul><li>Feldman, D.C. (ed) (2002) Work Careers: A Developmental Perspective. Wiley. </li></ul>
  33. 34. Consider this - Intuition <ul><li>(link/embed) http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v = dddFfRaBPqg </li></ul>
  34. 35. Websites to try out tests <ul><li>http:// www.outofservice.com/bigfive / </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.personalitypathways.com/ </li></ul><ul><li>http:// www.keirsey.com </li></ul><ul><li>http:// www.authentichappiness.sas.upenn.edu/Default.aspx </li></ul>
  35. 36. And free psychometric tests too, e.g. <ul><li>http://www.psychometric-success.com/downloads/download-practice-tests.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.psychometric-success.com/downloads/download-practice-tests.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http:// personality.findingpotential.net/default.asp </li></ul>
  36. 37. Learning outcomes <ul><li>Knowledge about approaches to career development </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding of individual differences in preferences and their implications for working in computing. </li></ul><ul><li>Awareness of your own decision-making and risk profile and its relevance to your role and your career decisions. </li></ul>

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