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Wine Pre History


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Assignment One-Part B. Introduction to Wine Business.

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Wine Pre History

  1. 1. Wine Pre-history<br />By Brodie Comer<br />
  2. 2. Introduction<br />Wine has played a very significant role in society and human <br />history dating back as far as the most early documented <br />civilizations in human history. <br />In this slideshow the first evidence of wine grapes and <br />theories behind the first discovery of grape fermentation such <br />as the Paleolithicaltheory will be discussed. <br />
  3. 3. Introduction cont…..<br />The development and growth of wines discovery and viticulture<br />will also be discussed along with the various uses and roles <br />wine has played in primitive societies; such as ceremonies<br />and rituals, religion, war, ancient high society and as an <br />ancient medicine.<br />Wine played an important role in ancient society as it continues<br />to do so in our society today.<br />
  4. 4. First evidence of wine grapes<br />According toAlhoff, F.(2008); “The family of Viticae – <br />(wine grapes) can be traced back to the plant Ampelopsis from <br />500 million years ago….<br />…The Viticae family is traced back to 50 million years ago from<br /> fossil seeds and leaf impressions found by archeologists in<br />North Eastern Europe.”<br />
  5. 5. The Paleolithical theory: the first discovery of wine grapes and grape fermentation<br />McGovern, P. E. (2003), has a theory based on other theories <br />by historians and archeologists that the first encounter <br />humans would have had with wine grapes would have been<br /> 2 million years ago when humans (homo sapiens) migrated <br />from East Africa into the middle east. It is believed that in<br />Turkey, Iran, Palestine or Israel at this time (which has been <br />named the Paleolithical period of human history) that<br />humans would have first discovered grapes after seeing birds <br />eating them which as a result would have influenced them to <br />first try grapes.<br />
  6. 6. The Paleolithical theory: the first discovery of wine grapes and grape fermentation cont…<br />P. E, McGovern. (2003), theorizes that the discovery of grape <br />fermentation may have been as a result of the caveman/ <br />woman gathering “up as many of the berries as possible, perhaps <br />into an animal hide or even a wooden container that has <br />been crudely hollowed out……depending on the grapes ripeness,<br />the skins of some rapture and exude their juice, under <br />the accumulated weight of the grape mass. If the grapes are then<br />left in their ‘container’, gradually being eaten over the next day <br />or two, this juice will ferment owing to the natural yeast ‘bloom’<br />on the skins and become a low-alcoholic wine…………. <br />
  7. 7. The Paleolithical theory: the first discovery of wine grapes and grape fermentation cont…<br />…. Reaching the bottom of the ‘barrel’ our imagined cavemen <br />or woman will dabble a finger in the concoction , lick it and <br />be pleasantly surprised by the mildly intoxicating beverage that <br />has been produced accidentally. More intentional squeezings<br />might then ensue.”<br />
  8. 8. Paleolithical period: “Stone-age beaujoulaisnouveau”.<br />Douro’s stone vessels have been found dating back to this<br />time period and archeologists believed they contained wine. <br />Due to the nature of the way that grape fermentation would <br />have been discovered in the paleolithical period the grapes <br />would have undergone carbonic maceration from the <br />grape bunches having a few of the grapes at the bottom of <br />the vessel splitting under the weight of the other grapes <br />and beginning fermentation….so the cavemen/woman<br />would have been unintentionally making what has been<br />dubbed a “stone-age beajoulais nouveau”. <br />
  9. 9. Neolithical period: large scale wine-making begins<br />The Neolithical period from 8500 BC – 4000 BC was the first time <br />in human pre-history when the necessary <br />preconditions came together for the innovation of viticulture. <br />The Neolithical period is the time when large scale <br />wine-making began, there is chemical evidence that supports this in <br />Neoltihical pottery vessels found that had contained wine in <br />various Neolithical sites.<br />
  10. 10. Neolithical period: Georgia<br />It is believed that the first wine-making began in Shulaveri which is modern day Georgia around 6000 BC as a result of pottery vessels found in archeolicigalsites in valleys in Georgia containing organic material which has been tested and is believed to be wine.<br />Large concentrations of grape pips have also been found in these sites dating back to this time period which also supports this idea.<br />As many as 500 different wild grape varieties have been discovered in Georgia with as many as 65 in production today.<br />
