Welcome to what I hope will be a stimulating look at the spectrum of Turkey’s more important indigenous varieties. I spent a month last year driving 7000km around the country visiting most key regions, producers and many intriguing archaeological and other historical sites that bear relevance to our book: Divine Vintage: Following the Wine Trail from Genesis to the Modern Age, which is officially published on 13 November. Most of the images and, virtually all of the material we will discuss derive from my last 3 years or so intensive look at Turkey’s modern wines and ancient geography based on 4 trips here. I am of course indebted to Wines of Turkey, TanerÖgütoglü Director, and for a lot of the back-round research, certainly Patrick Mcgovern and José Vouillamoz works. We will look in turn during this program at;The basic geography of Turkey which influences the climate and where grapes are grownTurkey’s role as a key protagonist in the domestication of wine grapes and relevance to today’s wines.The modern turkish grapes of importance and their chief characteristicsAnd lastly, taste through a range of wines I have chosen that will illustrate their character, style and quality. Questions are welcome throughout, of course. Let ‘s start with this photo. ... Noah supposedly landed the Ark here and planted his vineyard near Mt Ararat! . These vineyards are on the northern side of the mountain, facing Armenia, but illustrate that wine and grapes in this area is not just a mythical notionIn Biblical times, Turkey/Asia Minor was a major supplier of wine, and great quantities of grapes. Some of the finest ancient wines originated from Smyrna, Ephesus, CappadociaAnd the Anatolian plateau areas west and south of today’s Ankara. Muslim rule for at least 500 years decimated both supply and demand for wine grapes, though there are no shortage of grapes turned into Raki, the anise-infused spirit that is practically the national drink in all of the mid-east!In 2009 Turkey ranked sixth worldwide in grape production, producing 3.85 million tons of grapes on 1.2 million acres (486,000 ha). Yet only two percent of the total vineyard acreage yields wine grapes; about 77,000 tons in the 2009 harvest. 2. About 40 wineries in Turkey serve most of the production centered on the top five largest producers . Quality wines are produced by both small and large producers and in all regions.
As in France, the fine wine regions of Turkey are spread the length and breadth of the country West of Istanbul and along the Aegean seacoast, the climate is Mediterranean and moderate. Moving eastward the climate becomes colder, and harsh continental conditions prevail in the interior Anatolian regions, from Ankara in the northwest to Diyarbakir and Mardin in the southeast. As example, this past January much of Cappadoccia suffered a killing frost from temperatures down to -32C, destroying most of the potential crop and killing vines. Highland regions around Denizli/Güney, east of Izmir, are Mediterranean at the lower elevations and Semi-continental at the higher elevations—hot summers, cold winters, and little rainfall.While western Turkey’s vineyards have limestone-rich soils, central Anatolia typically has volcanic soils. Many areas feature terra rossa, the iron-laden gritty soils with fine sand that were created from the erosion of iron-rich, ancient limestone seabeds.Many of the better Turkish vineyards are located several hundred feet or meters above sea level and have poor soils with excellent drainage, which can be stressful to the vines in hotter years.
This map from Vouillamoz’ presentation last year illustrates further the importance of SE Turkey/Anatolia as a “cradle of civilization”, if you will, for everything from language, to wine, domesticated plants and establishment of human settlements. Archaeological, paleo-botanical and other research supports the hypothesis that SE Turkey was one of the most unique places on earth where all of these aspects came together.
Taking Vouillamoz’s work I created for our book this map that puts the area of original domestication including much of SE Turkey into the wider regional context of major wine growing regions of ancient Turkey, the Levant, to provide a historical context for where modern Turkish wines, and the key cultivars are grown, as noted on the next maps.
