INDE047 – Business
Management for Engineers
Part I
Mohammad Tawfik
November 2013
INDE047 – Business Management
for Enginee...
Organizations
Psychology, Leadership,
Creativity, Conflicts, Destructive
Behavior
INDE047 – Business Management
for Engine...
How to Win Friends and
Influence People
Dale Carnegie
1937

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad T...
Fundamental Techniques In
Handling People

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
Give honest and sincere appreciation

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
Arouse in the other person an eager want

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
Six Ways To Make People
Like You

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
Smile!

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
Remember Names

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
Encourage others to talk about
themselves

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
Talk in terms of the other person's
interests

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
Make the other person feel important

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
Win People To Your Way Of
Thinking

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
The only way to get the best of an
argument is to avoid it

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad T...
Show respect for the other person's
opinions

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
Get the other person saying "yes, yes"
immediately

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, P...
Let the other person do a great deal of
the talking

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, ...
Let the other person feel that the idea
is his or hers

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfi...
Try honestly to see things from the
other person's point of view

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Moha...
Be sympathetic with the other
person's ideas and desires

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Taw...
Appeal to the nobler motives

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
Dramatize your ideas

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
Throw down a challenge

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
Be a Leader

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
Begin with praise and honest
appreciation

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
Call attention to people's mistakes
indirectly

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
Talk about your own mistakes
before criticizing the other person

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Moha...
Ask questions instead of giving
direct orders

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
Let the other person save face

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
Praise the slightest improvement
and praise every improvement

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohamma...
Give the other person a fine
reputation to live up to

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik...
Use encouragement

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
Leadership and Motivation

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
Lead, follow, or get out of the
way!
Thomas Paine

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, Ph...
The first basic ingredient of
leadership is a guiding vision
Warren Bennis

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: P...
What is leadership?

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
Leadership is influence,
nothing more, nothing less
John C. Maxwell

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
M...
If your actions inspire others
to dream more, learn more,
do more, and become more,
you are a leader
John Quicy Adams

IND...
Leaders should …

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
Have a Vision

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
Have a Vision

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
Set Goals

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
Set Action Plans

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
Monitor and Help

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
Build Teams

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
Gather People

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
Create Loyalty

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
Help and Care

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
Delegate

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
What?

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
Routine Tasks

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
Tasks that develop people

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
Occasional Duties

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
Outside his areas of expertise

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
How?

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
Clear

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
Specific

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
Share Setting

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
Inform

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
Monitor

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
Who?

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
Willing

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
Able

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
Learner

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
Looks for challenge

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
Develop People

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
Leaders Create Leaders

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
Identify Competencies

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
Understand Needs and
Style

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
Motivating People

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
Laws of Motivation
Richard Denny

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
1- To Motivate you have
to be Motivated

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
Motivating Yourself

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
You must manage yourself
before you can lead others
Zig Ziglar
1926-2012

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Par...
Set Goals

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
Seize the moment to act

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
Have persistence

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
Build your Willpower

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
2- Motivation Requires a Goal

“I will only
settle for
world
INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part
domination”...
3- Motivation Never Lasts

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
4- Recognition Motivates

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
4- To Motivate, Recognize
Needs

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
●

Basic human needs
Leave a
legacy

Live

Learn

Love

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfi...
How to De-Motivate?

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
Focus on rewards!

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
Do not give enough trust!

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
Reward the wrong attitude!

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD

Do not communicate!
Focus on Cost!

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
How to Motivate?

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
The SCARF Model
David Rock

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
Status

Fairness

Certainty

Motivate
by:
David Rock
“Your Brain at Work”
Relatedness

Autonomy

INDE047 – Business Manage...
What Motivates People
Daniel Pink

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
Autonomy

Motivation

Purpose

Mastery

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
Innovation!

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
Innovation is the key!

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
Bringing creative ideas to life

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
WARNING!
• Nothing really insures that you will get an
innovative idea in any field, rather,
suggestions of things that yo...
Curiosity!

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
Explore!

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
Serendipity!

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
Diversify the search!

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
Network!

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
Exercise hunting ..

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
Exaptation

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
Be Agile …

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
Love your mistakes…

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
Study them …

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
Even celebrate them!

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
Some noise is not so bad after
all …

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
I said “some” … not all!

