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How does a gender lens contribute to a healthy environment and healthy people?  <ul><li>Intersections between gender, HIV ...
Migration trends in South Africa   <ul><li>South Africa is historically a country of migration, mostly male mining workers...
South Africa
<ul><li>In light of the increasing number of female migrants and female headed households, there is a need to pay attentio...
Migration, food security, and HIV/ AIDS: results from a household survey in Johannesburg  Selected Areas   Informal settle...
Sol- Plaatjies  Informal settlement Johannesburg  © Sol Plaatjies participatory photo project participants and the Market ...
© Sol Plaatjies participatory photo project participants and the Market Photo Workshop
Johannesburg inner city  Photos Per Herbertsson
South African Migrants 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 1 2 Non-South Africa Migrants   Men Women  Men Women   <ul><li>Total o...
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Frequency 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Household size male headed households   0 5 10 15 20 25 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Hou...
Men’s Migration Networks:  Who did you know in Johannesburg prior to migrating?   South African migrant men   Foreign migr...
South African migrant women Foreign migrant   women   Women’s Migration Networks   0 5 10 15 20 25 0 5 10 15 20 25 <ul><li...
To who do your send remittances?  0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Relative frequency 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 . In the first place for b...
MEN   0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 YES NO <ul><li>51% of the total surveyed population has tested for HIV. </li></ul><ul>...
<ul><li>Gender and Perception of Risk of HIV </li></ul><ul><li>A multivariable analysis (categorical PCA considering gende...
Gender gaps and research challenges  <ul><li>Some findings  </li></ul><ul><li>There is an observed trend towards the femin...
Gender gaps and research challenges  <ul><li>Research challenges  </li></ul><ul><li>A gender perspective is central in the...
Acknowledgements <ul><li>Sol Plaatjies participatory photo project participants and the Market Photo Workshop. </li></ul>
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How does a gender lens contribute to a healthy environment and healthy people? Intersections between gender, HIV and migration: Lessons from South Africa

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How does a gender lens contribute to a healthy environment and healthy people? Intersections between gender, HIV and migration: Lessons from South Africa

  1. 1. How does a gender lens contribute to a healthy environment and healthy people? <ul><li>Intersections between gender, HIV and migration: Lessons from South Africa </li></ul><ul><li>IDRC-RENEWAL study Migration, HIV/Aids and Food Security among internal and international migrants in Johannesburg </li></ul><ul><li>Lorena Nunez </li></ul>Forced Migration Studies Programme University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg
  2. 2. Migration trends in South Africa <ul><li>South Africa is historically a country of migration, mostly male mining workers, from rural South Africa and from neighbouring countries. </li></ul><ul><li>From 1994, democracy enabled access to the cities that were previously restricted. A different migratory pattern began to develop, and internal and international migration to South Africa becomes a noticeable trend. </li></ul><ul><li>Increasingly, women from rural areas and from other African countries are migrating. They migrate as workers in their own right or as partners of male migrants, and increasingly as refugees and asylum seekers. </li></ul>
  3. 3. South Africa
  4. 4. <ul><li>In light of the increasing number of female migrants and female headed households, there is a need to pay attention to the multiple roles of migrant women and their specific vulnerabilities, for example the burden of sickness on their households. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic role </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reproductive role </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Caring role in the event of sickness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women migrants in all these roles are pivotal for the </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>subsistence of their transnational and trans-border </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Households. </li></ul></ul>Feminization of migration
  5. 5. Migration, food security, and HIV/ AIDS: results from a household survey in Johannesburg Selected Areas Informal settlement Sol- Plaatjies 200 households Formal Sector Berea, Hillbrow and Jeppestown 300 households
  6. 6. Sol- Plaatjies Informal settlement Johannesburg © Sol Plaatjies participatory photo project participants and the Market Photo Workshop
  7. 7. © Sol Plaatjies participatory photo project participants and the Market Photo Workshop
  8. 8. Johannesburg inner city Photos Per Herbertsson
  9. 9. South African Migrants 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 1 2 Non-South Africa Migrants Men Women Men Women <ul><li>Total of 489 households = 489 respondents </li></ul><ul><li>26% of the households were female headed (N=122) </li></ul><ul><li>74% of the households were male headed (N=342) </li></ul><ul><li>Information obtained on 1,533 individuals in total (all household members ). </li></ul>Population Study 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 1 2
  10. 10. 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Frequency 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Household size male headed households 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Household size female headed households . Household size and gender of the head of the household Overall, a household of 2 or 3 people is the most common size. Female headed households are bigger than male headed households. Generally, female headed households consist of 3 or more people. Frequency
  11. 11. Men’s Migration Networks: Who did you know in Johannesburg prior to migrating? South African migrant men Foreign migrant men Men, both nationals and foreigners tend to migrate alone. In most cases, men have ‘other relatives’ in Johannesburg as well as a brother. The do not follow their wives or partners Relative frequency 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Brother Other relative 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Relative frequency Brother Other relative
  12. 12. South African migrant women Foreign migrant women Women’s Migration Networks 0 5 10 15 20 25 0 5 10 15 20 25 <ul><li>Women tend to have a wider networks than men; </li></ul><ul><li>Women migrate to join their partners and other female close members of their families (sisters, mothers). </li></ul>Partner Sister Mother Other relative Partner Sister Mother Other relative
  13. 13. To who do your send remittances? 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Relative frequency 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 . In the first place for both: remittances sent by men and women are sent to parents. Women are more likely than men to send remittances to siblings and close relatives. Parents Siblings MEN WOMEN Parents Siblings Relative frequency
  14. 14. MEN 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 YES NO <ul><li>51% of the total surveyed population has tested for HIV. </li></ul><ul><li>More South Africans than foreigners have tested. </li></ul><ul><li>Overall more women than men have tested for HIV and among women, more South African women have tested for HIV. </li></ul><ul><li>T he main reason for testing among women is due to pregnancy. </li></ul>Testing for HIV among men and women 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 YES WOMEN . NO
  15. 15. <ul><li>Gender and Perception of Risk of HIV </li></ul><ul><li>A multivariable analysis (categorical PCA considering gender, nationality, age, respondent position in the household and place of residence) based on an ecosystemic perspective, has shown that the main variable associated to perception of risk of HIV is gender. </li></ul><ul><li>Wives and female partners of the head of the household tend to feel the most at risk of HIV. </li></ul><ul><li>South African males are the least likely to feel at risk . </li></ul><ul><li>There is no significant association between perception of risk and testing . </li></ul>
  16. 16. Gender gaps and research challenges <ul><li>Some findings </li></ul><ul><li>There is an observed trend towards the feminization of migration. In this study female headed households made up 26% of the total households surveyed. </li></ul><ul><li>The study’s results show that gender has more explanatory power than types of migration. </li></ul><ul><li>More women than men tested for HIV and women perceive themselves more at risk than men. However perception of risk and having tested are not significantly related. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Gender gaps and research challenges <ul><li>Research challenges </li></ul><ul><li>A gender perspective is central in the study of migration and health and is not always central in studies, policies and interventions. </li></ul><ul><li>Data disaggregated by sex shows general and important trends but it does not provide insights on the power relationships that characterise migration and intra-household relationships. </li></ul><ul><li>Questions about the multiplicity of women’s roles, the economic and reproductive burden, and the burden of sickness in the face of HIV/Aids pandemic need to be addressed. This requires a transdisciplinary perspective to implement more effective interventions. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Acknowledgements <ul><li>Sol Plaatjies participatory photo project participants and the Market Photo Workshop. </li></ul>

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