is map comes courtesy of my friend Murat Yanki in Cappadoccia who has done a lot of homework (www.vinatolia.com) to create this map showing the ancient vineyard locations in detailI use this map merely to indicate that When you Compare an ancient map of Turkey that shows wine regions with a modern map of grape-growing areas and the location of top producers today, (click now)you will find a high degree of correlation. Ancient Turkey produced fine wines primarily along the Aegean and Mediterranean coasts. Outposts of quality wines can be found in Kapadokya ( Cappadocia) and near famous southern and eastern cities like Zeugma on the Euphrates and areas around Antakya (ancient Antioch
Turkey does not yet have a formal Appellation System for their wine regions. Yet there are a number of areas that are effectively considered as such, like Tokat or Güney/Denizli. We will refer to them regularly in our discussion. What is clear from this map is that like California, Turkey is a vast winegrowing country, and that one cannot speak holistically of Turkey’s “vintage conditions” for example, given the nearly 1050 miles /1700 km distance from east to west and half that distance north to south.But we can group the key zones into Regions, such as the Thrace area in the NW or eastern Anatolia districts, which share general climatic conditions in large part, geological attributes perhaps a bit less so, and increasingly, diverse varieties.
Turkey has twelve hundred to fifteen hundred indigenous grape varieties, six to eight hundred of which are genetically different. There are about 60 which can used for wine production, but effectively, only about 25 of the indigenous varieties are used in significant quantities. Of these, there are really the 8 noted on this map of real significance, and really just the five we are focusing on for quality wines.
A comparative view of the key varieties and a couple more of definite interest
Emir means order or command in Turkish. Originally from central Kapadokya, emir produces a crisp, lively, dry white wine with herbal, green melon, or apple flavors; with age it takes on a buttery note like chardonnay. Emir is traditionally grown as a bush vine; it lies low to the ground and is not trellised. Some vines are one hundred years old.Cappodocia, the climate is continental, with desert-like rainfall of 12 to 16 inches (300 to 400 mm), cold snowy winters, and a lot of wind; it is located nearly 3,300 feet (1,000 m) above sea level and has decomposed calcareous loam-clay soils over volcanic rock that are quite poor and free drainingHüseyinYazgan, who was born in Greece, established one of Turkey’s oldest and largest wineries in Izmir in 1943. He moved there during the great exchange of populations between Turkey and Greece in the 1920s and 1930s. WINERY : Yazgan ESTABLISHED : 1943 WINE MAKER : Mr. Antoine Bastided’IzardWINE : Yazgan Emir TYPE (color) : White VINTAGE : 2011GRAPES : EmirREGION : Cappadocia SUBREGION : Nevsehir ALCOHOL LEVEL : 12%FIRST VINTAGE : 2010 MEDALS : Masters of Wine 2012, 88 points PRODUCTION QUANTITY: 30000 bottlesVITICULTURE VINEYARDS (CONTRACTED/OWN/AGE): ContractedSOIL :YIELD : 70 hl/ha PICKING DATES : 16/10/2011VINIFICATIONFERMENTATION : In stainless steel FERMENTATION TEMP: 17°C YEAST TYPE (WILD/CULTURED): Cultured BARREL AGEING : NoneTOTAL ACIDITY : 3.6 g/l (in sulfuric acid) VOLATILE ACIDITY : 0.27 g/l PH : 3.47 SUGAR : 2.9 g/l TOTAL SO2 (mg/l) : 31/89RELATIVE DENSITY 20C/20C:CLOSURE TYPE : Synthetic corkTASTING NOTESCOLOUR : Light straw colourAROMA : Peach, pear, apricot aromas