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
The Russian nesting dolls!

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
Empty the bag …

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
Destructive habits in
organizations and projects

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
Why Do Good Companies Go Bad?
• In a nutshell: Good companies fail when
they are unable or unwilling to change
when their ...
Denial

Turf
Wars

Volume
Obsession

Arrogance

7
Habits

Competitive
Myopia

Complacency

Competence
Dependence

INDE047 ...
Denial

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
What leads to Denial?
• Denial of emerging technologies.
Denial of changing consumer tastes.
Denial of the new global envi...
Signs of Denial
• “Hey, we’re different, so there’s no way
it can happen to us.”
The company is too proud to admit that
so...
How to break the habit of denial
Look for it

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
How to break the habit of denial

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
How to break the habit of denial

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
Arrogance

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
What is Arrogance?
• Offensive display of:
Superiority
Self-importance
Pride
Disdain (contempt)
… because of an inflated s...
What leads to Arrogance?
• Exceptional achievement in the past
David conquers Goliath
The company pioneers a product or
se...
Signs of Arrogance
• The company stops listening
The company becomes extravagantly
eager to show off.

The company begins ...
Signs of Arrogance
• The company becomes high-handed and
abuses rules
The company favors those who validate its
views and ...
How to break the habit of
arrogance?
• Rotate management to new challenges.
Implement nontraditional succession
planning.
...
Complacency
INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
What is Complacency?
• Complacency is the sense of security and
comfort that derives from the belief that
the success that...
What leads to Complacency?

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
What leads to Complacency?

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
Signs of Complacency
• The company is in no hurry to make
decisions.
The company’s processes are overly
bureaucratic.
Ever...
Signs of Complacency
• The company is completely vertically
integrated.
Enormous cross-subsidies are in place –
by functio...
How to break Complacency?
• Reengineer to achieve high quality,
eliminate waste, and reduce inefficiency.
Decentralize pro...
How to break Complacency?
• Outsource – contract out all non-core
functions.
Reenergize – consider a new leader with a
pos...
Competency Dependence

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
What is Competency
Dependence?
• Somebody else can be doing a better job,
and if a company is unable to figure out
what to...
What leads to Competency
Dependence?
• R&D dependence
Design dependence
Sales dependence
Service dependence

INDE047 – Bus...
Signs of Competency
Dependence
• Reengineering, reorganization, retooling
have been tried and still no good results.
The t...
How to break Competency
Dependence?
• Find new applications where the same
competency results in new value.
Determine new ...
How to break Competency
Dependence?
• Expand the range of your competencies
by moving up or down the value chain.
Refocus ...
Competitive Myopia

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
What is Competitive Myopia?
• When they define their competition too
narrowly and acknowledge only direct and
immediate co...
What leads to Competitive
Myopia?
• The natural evolution of the industry.
.

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers:...
What leads to Competitive
Myopia?
The clustering phenomenon.

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad...
Signs of Competitive Myopia
A company allows small niche players to
coexist with it.
The loyalty of a company’s supplier i...
Signs of Competitive Myopia
New entrants, especially those from
emerging economies, are underestimated.
The company become...
How to break Competitive
Myopia?
Broaden the scope of the product or
market.
Consolidate to squeeze out excess
capacity.

...
How to break Competitive
Myopia?
Counterattack the nontraditional
competitors.
Refocus on the core business to
concentrate...
Volume Obsession

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
What is Volume Obsession?
• Too much money is being spent for the
company to make money.

INDE047 – Business Management
fo...
What leads to Volume
Obsession?
The high-margin pioneer.
The fast-growth phenomenon

The paradox of scale.
The ball and ch...
Signs of Volume Obsession
Guideline-free, ad hoc spending.
Functional-level cost centers.

A culture of cross-subsidies.
S...
How to break Volume
Obsession?
Identify where the company’s costs are.
Convert cost centers into revenue centers
or profit...
How to break Volume
Obsession?
Outsource non-core functions.
Reengineer to automate processes to
improve cost efficiency.
...
The Territorial Impulse

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
What is Territorial Impulse?
• As companies grow they tend to organize
themselves into “functional” and later
“regional si...
What leads to Territorial
Impulse?
The corporate ivory tower.

INDE047 – Business Management
for Engineers: Part I
Mohamma...
What leads to Territorial
Impulse?
Growth requires the institution of formal
policies and procedures.

