Management of a diabetic patient in dental office


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Management of a diabetic patient in dental office

  2. 2. Diabetes Mellitus • A chronic metabolic disorder caused by deficiency of insulin,the primary feature is increase in blood glucose level (hyperglycemia)
  3. 3. Global Prevalence • 171 million (people having diabetes, worldwide) in the year 2000 is expected to increase to at least 366 million in 2030
  4. 4. Patient with cardinal features of diabetes • polydipsia, polyuria, polyphagia, weight loss, poor wound healing, weakness, frequent and severe infections, obesity and having family history of diabetes
  5. 5. Patient with cardinal features of diabetes • oral conditions includes xerostomia, burning sensations, overgrowth of gum tissue, tooth decay, periodontal disease, and fungal infections, fruity (acetone) breath, dry mouth, thickness of saliva
  6. 6. Patient with cardinal features of diabetes • Such patients are more prone to diabetes so should be referred to a physician for diagnosis of diabetes
  7. 7. Known diabetic patients • inquire about the medication, the type, severity and control of diabetes, the physician treating the patient and the date of last visit
  8. 8. Known diabetic patients • The dentist should be aware of the patient’s recent glycated hemoglobin values. HbA1c values of less than 8% indicate relatively good glycemic control; greater than 10% indicate poor control
  9. 9. Known diabetic patients • When the level of control of diabetes is not known, consult patients physician and the treatment should be just limited to palliation
  10. 10. Known diabetic patients • In patients with good glycemic control before starting any procedure, verify that the patient has taken medication and diet as usual
  11. 11. Known diabetic patients • Patients, receiving good medical management without serious complications such as renal disease, hypertension, or coronary atherosclerotic heart disease, can receive any indicated dental treatment
  12. 12. Known diabetic patients • Local anesthesia is preferred, but such patients can even be safely treated in general anesthesia
  13. 13. Known diabetic patients • Patients with complications require different treatment plan • Morning appointments should be preferred because this is the time of high glucose and low insulin activity • This reduces the risk of hypoglycemic episodes during the dental procedures
  14. 14. Known diabetic patients • Appointments should be of short duration • a source of glucose such as an orange juice must be available in the dental office to avoid hypoglycemic attacks
  15. 15. Known diabetic patients • Prophylactic antibiotics for patients taking high doses of insulin to prevent post-operative infection are recommended • It's best to do surgery when blood sugar levels are within normal range
  16. 16. Known diabetic patients • to avoid hyperglycemia use anxiety reduction protocol,emotional stresses and painful conditions increase the amount of cortisol and epinephrine secretion which induce hyperglycemia so – pre-treatment anxiety should be reduced by sedation – pain during procedures can be avoided by a potent anesthesia
  17. 17. Known diabetic patients • If the dental needs are urgent and blood sugar is poorly controlled, treatment should be provided in a hospital or other setting where more medical professionals can monitor patient
  18. 18. Management of Insulin Shock • The most common diabetic emergency which a dentist encounters is hypoglycemia • it can lead to life-threatening consequences • it occurs when the concentration of blood glucose drops below 60 mg/dL
  19. 19. Management of Insulin Shock • confusion, sweating, tremors, agitation, anxiety, dizziness, tingling or numbness, and tachycardia. Severe hypoglycemia may result in seizures or loss of consciousness
  20. 20. Management of Insulin Shock • As soon as such signs or symptoms are present the dentist should check the blood glucose with a glucometer,, the “Golden Rule” is that manage the patients as if they are hypoglycemic until proven otherwise
  21. 21. Management of Insulin Shock • Establish adequate airway, breathing & circulation by loosening dress near the neck, switching on the fan/air conditioners, and placing the patient in the head-low-feet-up position
  22. 22. Management of Insulin Shock • If patient is conscious and able to take food by mouth, give 15g of oral carbohydrate in one of the following forms; – 4-6 ounce fruit juice or soda, – 3-4 teaspoon sugar, – a hard candy. – Small amount of honey/sweet syrup can also be placed in the buccal fold
  23. 23. Management of Insulin Shock • In unconscious patients, give 50ml of dextrose in 50% concentration or 1mg glucagon intaravenously, or give 1ml glucagon intramuscularly at almost any body site.
  24. 24. Management of Insulin Shock • Following treatment, the signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia should resolve in 10 to 15 minutes • The patient should be observed for 30 to 60 minutes after recovery. Normal blood glucose level is confirmed by a glucometer before the patient is allowed to leave
  25. 25. Post-operative Period • Eating the right diet is a critical part of diabetes therapy, if the patient is expected to have difficulty in eating solid food after dental procedure; diet should be modified to soft solids or liquids • Even the use of blender to blend food before eating is recommended
  26. 26. Post-operative Period • Consult the patient’s physician for post- operative period diet plan • It is necessary that the total caloric content and proteins/carbohydrates/fats ratio of the diet remain same
  27. 27. Instructions to be given to a diabetic • diabetic patients should be strongly motivated to maintain a good oral hygiene by – brushing after every meal – using floss daily – keeping their dentures clean
  28. 28. Instructions to be given to a diabetic • patients should be frequently recalled for – dental examinations – prophylactic measures, such as topical fluorides should be applied
  29. 29. Instructions to be given to a diabetic • Cavities should be treated as quickly as possible.The dryness of mouth can be relieved by providing salivary substitutes or asking the patient to suck sugar-free candy or gums and frequently drink water
  30. 30. Instructions to be given to a diabetic • Because their good oral health can help in maintaining good glycemic control, they should be taught that if there is a problem like a bleeding, swollen or tender gums, continuous bad taste or white patches, they should immediately contact a dentist
  31. 31. Instructions to be given to a diabetic • The patients should be encouraged to quit smoking as it greatly increases the risk of periodontal disease in diabetic patients
  32. 32. Instructions to be given to a diabetic • Diabetics should be informed that they are more likely to catch dental diseases than the normal ones because awareness and knowledge increases the tendency to seek preventive dental care, and improves chances of maintaining healthy mouth
  33. 33. THANK YOU