Yapıncak is an indigenous variety that is native to Şarköy area in Thrace. Paşaeli is a family owned estate that was founded by SeyitKaragözoğlu in 2000. Recognizing the potential of Kaynaklar (near Izmir) as an area of exceptional viticultural promise, and with the help of an Italian based friend and consultant Andrea Paoletti, he took on the challenge. After careful site studies and mapping, the appropriate rootstocks and varieties (with appropriate clones) were chosen and a vineyard was planted in March of 2002. Serez vineyard is located 20 km from İzmir. Its warm Aegean climate is balanced with cool night airs that are chanelled from near by Nif Mountain. It is a site that is perfectly suited to big Bordeaux style wines. The wines reflect the terroir that is Kaynaklar, the warm Aegean climate delivering rich, mature fruit with ripe rounded tannins. Paşaeli wines emphasize fruit intensity, and balance. Lush and enticing upon release, they will age well for a number of years and will continue to develop complexity with cellaring. SeyitKaragözoğlu also believes strongly in the potential of indigenous varieties of Turkey. So for the next challenge Hoşköy (near Tekirdağ) was selected, as its potential for the production of wines of noteworthy quality was well known for many years. And various indigenous varieties have existed there for centuries. After many site studies an exceptional site was purchased. Plantation started in 2003 and continued in 2004 and 2005. This terroir delivers delicious wines that are balanced, and complex but also elegant. They too will age well for many years.Hoşköy, TekirdağOur vineyards in Hoşköy have partly clay and limy soil with high mineral content. They are at an altitude of 140 meters, and open to the winds blowing from Sea of Marmara. It has a pale gold colour. It was fermented at 17C for 21 days. It was kept “sur lie” for 3 months with 2 “batonnage” a week. And it was partially barrel aged for 3 months to add some complexity. It is a pleasant wine balanced with good acidity and a long finish. Total production is 1852 bottles.WINERY : Pasaeli ESTABLISHED : 2000 WINE MAKER : Mr. SeyitKaragozogluWINE : Yapincak TYPE (color) : White VINTAGE : 2011 GRAPES : 100% YapincakREGION : Trakya SUBREGION : Sarkoy ALCOHOL LEVEL : 12.5% FIRST VINTAGE : 2010MEDALS : San Francisco Internation Wine Competition 2012, Gold Medal &San Francisco Internation Wine Competition 2012, “Best of Nation” for TurkeyPRODUCTION QUANTITY: 1.852 bottlesVITICULTURE VINEYARDS (CONTRACTED/OWN/AGE): 30 years old vines SOIL: have partly clay and limy soil with high mineral content. They are at an altitude of 140 meters, YIELD : ….. hl/ha PICKING DATES : 25 /Sep /2011VINIFICATIONFERMENTATION : fermented in stainless steel tank and matured in tank (2/3) and in barrels(1/3) with "élevage sur lies« FERMENTATION TEMP: 18°C YEAST TYPE (WILD/CULTURED): CulturedBARREL AGEING : 3 months BARREL TYPE & TOASTING LEVEL : American oak (225 L) / Medium toastTOTAL ACIDITY : 4,30 VOLATILE ACIDITY : 0,66 PH : 3,80 SUGAR : 3,10 TOTAL SO2 (mg/l) : 186RELATIVE DENSITY 20C/20C:CLOSURE TYPE : Natural cork
Narince means “delicate”/ Narince, originally from the Tokat region in north-central Turkey near the Black Sea. In character it seems to be a composite of sauvignon blanc, the rare Italian variety arneis, and Spanish albariño. We find citrus, pink grapefruit, herbal and mineral or chalky flavors with excellent fresh acidity and crisp finish.Vineyards in Tokat are around 500-750m. Kazova district of Tokat is considered one of the best zones west of the city, but Erbaa area to northeast also quite good, but rather lower. And milder temperatures around 300m.The vineyards around Kalecik are higher altitude, closer to 670+m near the Red River.WINERY : Vinkara ESTABLISHED : 2003 WINE