INDE047 – Business ...
What leads to Territorial
Impulse?

The informal, spontaneous culture is
extinguished.
INDE047 – Business Management
for E...
What leads to Territorial
Impulse?

A company’s culture is dominated by one
functional specialty.

INDE047 – Business Mana...
Signs of Territorial Impulse
Dissension - a lot of headstrong
lieutenants instead of one strong general
Indecision – decis...
Signs of Territorial Impulse

Confusion – one side doesn’t know what
the other side is up to

Malaise – nobody’s happy

IN...
How to break Territorial
Impulse?
The leader must bring all the people
together in a common cause.
Rotate the people in an...
How to break Territorial
Impulse?
Create permanent cross-functional teams.
Reorganize around customers or products
rather ...
Conflict Management

●

Based on the lectures on “The art of Conflict
Management” by Michael Dues, the teaching
Company
Understanding Conflict
What is a conflict?
●

●

“An expressed struggle between at least two
interdependent parties who perceive
incompatible goa...
Elements of Conflict
●

Interdependence
Elements of Conflict
●

Difference
Elements of Conflict
●

Opposition
Elements of Conflict
●

Expression
Elements of Conflict
●

Emotion
Conflict may be useful!
●

Bringing to the surface, problems that were not
clear before
Most conflicts rise on how to reach the goal
not on the goal itself
To reach win-win resolution ...

●

Identify common goals
To reach win-win resolution ...

Treat conflicts as a challenges that you can work on
together to achieve a solution for b...
Perhaps our greatest limitation in working toward
win-win solutions is that each of us comes to the
table with deep-seated...
Conflict does not arise so
much from a difference
itself but from the
perception we have of
that difference
To reduce conflict ...

Try to see situation from the other person's
perspective
Almost all of us tend to attribute mistakes or
failings on our part to external events
... but we also tend to attribute the behavior of
others to their own character or emotions
We’re really emotional beings who have evolved
an ability to reason that helps us deal with our
emotions.
Remember that emotion is an internal fact; it’s a
response to perceptions you are having
Being angry is not the same as acting on your
anger
Power

How Much We Need and How to Use It?
What is Power?
●

Power can be defined as the ability to cause or
influence an outcome.
What is Power?
●

Notice the difference between “influence” and
“control”!
Kinds of Power
●

Personal power, such as talents, skills, or
knowledge that we may have;
Kinds of Power
●

Relational power, that is, the power that derives
from the nature of the relationship between the
partie...
Kinds of Power
●

Situational power, the conditions in the conflict
situation that give power to one party or one
issue mo...
Five Bases of Power
John French and Bertram Raven
Reward power
Coercive power
Legitimate power
Referent power
Expert power
The important point to remember is that both
parties have power in any conflict and that
power derives from the interdepen...
For conflict resolution ...
●

You do not need more power!
●

You need sufficient interdependence!!!
The more equal the conflicting parties are in
power, the better the chances are of working out a
win-win resolution
Conflict Styles

Thomas and Kilmann
Avoidance

Competition

Compromise
Accommodation

Collaboration
Dysfunctional Conflict Strategies
Avoidance
Withdrawal
Imposition
Triangulation
Manipulation
Absolute framing
Revenge
Compromise
Principles for Win-Win Negotiations
Roger Fisher and William Ury
Separate people from the problem

Focus on events or behaviors rather than the parties
involved.
Focus on interests, not positions

Do not take a position and defend it or bargain for it but to
focus on the interest beh...
Generate options for mutual gain

Brainstorm for multiple options, keeping in mind the
goal of mutual gain
The choice of objective criteria

Try to identify measurable ways to assess the value of the
suggestions
Identify your BATNA

Best Alternative to Negotiated Agreement
Preparing for Negotiation
Conditions of Negotiation

You are willing
and Able to
Negotiate

Other Party is
willing and
Able to Negotiate
Step 1
Define the conflict issue (What and Why)
Step 2
Identify and evaluate your goals
Why do I want to resolve this conflict?
What is a good resolution for me?
How important is it to me that I reach this
resolution?
How do I want to be viewed by the other party?
How does this situation affect the way I view
myself?
Step 3
Do you want to resolve the issue by negotiating?
Consider the degree of interdependence
Consider your leverage