  11. 11. Neolithical period: Iran<br />It is believed that in about 5,400 BC wine making spread <br />from Georgia into modern day Iran.<br />Pottery vessels containing a residue of organic material tested <br />and believed to be wine have been found in Archeological sites<br />of HajiFiruzIepe in the Zagros Mountains dating between <br />5,400 BC to 5,000 BC. <br />There are many references in Ancient Iranian poetry dating back <br />to this time time period to drinking wine as being a part <br />of celebration and ceremony.<br />
  12. 12. Bronze Age: Wine-making spreads to lower Mesopotomia and Ancient Egypt<br />Pottery vessels found in archeological sites of Late Uruk in<br />Lower Mesopotomia have also been found to contain wine <br />residue it is from here that wine-making most likely spread<br />to Ancient Egypt.<br />In around 3000 BC grape cultivation began in Levant in Egypt <br />and as a result of this grape cultivation the royal wine industry<br />was established in the Nile Delta in 3,200 BC.<br />From here wine-making spread to Ancient Rome and Europe<br />and then into Ancient China.<br />
  13. 13. Golden Age: Ancient Roman wine and wine-making in Ancient China<br />Wine-making spread from Egypt into Ancient Rome and it is <br />during the Golden Age that wine-making really evolved with <br />the development of Grand Cru vineyards in 200 BC. <br />It is also during this time that wine-making began in Ancient <br />China as a result of Zhang Qians explorations into Europe following<br />the Han Dynasty.<br />Knowledge of wine-making was brought back to Ancient <br />China and viticulture began with wild Eurasian grapes found<br />growing in China. The picture to the right is a bronze wine <br />storage container from the Shang Dynasty c. 1600-1046 BC.<br />
  14. 14. Ancient Viticulture: Romans leading the way<br />It could be said that the Romans were the pioneers and <br />innovators of viticulture in the ancient world. They were the first <br />to start trellising their vines on stakes for canopy management<br />and to start the practice of controlling sun exposure to grapes <br />by trimming foliage etc. Previouslyvines were trained to grow<br />up tree trunks next to the vines.<br />The early Romans were also the first to plant their vines on hills<br />in order to let cool air run down through the vines and also<br />for effective water irrigation. <br />
  15. 15. Ancient viticulture: Medieval times<br />It is during the middle ages in which the viticultural practices<br />of studying varietals and the suitability of specific vines to <br />specific area’s was developed and became common <br />viticultural technique throughout all of the countries in which <br />wine was growen.<br />
  16. 16. Ancient viniculture: Wine pressing<br />The earliest archeological findings to give insight into how wine <br />was made in ancient times has been found in Israel, Jordan <br />and Palestine also known as the “Holy Land”. In the hills of <br />these countries wine presses in the form of stone bases have <br />been found. Ancient vintners would have put the grapes into <br />the basins and stomped on them to release the juice and <br />these would have had “square-cut or circular basins, connected <br />by channels in series along a hillside, [which] were almost <br />certainly used to separate grape must from its pomace of<br /> skins, seeds and other matter”,McGovern, P.E. (2003). <br />
  17. 17. Ancient viniculture: wine preservation<br />During the Neolithical period in Ancient Greece and Eqypt<br />Terenbith tree resin was added to wine as a method of <br />preservation and was the most popular and widespread additive<br />in wines of the ancient world. It continued to be added to wine as<br />a method of preservation for thousands of years.<br />Along with Terenbith tree resin, honey, water,herbs and <br />spices were also added to wine as a method of <br />‘preservation’, however rather than preserving the wine it <br />masked the off flavours and odours of the wine once it had<br />become oxidized.<br />
  18. 18. Ancient Viticulture: wine preservation cont…..<br />There is also other evidence from wine jars found still in tact in <br />old ship wrecks dated back to the Pheonician’s that olive oil <br />and tree resin was used as a method of preserving wine. The<br />jars found in the ship wreck showed that the jars were coated <br />with tree resin before adding the wine, olive oil was poured on<br />top of the wine once it was poured into the jars which created <br />a film over the wine and then the top of the jar and rim of the <br />jar was coated in resin to seal the jar.<br />