MAKER : Tuna lacinWINE : reserve narince 2010 GRAPES : 100 % narinceREGION : ankara/ tokat SUBREGION : kalecik/ erbaa ALCOHOL LEVEL : 13,5FIRST VINTAGE : 2010MEDALS : mundusvini, germany, 2012, goldPRODUCTION QUANTITY : 2300 bottlesVITICULTURE VINEYARDS (CONTRACTED/OWN/AGE) : contracted 15 years old & owned 8 years old SOIL : owned vineyard : clayish loamy gritty; contracted vineyard : gravel, stone, clay YIELD : …7000. kg/ha PICKING DATES : 27 /09/2010VINIFICATION FERMENTATION : fermented and matured in barrels with "élevagesurlies“ FERMENTATION TEMP : 15-17°C YEAST TYPE (WILD/CULTURED) : cultured BARREL AGEING : 14 months BARREL TYPE & TOASTING LEVEL : french oak (225 L) / medium toastTOTAL ACIDITY : 5,08 VOLATILE ACIDITY : 0,42 PH : 3,42 SUGAR : 3,27 TOTAL SO2 (mg/l) : 121RELATIVE DENSITY 20C/20C : 0,9932CLOSURE TYPE : natural cork TASTING NOTESCOLOUR : bright yellowAROMA : it has tropical fruit, apricot, grapefruit aromas and buttery aromasare apparent due to the sur lie method used at the aging process in
The Black from Karasi is the literal translation of this variety.Kalecikkarasi (the black grape from Kalecik) originated in the Ankara region and ripens late; it is extremely aromatic yet thin skinned.It prefers cool climates but often doesn’t ripen well. These characteristics give it its similarity to pinot noir, but kalecikkarasi has a more haunting floral (rose, violet), tar, or mineral character with fine tannins. For those readers familiar with less common wines, think a combination of nerellomascalese from Mount Etna, combined with nebbiolo from Piedmont, Italy, and pinot noir. Kalecikkarasi is among the most exotic, intriguing, yet exasperating wines produced in Turkey.EnisGuner is the MD./ownerGüney, according to many producers, is considered the finest place in Turkey to grow grapes because of the climate (cool, moderate rainfall, warm summers), high altitude—2,460 to 2,952 feet (750 to 900 m), soils (limestone terra rossa, free-draining soils), and adaptability (newer varieties like cabernet and syrah have thrived here). The combination makes the Güney plateau a superior source of fine wines, prompting many top wineries in Turkey to plant or contract for vineyards.Consultant FlorentDumeau from Bordeaux to refine and guide Sevilen’s production of stylish, complex wines. Dumeau has pushed Sevilen to concentrate on understanding the terroir of particular sites, refining the wine making to maximize site potential. Sevilen uses rigorous viticulture practices, new sorting tables, more strict berry and lot selection along with high-quality barrels. Because of Güney’s warmer climate kalecikkarasi is fruitier here than elsewhere. Its color is the bright, medium-intense violet ruby characteristic of kalecikkarasi here has a lovely dark cherry, floral-rose, black pepper–and-violet bouquet has been allowed full expression. The flavors are fresh, minerally, with lots of cherry fruit mixed with graphite and a roasted meat characterSevilen 1942WINEMAKER Ms.SibelCobanWINE Plato kalecik Karasi2011Denizli ALCOHOL LEVEL13.5%FIRST VINTAGE 2008MEDALSPRODUCTION QUANTITY:14.600bottlesVITICULTURE VINEYARDS(CONTRACTED/OWN/AGE):own vineyard(10Years old vineyard) SOIL:chalky--‐mineral--‐limestone YIELD:…35..hl/ha P ICKING DATES:28/09/2011VINIFICATION FERMENTATIONMatured in barrels FERMENTATION TEMP:22°C intank YEAST TYPE(WILD/CULTURED):Cultured BARRELAGEING: 8months(afterFML) BARREL TYPE &TOASTING LEVEL:Frenchoak(300L)/MediumtoastTOTAL ACIDITY:3.3g/ l VOLATILE ACIDITy:0.48g/l PH:3.6 SUGAR:1.4g/lTOTALSO2(mg/l):70ppmTYPE Naturalcork