The ability to influence the other side to move closer to one's negotiating position
Consider the context of the potential negotiation
Consider the nature of your relationship
Consider the risks of introducing the issue
Consider BATNA
Step 4
Arrange a meeting with the other party
Negotiating Conflict Resolutions
Step 5
Conduct the meeting
Step 6
Make a contract
The contract must be clear
The contract must address voluntary behavior
from the present forward
The contract must be an unequivocal agreement
Step 7
Follow through on the contract
Pay attention to the other party compliance with
the agreement
If the other party is in compliance, you should
express your appreciation
If the other party is not following the agreement,
you should arrange another meeting
Managers and Conflict
Management
All organizations are like living organisms,
constantly moving, changing, and interacting, and
a change in any one element...
Some parts of the system operate informally and
unofficially
Managers and supervisors must improve conflict
management within the organization in order to
minimize costs.
Seven key principles that can guide top
supervisors and managers ...
1- Prevent unnecessary conflict ...
Caused by creating competitive situations
Caused by failing to clearly define roles and
responsibilities
Caused by failing to establish areas and lines of
authority
Caused by making decisions without consulting
the stakeholders
2- Be courageous in the face of conflict
3- Focus on the general pattern of conflict
management in the organization
4- Promote informal resolution of conflict
by creating policies that state a preference for
resolution by discussion, although with authority
still specified for mak...
5- Formal processes need to be in place for
conflict management
6- Assess and improve on the organizational
culture
7- Model the behaviors they desire in conflict
management
Moral and Cultural Conflicts
Moral conflicts are those in which the issues are
framed as matters of what is morally right and
morally wrong
Note from the outset that this absolute framing is
a dysfunctional conflict strategy
Moral values are inherently subjective, yet they
are usually held as nonnegotiable absolutes
In a dispute about a moral question, it’s difficult to
reach a win-win resolution
Among the specific tactics that may be helpful in
dealing with moral conflicts is reframing, that is,
finding a constructi...
Other useful tactics include fractionating
Developing empathy
Attempting to build mutual trust
Inde047 lect02   organization behavior
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Inde047 lect02 organization behavior

