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FLUORIDES IN DENTISTRY

CONTENTS:-
 Introduction
 Composition
 Source of fluoride
 Mechanism of action of fluoride and their delivery methods....
INTRODUCTION
The cariostatic efficacy of fluorides has been
convincingly demonstrated and the recent
decline in caries pr...
composition
Fluoride may occurs in combined form in a wide
variety of minerals.
Fluorspar[fluorite CaF2]- 49%
Fluorapat...
SOURCES OF FLUORIDE
 It is estimated that the intake of from fish by populations where fish
represents a significant port...
Mechanism of action of fluoride
 The benefits of fluoride in the reduction of dental caries
have been known for years,but...
Fluoride delivery methods
 1. topical fluoride are placed directly on the teeth.
 Topically applied fluoride is used to ...
Indications for topical fluoride use
 1.caries- active individual
 2.children shortly after periods of tooth eruption,es...
Fluoride tablets/drops/lozenges:-
 Fluoride tablets/drops/lozenges may be prescribed to individual patient or may be
part...
 Fluoride drops are dispensed with a measured dropper and are convenient for
infants.
 Tablets and lozenges should be ch...
Frequency of use and dosage:-
 The council on dental therapeutic of the dosage schedule for dietary supplement
as shown ...
Toxicity of fluorides
 Fluorides is often called as a double-edges sword as an expression for anything
that can simultane...
 The most frequently encountered adverse effect to topical fluoride encountered
adverse effect of topical fluoride therap...
CHRONIC FLUORIDE TOXICITY
 Chronic fluoride toxicity results from long term ingestion of small amounts of
fluoride.
 The...
DENTAL FLUOROSIS
 Dental fluorosis is caused by excessive intake of fluoride during tooth development.
 Ingestion of wat...
CONCLUSION
 When used appropriately, fluoride is s safe and effective
agent that can be used to prevent and control denta...
Flouride in dentistry
Flouride in dentistry
Flouride in dentistry
Flouride in dentistry
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Flouride in dentistry

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Flouride in dentistry

  1. 1. FLUORIDES IN DENTISTRY 
  2. 2. CONTENTS:-  Introduction  Composition  Source of fluoride  Mechanism of action of fluoride and their delivery methods.  Indication for topical fluoride use  Fluoride tablets/drops,use and dosage.  Toxicity of fluoride.  Dental fluorosis.  Conclusion.
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION The cariostatic efficacy of fluorides has been convincingly demonstrated and the recent decline in caries prevalence is primarily attributed to the increased use of fluoride agents.
  4. 4. composition Fluoride may occurs in combined form in a wide variety of minerals. Fluorspar[fluorite CaF2]- 49% Fluorapatite[Ca10F2(PO4)6]- 3.4% Cryolite[Na3ALF6]- 54%
  5. 5. SOURCES OF FLUORIDE  It is estimated that the intake of from fish by populations where fish represents a significant portion of the diet is about 0.5mg/day.  Jawar,banana,potatoes also contain substatial quantities of fluoride.  Certain plants,such as taro,yams,and cassava,have been found to contain relatively high fluoride levels.  Fluoride content of rock salt ranges between 40 and 200ppm.  The dried tea leaves contain 100-400 ppm fluoride.  Mineral water usually contains considerably higher concentration,from 1.5- 7
  6. 6. Mechanism of action of fluoride  The benefits of fluoride in the reduction of dental caries have been known for years,but its exact mechanism of action is not completely understood.  The mechanisms by which fluoride increases caries resistance may arise from both systemic and topical application of fluoride.  1. increases enamel resistance or reduction in enamel solubility.  2. increases rate of posteruptive maturation.  3. remineralization of incipient lesions.  4. Interference with plaque microorganisms.  5. modification in tooth morphology.
  7. 7. Fluoride delivery methods  1. topical fluoride are placed directly on the teeth.  Topically applied fluoride is used to describe those delivery system which provide fluoride for a local chemical reaction to exposed surfaces of the erupted dentition.  The delivery system includes containing prophylactic pastes,solutions,gels and varnishes as well as systems designed for unsupervised home use,such as fluoride dentifrices and rinses.
  8. 8. Indications for topical fluoride use  1.caries- active individual  2.children shortly after periods of tooth eruption,especially those who are not caries free.  3.Those who take medication that decreases salivary flow or have received radiation to head and neck.  4.after periodontal surgery when roots of teeth have been exposed.  5.patients with fixed or removable prosthesis and after placement or replacement of restoration.  6.patient with eating disorder.  7.mentally and physically challenged individuals.
  9. 9. Fluoride tablets/drops/lozenges:-  Fluoride tablets/drops/lozenges may be prescribed to individual patient or may be part of a school or home based public health preventive dentistry program. Fluoride compound used:-  Sodium fluoride is most commonly used.  The other compound used are acidulated phosphate fluoride,potassium fluoride or calcium fluoride.  Supplements contains a measured amount of fluoride typically 0.25mg,0.5mg or 1.0mg.
  10. 10.  Fluoride drops are dispensed with a measured dropper and are convenient for infants.  Tablets and lozenges should be chewed, swished and swallowed.
  11. 11. Frequency of use and dosage:-  The council on dental therapeutic of the dosage schedule for dietary supplement as shown in the table:-
  12. 12. Toxicity of fluorides  Fluorides is often called as a double-edges sword as an expression for anything that can simultaneously help and hinder.  This is because inadequate ingestion of fluoride is associated with dental caries and an excessive intake of fluoride can lead to dental and skeletal fluorosis.  ACUTE TOXICITY OF FLUORIDES:-  Acute fluoride toxicity results from rapid excessive ingestion of fluoride at one time.  The speed and severity of the response are dependent on the amount of fluoride ingested and the weight and age of the individual.
  13. 13.  The most frequently encountered adverse effect to topical fluoride encountered adverse effect of topical fluoride therapy is nausea.  This is caused by fluoride combining with hydrogen in the gastric juices to form hydrofluoric acid a stomach irritant.  Other symptoms of fluoride toxicity include…  1.abdominal cramps.  2.vomiting  3.diarrhea  4.increased salivation  5.dehydration and thirst.
  14. 14. CHRONIC FLUORIDE TOXICITY  Chronic fluoride toxicity results from long term ingestion of small amounts of fluoride.  The effect of chronic fluoride toxicity on enamel is dental fluorosis.  other problem such as skeletal fluorosis may occurs. effect dosages duration Dental fluorosis >2 times optimal Until 5 years Skeletal fluorosis 10-25 mg/day 10-20 years
  15. 15. DENTAL FLUOROSIS  Dental fluorosis is caused by excessive intake of fluoride during tooth development.  Ingestion of water with a fluoride concentration two or three times greater than the recommended amount causes white flecks and chalky opaque areas on the tooth enamel.  Consumption of water containing four times the recommended amount of fluoride causes a brown pitted corroded appearance on the enamel surface.  However although these teeth represent cosmetic problems they are highly to carious attack.
  16. 16. CONCLUSION  When used appropriately, fluoride is s safe and effective agent that can be used to prevent and control dental caries.  Fluoride has contributed profoundly to the improved dental health of persons all over the world.  Fluoride is needed regularly throughout life to protect teeth against tooth decay.  To ensure additional gains in oral health,water fluoridation should be extended to additional communities and fluoride toothpaste should be used widely.

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