In the second millennium BCE Hittite kings ruled from their capital of Hattuşa, which was about 130 miles (200 km) from Ankara;Kalecik is a little less than half way between the Ankara and Hattusa. They ruled an empire that extended from Europe east to Persia and south to Egypt. The climate is continental, so the cool nights of its higher altitudes, 2,000 to 3,900 feet (600 to 1,200 m), temper the propensity toward hot summer daytime temperatures. The low rainfall helps alleviate strong fungal pressure on vines and forces them to work harder by growing deeper roots to seek water. Throughout Anatolia, including Vinkara’s location an hour east of Ankara, strong northern winds cool things down and retard vine maturation. Yet summers are harshly hot and winters deadly cold, with icy winds and snow.Kalecik, home to this winery, is at a slightly lower altitude (650m)and is warmer than Ankara, because it is surrounded by mountains to the west that rise 6,500 feet (2,000 m). Its weather also is moderated by its proximity to the Red River. Much of southern Anatolia has volcanic origins, but in these northern areas the land was under water in ancient times, which acounts for its limestone, including large cobbles in vineyards at lower altitudes. Newer plantations at higher altitudes are on basaltic volcanic and more clayish rhyolite. These soils are fairly acidic and have a high clay content, thanks to the strong Anatolian winds that brought in deposits (loess). Kalecik has a color issue and small clusters that, like zinfandel, generally do not set in a homogeneous way. Usual yield CaglarKok observes is about 50hl/ht. Reserve is closer to 35hl/ht. On average KK ripens about a week after CS here, so quite late. In the 1960s phylloxera killed virtually all the Kalecik vineyards. While two clones have been heavily used in replanting in the recent past (9 and12) they proved too high-yielding in Kok’s opinion. So In Vinkara’s experimental blocks, Gök uses mass selection techniques to see if he can rediscover better clones for planting. winery’s enologist, ÇağlarGük, WINERY : VinkaraESTABLISHED : 2003WINE MAKER : tuna lacinWINE : reserve kalecikkarasıTYPE (color) : medium redVINTAGE : 2010GRAPES : 100 % kalecikkarasi REGION : ankara SUBREGION : kalecik ALCOHOL LEVEL : 14 FIRST VINTAGE : 2009MEDALS :PRODUCTION QUANTITY : 6800 bottlesVITICULTURE VINEYARDS (CONTRACTED/OWN/AGE) : owned : 9 years oldSOIL : clayish loamy gritty YIELD : 6000 kg/ha PICKING DATES : 22 /09/2010VINIFICATION FERMENTATION : fermented in stainless still tank, matured in barrelsFERMENTATION TEMP : 25-27°C YEAST TYPE (WILD/CULTURED) : culturedBARREL AGEING : 14 months BARREL TYPE & TOASTING LEVEL : french oak (225 L) / medium toastTOTAL ACIDITY : 4,62VOLATILE ACIDITY : 0,65 PH : 3,81 SUGAR : 4,87TOTAL SO2 (mg/l) : 96COLOUR : bright redAROMA : blackberry, black currants, strawberry and sour cherry aromas,vanilla and smoked aromas attained during the aging process in thebarrels intensify the wine without losing any of its fruitiness.FLAVOUR : the wine has a very long finish with soft tannins
Kavaklidere is Turkey’s largest producer of wine (more than 900,000 cases a year) and the oldest private winery, founded in 1929 by the And family in Ankara and now owned by the Başman family and directed by Ali Başman. Kavaklidere owns more than 1,300 acres (560 ha) of vineyards in virtually all of Turkey’s finest wine-growing regions. Based in Anatolia, the Başmans especially work their original vineyards in the Ankara area, which are planted almost exclusively with the native variety kalecikkarasi.Expert guidance from the respected Bordeaux winemaker StéphaneDerenoncourt has also been a recent boon in raising the awareness and sophistication of the wines made by AhuTokgöz and other members of Kavaklidere’s