  1. 1. INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers Part I Mohammad Tawfik November 2013 INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  2. 2. Organizations Psychology, Leadership, Creativity, Conflicts, Destructive Behavior INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  3. 3. How to Win Friends and Influence People Dale Carnegie 1937 INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  4. 4. Fundamental Techniques In Handling People INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  5. 5. INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  6. 6. Give honest and sincere appreciation INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  7. 7. Arouse in the other person an eager want INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  8. 8. Six Ways To Make People Like You INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  9. 9. INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  10. 10. Smile! INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  11. 11. Remember Names INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  12. 12. Encourage others to talk about themselves INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  13. 13. Talk in terms of the other person's interests INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  14. 14. Make the other person feel important INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  15. 15. Win People To Your Way Of Thinking INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  16. 16. The only way to get the best of an argument is to avoid it INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  17. 17. Show respect for the other person's opinions INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  18. 18. INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  19. 19. Get the other person saying "yes, yes" immediately INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  20. 20. Let the other person do a great deal of the talking INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  21. 21. Let the other person feel that the idea is his or hers INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  22. 22. Try honestly to see things from the other person's point of view INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  23. 23. Be sympathetic with the other person's ideas and desires INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  24. 24. Appeal to the nobler motives INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  25. 25. Dramatize your ideas INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  26. 26. Throw down a challenge INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  27. 27. Be a Leader INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  28. 28. Begin with praise and honest appreciation INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  29. 29. Call attention to people's mistakes indirectly INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  30. 30. Talk about your own mistakes before criticizing the other person INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  31. 31. Ask questions instead of giving direct orders INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  32. 32. Let the other person save face INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  33. 33. Praise the slightest improvement and praise every improvement INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  34. 34. Give the other person a fine reputation to live up to INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  35. 35. Use encouragement INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  36. 36. Leadership and Motivation INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  37. 37. Lead, follow, or get out of the way! Thomas Paine INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  38. 38. The first basic ingredient of leadership is a guiding vision Warren Bennis INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  39. 39. What is leadership? INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  40. 40. Leadership is influence, nothing more, nothing less John C. Maxwell INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  41. 41. If your actions inspire others to dream more, learn more, do more, and become more, you are a leader John Quicy Adams INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  42. 42. Leaders should … INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  43. 43. Have a Vision INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  44. 44. Have a Vision INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  45. 45. Set Goals INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  46. 46. Set Action Plans INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  47. 47. Monitor and Help INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  48. 48. Build Teams INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  49. 49. Gather People INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  50. 50. Create Loyalty INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  51. 51. Help and Care INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  52. 52. Delegate INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  53. 53. What? INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  54. 54. Routine Tasks INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  55. 55. Tasks that develop people INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  56. 56. Occasional Duties INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  57. 57. Outside his areas of expertise INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  58. 58. How? INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  59. 59. Clear INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  60. 60. Specific INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  61. 61. Share Setting INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  62. 62. Inform INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  63. 63. Monitor INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  64. 64. Who? INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  65. 65. Willing INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  66. 66. Able INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  67. 67. Learner INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  68. 68. Looks for challenge INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  69. 69. Develop People INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  70. 70. Leaders Create Leaders INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  71. 71. Identify Competencies INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  72. 72. Understand Needs and Style INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  73. 73. Motivating People INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  74. 74. Laws of Motivation Richard Denny INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  75. 75. 1- To Motivate you have to be Motivated INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  76. 76. Motivating Yourself INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  77. 77. You must manage yourself before you can lead others Zig Ziglar 1926-2012 INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  78. 78. Set Goals INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  79. 79. INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  80. 80. Seize the moment to act INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  81. 81. INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  82. 82. Have persistence INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  83. 83. Build your Willpower INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  84. 84. 2- Motivation Requires a Goal “I will only settle for world INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part domination” I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  85. 85. 3- Motivation Never Lasts INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  86. 86. 4- Recognition Motivates INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  87. 87. INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  88. 88. 4- To Motivate, Recognize Needs INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  89. 89. ● Basic human needs Leave a legacy Live Learn Love INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  90. 90. How to De-Motivate? INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  91. 91. Focus on rewards! INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  92. 92. Do not give enough trust! INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  93. 93. Reward the wrong attitude! INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  94. 94. INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD Do not communicate!
  95. 95. Focus on Cost! INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  96. 96. How to Motivate? INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  97. 97. The SCARF Model David Rock INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  98. 98. Status Fairness Certainty Motivate by: David Rock “Your Brain at Work” Relatedness Autonomy INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  99. 99. What Motivates People Daniel Pink INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  100. 100. Autonomy Motivation Purpose Mastery INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  101. 101. Innovation! INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  102. 102. Innovation is the key! INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  103. 103. Bringing creative ideas to life INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  104. 104. WARNING! • Nothing really insures that you will get an innovative idea in any field, rather, suggestions of things that you may do can increase the possibility of getting one INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  105. 105. Curiosity! INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  106. 106. Explore! INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  107. 107. Serendipity! INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  108. 108. Diversify the search! INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  109. 109. Network! INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  110. 110. Exercise hunting .. INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  111. 111. Exaptation INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  112. 112. Be Agile … INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  113. 113. Love your mistakes… INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  114. 114. Study them … INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  115. 115. Even celebrate them! INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  116. 116. Some noise is not so bad after all … INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  117. 117. I said “some” … not all! INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  118. 118. The Russian nesting dolls! INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  119. 119. Empty the bag … INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  120. 120. Destructive habits in organizations and projects INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  121. 121. INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  122. 122. Why Do Good Companies Go Bad? • In a nutshell: Good companies fail when they are unable or unwilling to change when their external environment changes significantly. INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  123. 123. Denial Turf Wars Volume Obsession Arrogance 7 Habits Competitive Myopia Complacency Competence Dependence INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  124. 124. Denial INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  125. 125. What leads to Denial? • Denial of emerging technologies. Denial of changing consumer tastes. Denial of the new global environment INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  126. 126. Signs of Denial • “Hey, we’re different, so there’s no way it can happen to us.” The company is too proud to admit that someone else has come up with a better way. The company ignores, rationalizes, or blames others for its situation instead of admitting its fault. INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  127. 127. How to break the habit of denial Look for it INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  128. 128. How to break the habit of denial INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  129. 129. How to break the habit of denial INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  130. 130. Arrogance INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  131. 131. What is Arrogance? • Offensive display of: Superiority Self-importance Pride Disdain (contempt) … because of an inflated sense of self INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  132. 132. What leads to Arrogance? • Exceptional achievement in the past David conquers Goliath The company pioneers a product or service INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  133. 133. Signs of Arrogance • The company stops listening The company becomes extravagantly eager to show off. The company begins to act like a bully, both internally and externally. INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  134. 134. Signs of Arrogance • The company becomes high-handed and abuses rules The company favors those who validate its views and gets rid of those who are critical. INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  135. 135. How to break the habit of arrogance? • Rotate management to new challenges. Implement nontraditional succession planning. Diversify the talent. Change the leadership. INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  136. 136. Complacency INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  137. 137. What is Complacency? • Complacency is the sense of security and comfort that derives from the belief that the success that’s taken place in the past will continue indefinitely. INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  138. 138. What leads to Complacency? INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  139. 139. What leads to Complacency? INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  140. 140. Signs of Complacency • The company is in no hurry to make decisions. The company’s processes are overly bureaucratic. Everybody has to get on board before a decision is made. INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  141. 