widespread teamWINERY : Kavaklidere ESTABLISHED : 1929WINE MAKER : Mrs. AhuÇamlıTokgözWINE : Prestige KalecikKarasıVINTAGE : 2009GRAPES : 100% KalecikKarası REGION : Central Anatolia SUBREGION : Ankara / Kalecik ALCOHOL LEVEL : 14%FIRST VINTAGE : 1989MEDALS : Concours Mondial de Bruxelles 2012, Gold VinaliesInternationales 2012, SilverDecanter 2012, SilverInt. Wine and Spirits Comp. 2012, BronzeInt. Wine Challange 2012, SilverPRODUCTION QUANTITY: 60.000 bottlesVITICULTUREVINEYARDS (CONTRACTED/OWN/AGE): own vineyard, 20 years old vines, many gobelet-trained. SOIL : Clay-loam YIELD : 40 hl/ha PICKING DATES : 17/09/2009VINIFICATION FERMENTATION : 6 days of maceration & 20% oak maturation FERMENTATION TEMP: 26-28°C YEAST TYPE (WILD/CULTURED): Cultured BARREL AGEING : 7 months BARREL TYPE & TOASTING LEVEL : French oak (225 L) / Medium toastTOTAL ACIDITY : 3,3 g/l VOLATILE ACIDITY : 0,32 g/l PH : 3,75 SUGAR : 2,5 g/ l TOTAL SO2 (mg/l) : 97 mg/l
Okuzgozu means bull’s eye is a deeply pigmented variety that produces rich sweet-tasting fruit with large berries and quite fleshy pulp. Originally attributed to the Elaziǧ growing region in Anatolia, it makes a deep-colored black cherry–raspberry-scented wine with soft tannins, plush fruit, and lively acidity that is reminiscent of the more full-bodied barbera from northern Italy, or a non-extreme, softer fruit-driven Zinfandel from CaliforniaPendore Vineyard is the largest contiguous estate in Turkey; nearly 470 acres (200 ha) spread across beautifully rolling hills 820 to 1,476 feet (250 to 450 m) in Manisa Province. Greek wine growing goes back at least twenty-five hundred years and began not far from the famed Lycian city of Sardis. Sardis coins and a sarcopahagus at the Manisa Museum are embellished with grape clusters. According to the historian ErsinDöğer, these images depict the origins of the indigenous çavuş and rezaki grapes still grown here. Pendore’s winemaker is a determined, talented woman named AsliOdman. The vineyard was first planted in 2002 on hillsides. Because the BozDağ mountains to the west block much of the hot winds blowing off the Aegean in the summer, Pendore is much milder than its relatively low elevation would indicate and has low rainfall with refreshing winds. The vineyards planted at lower altitudes are on limestone, while the ones at higher altitudes have more volcanic soils and are farmed organically. Relatively low yields (2.2 tons per acre/37.5 hl/ha), fruit thinning, and gentle handling (gravity flow movement) in the new, modern winery have paid off for Pendore. WINERY : Kavaklidere ESTABLISHED : 1929 (Pendore vineyards first planted in 2002, however)WINE MAKER : Mrs. AslıOdmanWINE : PendoreÖküzgözüVINTAGE : 2010 GRAPES : 100% Öküzgözü REGION : Aegean Region SUBREGION : Kemaliye / PendoreALCOHOL LEVEL : 14% FIRST VINTAGE : 2008PRODUCTION QUANTITY: 26.000 bottlesVITICULTUREVINEYARDS (CONTRACTED/OWN/AGE): own vineyard, 10 years old vines SOIL : Clay calcerous with gravel YIELD : 50 hl/haPICKING DATES : 29/09/2010VINIFICATIONFERMENTATION : 15% saignee, 1 day of cold, totally 8 days of maceration, no oak maturation FERMENTATION TEMP: 26-28°C YEAST TYPE (WILD/CULTURED): CulturedBARREL AGEING : NoTOTAL ACIDITY : 3,5 g/l VOLATILE ACIDITY : 0,38 g/ lPH : 3,58 SUGAR : 1,7 g/l TOTAL SO2 (mg/l) : 57 mg/lRELATIVE DENSITY 20C/20C: 0,991CLOSURE TYPE : Natural corkTASTING NOTESCOLOUR : Bright dark cherry with fuchsia tintsAROMA : Intense with red forest fruits and floral notes
Although Turkey was neutral during World War II, it felt compelled to control vital industries, including alcohol production. This winery remained under state control until 2005, when it was sold to private interests and christened Kayra. One of the largest producers of wine in Turkey today, Kayra, led by Mr. H.EmreAdem and the American winemaker Dan O’Donnell, has expanded into quality production, increased its lineup of wines, and actively educates people about wine. O’Donnell, a big burly man, loves working in one of the more “frontier-like places I could have chosen, given my previous work in California, but it is often frustrating.” Elaziğ is somewhat remote, in the middle of southeastern Anatolia, and to settle here and make wine was a challenge. The surrounding landscape is reminiscent of la Mancha in Spain or eastern Washington State: dry, desert-like, and windy with an extreme climate. People have been growing grapes here for millennia, O’Donnell says, beginning with the Hittites. “When I came here, the original estate vineyard was planted to cabernet and merlot,” he said. “We budded it over to the local varieties, öküzgözü and boğazkere. Working with a number of truly individual, special, indigenous varieties in a faraway land was also appealing to me.”Elazig area vineyardswith soils containing high limestone content and shale, make getting maturity here a challenge.” O’Donnell says.“classic öküzgözü black cherry and raspberry liqueur aromas with light dill and vanilla from the American oak barrels in which it was aged. Full-bodied, dense flavors are backed by firm but not harsh tannins, finishing with dark plum and cherry flavors, ferrous overtones, and a firm structure. WINERY : Kayra ESTABLISHED 1942 :WINE MAKERs : Mr. H.EmreAdem/Daniel O’DonnellWINE : Vintage Öküzgözü VINTAGE : 2009 GRAPES : %100 Öküzgözü REGION : Aydincik SUBREGION : ElazığALCOHOL LEVEL : 14.5%FIRST VINTAGE : 2006MEDALS :New York Wine Competition UK 2012 SilverPRODUCTION QUANTITY: 8600 bottlesVITICULTURE VINEYARDS (CONTRACTED/OWN/AGE): Contracted vineyard 11 years old vines, no phylloxera SOIL : Red stony and white clay soil, about 850m– vyd near Lake Keban YIELD : 4 hl/ha PICKING DATES : 16/09/2010VINIFICATION FERMENTATION :Fermented in stainless steel tanks and matured in barrels FERMENTATION TEMP: 28°C YEAST TYPE (WILD/CULTURED): CulturedBARREL AGEING : 16 months BARREL TYPE & TOASTING LEVEL : %37 French Oak neutral, % 63 American Oak (225 L) / MediumtoastTOTAL ACIDITY : 5,28 g/lt (by tartaric) VOLATILE ACIDITY : 0,41 g/lt PH : 3,37 SUGAR : 2,6 g/lt TOTAL SO2 (mg/l) : 113 mg/ltRELATIVE DENSITY 20C/20C: 0,993 g/cm3CLOSURE TYPE : Natural corkTASTING NOTESCOLOUR : Deep black ruby to garnetAROMA : Red forest fruits, coffee beans, smoky notesFLAVOUR : Full bodied, mouth filling red wine with generous acidity and ripe tannins;red cherry and red mulberry flavours on the palate
Bogazkere roughly translates as “burning throat” or throat grabber. Boǧazkere originated in the southeastern Anatolian region of Diyarbakir, which is warmer than Elaziǧ to the north. A mid- to late ripening variety notable for its deep color, historical records allude to its ancient origins . Its combination of high color, rich blackberry-tar-fruit flavors, moderate acidity, and elevated tannins make this complex grape highly desirable for eating as well as wine making. Think syrah married to nebbiolo. Boǧazkere presents a great wine-making challenge ; many producers blend boǧazkere with őkűzgȍzű to soften the astringency of boǧazkere and to add a more gentle red-fruit character.Boǧazkere has good aging potential, provided that the winemaker manages the tannins; when done well it is a revelation. WINERY : Doluca ESTABLISHED : 1926 WINE MAKER : Ms. Aysun Pirdel (Family- Ahmet father, Ali son., Sibel Kutman Orel daughter WINE : TuğraBoğazkere VINTAGE : 2009 GRAPES : 100% Boğazkere REGION : Denizli/GuneyALCOHOL LEVEL : 15,5%FIRST VINTAGE : 2008 PRODUCTION QUANTITY: 4000 bottlesVITICULTURE VINEYARDS (CONTRACTED/OWN/AGE): SOIL : clay-loam YIELD : 9-10 tonnes/ha PICKING DATES : end of septemberVINIFICATION– 4-5 day cold soak. FERMENTATION : 5-7 days FERMENTATION TEMP:23-25°C YEAST TYPE (WILD/CULTURED):cultured BARREL AGEING : 16 months BARREL TYPE & TOASTING LEVEL : American (50%+-) and French, w/ 10% new oak overall.TOTAL ACIDITY : 5,8 g/l VOLATILE ACIDITY : 0,540 g/l (acetic acid) PH : 3,53 SUGAR : <4 g/l TOTAL SO2 (mg/l) : 46RELATIVE DENSITY 20C/20C: 0,99124CLOSURE TYPE : Natural corkTASTING NOTESCOLOUR : dark sour cherryAROMA : clove, cranberry, smoke, raspberry and toasted hazelnut
WINERY : KayraElazığ Winery ESTABLISHED : 194 2WINE MAKER : Mr. H.EmreAdem/Dan O’DonnellWINE : Vintage Bogazkere VINTAGE : 2009GRAPES : %100 Bogazkere REGION : Eastern Anatolia SUBREGION : DiyarbakirALCOHOL LEVEL : 15 % FIRST VINTAGE : 2003MEDALS : -PRODUCTION QUANTITY: 11000 bottlesVITICULTUREVINEYARDS (CONTRACTED/OWN/AGE): Contracted vineyard 15-25 years old vines SOIL : white clay, red stony soil YIELD : 50-60 hl/ha PICKING DATES : 08.10.2009VINIFICATION FERMENTATION : Fermented in stainless steel tank and matured in tank and oak barrels FERMENTATION TEMP: 29°C YEAST TYPE (WILD/CULTURED): Cultured BARREL AGEING : 22 months BARREL TYPE & TOASTING LEVEL : %15 French Oak M ,%85 American Oak M+TOTAL ACIDITY : 6,35 g/lt (by tartaric) VOLATILE ACIDITY : 0,55 g/lt PH : 3,32 SUGAR : 2,6 g/lt TOTAL SO2 (mg/l) : 150 mg/ltRELATIVE DENSITY 20C/20C: 0,993 g/cm3CLOSURE TYPE : Natural cork
Turkey's indigenous wine varieties 11812
Future Past: Turkey’s Finest Indigenous Varieties Joel Butler MW
Topographical Map of Turkey, with altitude of specific wine areas *Kalecik (707m) Mt Ararat* Anatolia (5137M)*Manisa (73m) *Kayseri (1189m) Elaziğ* (1062m) *Güney (830m) *Diyarbakir (625m) *Denizli (375m) *Adana (29m) 190km
Narince- Vinkara 2010 Kalecik/TokatVinkara’s Kalecik vineyard near Red River, Narince Tokat Region Narince bush-trained Narince VSP Ottoman Citadel above Tokat
Kalecik Karasi- Sevilen 2011, Güney Güney Plateau VSP-trained Terra-rossa clay-limestoneGüney Plateau Vineyard with pebbly-rocky gravel Güney, about 800-900m Güney Plateau Soil Profile Terra-Rossa limestone
Kalecik Karasi-Vinkara Reserve 2010, Kalecik Harvesting Kalecik Karasi, 7 Oct 2011 in VinKara’s Kalecik Karasi vines and VinKara Winery Very rocky clay-loam alluvial/volcanic soils Clone 9 [12?] Massal selectionKalecik Karasi grapes being brought to winery, 7 Oct 2011
Lastly…Buy This Book! (Chapter 7 – Modern Turkey) Divine Vintage contains two sets of color photos, along with maps especially created for the book which highlight the rich History, archaeology and art of ancient and modern wine-growing along the Bible Wine Trail® ―Divine Vintage illuminates the Social and spiritual roles of one of the world’s oldest beverages in a way that will captivate both scholars and laypersons‖ – Peter Enns, Author of The Evolution of Adam and Inspiration and Incarnation “Beyond delving into the literary ―Despite the seemingly esoteric topic, the authors skillfully and enliven daily life in the distant past, whether detailing amphoras archaeological or wine gods—a worthy complement to literature on agriculture in antiquity. ―–Kirkus Review Oct. 1 2012 record, this book entices us to re- examine our heritage with a "If the Bible is the greatest story ever modern liquid told, thenDivine Vitagebe the greatest time-capsule in wine story ever told. Its absolutely hand.”- Patrick brimful of incredible stories and McGovern, U. of biblical connections.‖ Doug Pennsylvania Frost, Master Sommelier, Master of Wine