141. Signs of Complacency • The company is completely vertically integrated. Enormous cross-subsidies are in place – by functions, by products, by markets, by customers. Average costing and average pricing prevail. INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  142. 142. How to break Complacency? • Reengineer to achieve high quality, eliminate waste, and reduce inefficiency. Decentralize profit and loss by creating and molding business units around products or geographies. INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  143. 143. How to break Complacency? • Outsource – contract out all non-core functions. Reenergize – consider a new leader with a positive, opportunity-oriented vision INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  144. 144. Competency Dependence INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  145. 145. What is Competency Dependence? • Somebody else can be doing a better job, and if a company is unable to figure out what to do, it has become competencydependent INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  146. 146. What leads to Competency Dependence? • R&D dependence Design dependence Sales dependence Service dependence INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  147. 147. Signs of Competency Dependence • Reengineering, reorganization, retooling have been tried and still no good results. The thrill is gone and the company is in a funk. Stakeholders are leaving INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  148. 148. How to break Competency Dependence? • Find new applications where the same competency results in new value. Determine new markets where the same competency remains an asset. INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  149. 149. How to break Competency Dependence? • Expand the range of your competencies by moving up or down the value chain. Refocus company resources into areas with more growth and profit potential. INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  150. 150. Competitive Myopia INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  151. 151. What is Competitive Myopia? • When they define their competition too narrowly and acknowledge only direct and immediate competitors INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  152. 152. What leads to Competitive Myopia? • The natural evolution of the industry. . INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  153. 153. What leads to Competitive Myopia? The clustering phenomenon. INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  154. 154. Signs of Competitive Myopia A company allows small niche players to coexist with it. The loyalty of a company’s supplier is won by a nontraditional competitor. INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  155. 155. Signs of Competitive Myopia New entrants, especially those from emerging economies, are underestimated. The company becomes helpless against a substitute technology. INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  156. 156. How to break Competitive Myopia? Broaden the scope of the product or market. Consolidate to squeeze out excess capacity. INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  157. 157. How to break Competitive Myopia? Counterattack the nontraditional competitors. Refocus on the core business to concentrate limited resources in the most successful area. INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  158. 158. Volume Obsession INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  159. 159. What is Volume Obsession? • Too much money is being spent for the company to make money. INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  160. 160. What leads to Volume Obsession? The high-margin pioneer. The fast-growth phenomenon The paradox of scale. The ball and chain of unintended obligations INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  161. 161. Signs of Volume Obsession Guideline-free, ad hoc spending. Functional-level cost centers. A culture of cross-subsidies. Stakeholders say numbers are not good. INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  162. 162. How to break Volume Obsession? Identify where the company’s costs are. Convert cost centers into revenue centers or profit centers. Move from vertical integration to “virtual integration”. INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  163. 163. How to break Volume Obsession? Outsource non-core functions. Reengineer to automate processes to improve cost efficiency. Implement target costing Become a world-class customer. INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  164. 164. The Territorial Impulse INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  165. 165. What is Territorial Impulse? • As companies grow they tend to organize themselves into “functional” and later “regional silos”. However, the various units into which companies organize themselves don’t always get along well with each other, for various reasons. INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  166. 166. What leads to Territorial Impulse? The corporate ivory tower. INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  167. 167. What leads to Territorial Impulse? Growth requires the institution of formal policies and procedures. INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  168. 168. What leads to Territorial Impulse? The informal, spontaneous culture is extinguished. INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  169. 169. What leads to Territorial Impulse? A company’s culture is dominated by one functional specialty. INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  170. 170. Signs of Territorial Impulse Dissension - a lot of headstrong lieutenants instead of one strong general Indecision – decision-making is an agonizing or even impossible process INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  171. 171. Signs of Territorial Impulse Confusion – one side doesn’t know what the other side is up to Malaise – nobody’s happy INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  172. 172. How to break Territorial Impulse? The leader must bring all the people together in a common cause. Rotate the people in and out of different functional or geographic silos. INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  173. 173. How to break Territorial Impulse? Create permanent cross-functional teams. Reorganize around customers or products rather than around function or geography. INDE047 – Business Management for Engineers: Part I Mohammad Tawfik, PhD
  174. 174. Conflict Management ● Based on the lectures on “The art of Conflict Management” by Michael Dues, the teaching Company
  175. 175. Understanding Conflict
  176. 176. What is a conflict? ● ● “An expressed struggle between at least two interdependent parties who perceive incompatible goals, scarce resources, and interference from others in achieving their goals.” Or Simply: “discomforting difference.”
  177. 177. Elements of Conflict ● Interdependence
  178. 178. Elements of Conflict ● Difference
  179. 179. Elements of Conflict ● Opposition
  180. 180. Elements of Conflict ● Expression
  181. 181. Elements of Conflict ● Emotion
  182. 182. Conflict may be useful! ● Bringing to the surface, problems that were not clear before
  183. 183. Most conflicts rise on how to reach the goal not on the goal itself
  184. 184. To reach win-win resolution ... ● Identify common goals
  185. 185. To reach win-win resolution ... Treat conflicts as a challenges that you can work on together to achieve a solution for both.
  186. 186. Perhaps our greatest limitation in working toward win-win solutions is that each of us comes to the table with deep-seated ideas about conflict and powerfully ingrained strategies.
  187. 187. Conflict does not arise so much from a difference itself but from the perception we have of that difference
  188. 188. To reduce conflict ... Try to see situation from the other person's perspective
  189. 189. Almost all of us tend to attribute mistakes or failings on our part to external events
  190. 190. ... but we also tend to attribute the behavior of others to their own character or emotions
  191. 191. We’re really emotional beings who have evolved an ability to reason that helps us deal with our emotions.
  192. 192. Remember that emotion is an internal fact; it’s a response to perceptions you are having
  193. 193. Being angry is not the same as acting on your anger
  194. 194. Power How Much We Need and How to Use It?
  195. 195. What is Power? ● Power can be defined as the ability to cause or influence an outcome.
  196. 196. What is Power? ● Notice the difference between “influence” and “control”!
  197. 197. Kinds of Power ● Personal power, such as talents, skills, or knowledge that we may have;
  198. 198. Kinds of Power ● Relational power, that is, the power that derives from the nature of the relationship between the parties;
  199. 199. Kinds of Power ● Situational power, the conditions in the conflict situation that give power to one party or one issue more than another
  200. 200. Five Bases of Power John French and Bertram Raven
  201. 201. Reward power
  202. 202. Coercive power
  203. 203. Legitimate power
  204. 204. Referent power
  205. 205. Expert power
  206. 206. The important point to remember is that both parties have power in any conflict and that power derives from the interdependence between the two parties in general and the particular situation they are in
  207. 207. For conflict resolution ...
  208. 208. ● You do not need more power!
  209. 209. ● You need sufficient interdependence!!!
  210. 210. The more equal the conflicting parties are in power, the better the chances are of working out a win-win resolution
  211. 211. Conflict Styles Thomas and Kilmann
  212. 212. Avoidance Competition Compromise Accommodation Collaboration
  213. 213. Dysfunctional Conflict Strategies
  214. 214. Avoidance
  215. 215. Withdrawal
  216. 216. Imposition
  217. 217. Triangulation
  218. 218. Manipulation
  219. 219. Absolute framing
  220. 220. Revenge
  221. 221. Compromise
  222. 222. Principles for Win-Win Negotiations Roger Fisher and William Ury
  223. 223. Separate people from the problem Focus on events or behaviors rather than the parties involved.
  224. 224. Focus on interests, not positions Do not take a position and defend it or bargain for it but to focus on the interest behind the position
  225. 225. Generate options for mutual gain Brainstorm for multiple options, keeping in mind the goal of mutual gain
  226. 226. The choice of objective criteria Try to identify measurable ways to assess the value of the suggestions
  227. 227. Identify your BATNA Best Alternative to Negotiated Agreement
  228. 228. Preparing for Negotiation
  229. 229. Conditions of Negotiation You are willing and Able to Negotiate Other Party is willing and Able to Negotiate
  230. 230. Step 1 Define the conflict issue (What and Why)
  231. 231. Step 2 Identify and evaluate your goals
  232. 232. Why do I want to resolve this conflict?
  233. 233. What is a good resolution for me?
  234. 234. How important is it to me that I reach this resolution?
  235. 235. How do I want to be viewed by the other party?
  236. 236. How does this situation affect the way I view myself?
  237. 237. Step 3 Do you want to resolve the issue by negotiating?
  238. 238. Consider the degree of interdependence
  239. 239. Consider your leverage The ability to influence the other side to move closer to one's negotiating position
  240. 240. Consider the context of the potential negotiation
  241. 241. Consider the nature of your relationship
  242. 242. Consider the risks of introducing the issue
  243. 243. Consider BATNA
  244. 244. Step 4 Arrange a meeting with the other party
  245. 245. Negotiating Conflict Resolutions
  246. 246. Step 5 Conduct the meeting
  247. 247. Step 6 Make a contract
  248. 248. The contract must be clear
  249. 249. The contract must address voluntary behavior from the present forward
  250. 250. The contract must be an unequivocal agreement
  251. 251. Step 7 Follow through on the contract
  252. 252. Pay attention to the other party compliance with the agreement
  253. 253. If the other party is in compliance, you should express your appreciation
  254. 254. If the other party is not following the agreement, you should arrange another meeting
  255. 255. Managers and Conflict Management
  256. 256. All organizations are like living organisms, constantly moving, changing, and interacting, and a change in any one element affects the organization as a whole
  257. 257. Some parts of the system operate informally and unofficially
  258. 258. Managers and supervisors must improve conflict management within the organization in order to minimize costs.
  259. 259. Seven key principles that can guide top supervisors and managers ...
  260. 260. 1- Prevent unnecessary conflict ...
  261. 261. Caused by creating competitive situations
  262. 262. Caused by failing to clearly define roles and responsibilities
  263. 263. Caused by failing to establish areas and lines of authority
  264. 264. Caused by making decisions without consulting the stakeholders
  265. 265. 2- Be courageous in the face of conflict
  266. 266. 3- Focus on the general pattern of conflict management in the organization
  267. 267. 4- Promote informal resolution of conflict
  268. 268. by creating policies that state a preference for resolution by discussion, although with authority still specified for making final decisions
  269. 269. 5- Formal processes need to be in place for conflict management
  270. 270. 6- Assess and improve on the organizational culture
  271. 271. 7- Model the behaviors they desire in conflict management
  272. 272. Moral and Cultural Conflicts
  273. 273. Moral conflicts are those in which the issues are framed as matters of what is morally right and morally wrong
  274. 274. Note from the outset that this absolute framing is a dysfunctional conflict strategy
  275. 275. Moral values are inherently subjective, yet they are usually held as nonnegotiable absolutes
  276. 276. In a dispute about a moral question, it’s difficult to reach a win-win resolution
  277. 277. Among the specific tactics that may be helpful in dealing with moral conflicts is reframing, that is, finding a constructive new way to view a conflict through a different lens or frame.
  278. 278. Other useful tactics include fractionating
  279. 279. Developing empathy
  280. 280. Attempting to build mutual trust

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