  19. 19. Ancient viniculture: Aging wine<br />In Monastrialii, Greece jars have been found dating back to 1700 <br />BC containing wine that shows evidence that the Ancient <br />Greeks were most likely the first to start using oak to age their <br />wine and give the wine more character. Oak compounds have <br />been found in these jars containing resin wine.<br />McGovern, P.E. (2003) states, “ This amazing finding….implies<br />MM Winemakers intentionally introduced oak flavourant…<br />either directly by adding chips or oak resin itself…or indirectly<br />by stomping out the grapes in oaken wine-presses or, <br />more impressively aging the wine in oak barrels”.<br />
  20. 20. Ancient viniculture: wine storage<br />In many Neolithical and Bronze Age sites there is evidence <br />of ancient vintners having ‘cellars’. In Egypt rooms filled with <br />levels of wooden slats which would have contained jars <br />are believed to be for the storage of wine. <br />In Jordan, Israel and Palestine there have been many stone <br />towers which have been found which are believed to have <br />been used for the storage of wine as the stone keeps the towers <br />at a cool moderate temperature. It is also believed that <br />these towers were used to store freshly picked grapes before <br />being pressed. <br />
  21. 21. Wine in primitive societies: from ordinary drink to status symbol<br />Wine at first was a very ordinary part of everyday life in <br />ancient times. It was much safer to drink than water as there <br />was not the water sanitation we have today. Wine was added <br />to water to kill bacteria in the water making it safe to drink.<br />As wine developed and spread around the ancient world it become <br />a status symbol, especially in Ancient Greece during the 5th and <br />4th centuries BC where it was drunk after a meal during <br />a ‘Symposia’. A Symposia was a wine party where the guests <br />would retire to an Andron which was an architectural feature <br />often in the centre of the home. <br />
  22. 22. Wine in primitive societies: wine as a status symbol<br />The wine would be mixed in a special bowl called a ‘Krater’ and<br />then the ceremony would be initiated with a toast to the Gods<br />and the guests ancestors. Throughout the evening wine <br />would continue to be drunk while having <br />philisophicall conversation.<br />The value of the wine being drunk would be assessed by its <br />Strength. Alhoff, F. (2008), “Now sweetness could be indicated <br />by the terms ‘glykys’ and ‘hedus’, the former being translated <br />as ‘sweet’ as in “sugary” and the latter ‘sweet’ as in “delightful”<br />
  23. 23. Wine in primitive societies: wine as a status symbol.<br />The picture to the left is of a Creek boy<br />at a symposium from an ancient Greek<br />vase.<br />Wine was also important in ancient royal<br />marriages. Often children of Kings and <br />Queens of different royal kingdoms were married to each other <br />as a way of creating alliances between the Kingdoms. An amount <br />of wine was often negotiated as a “gift” to the Royals of <br />the daughter being married. <br />
  24. 24. Wine in primitive societies: Religion and rituals<br />Ancient Greeks had a god of wine Dionysus and the Ancient <br />Romans had the god of wine Bacchus. Wine was often given as <br />a gift to the Gods during animal sacrifices.<br />Ancient Egyptians buried jars of wine in tombs with <br />mummified members of the royal family, believing that they <br />would be able to drink the wine in the after-life.<br />Many ancient cultures also believed vines sprung <br />from the blood of humans who fought against the <br />Gods.<br />To the left is a picture of Dionysus on an ancient<br />Greek vase.<br />
  25. 25. Wine in primitive societies: Religion and rituals<br />In ancient society wine was an important part of ancient <br />religious rituals. Alhoff, F. (2008), “As symbol and metaphor<br />it became part of Christian and Jewish ritual. The culture of <br />wine spread, and so did its role as a catylyst for community, <br />for bringing together family and friends”.<br />It was used by Catholics in communion and by Christians<br />In Church as a symbol as the blood of Christ. A tradition<br />that lives on in both religions today.<br />
  26. 26. Wine in primitive societies: wine as an ancient Weapon and Medicine<br />Wine as a weapon: The Cyclops used wine as a weapon. <br />It potency was a weapon when it was used against enemies<br />not used to drinking wine and its strength.<br />Wine as a medicine: In Ancient Greece wine was used as a <br />medicine for many common sicknesses, particularly it was <br />believed to be a cure for Hemlock poisoning and was added to <br />tree resin which was believed to have health giving properties.<br />
  27. 27. Conclusion<br />In conclusion, since humans began exploring the world they <br />also discovered and explored wine and have over time continued <br />to develop viticulture and viniculture to be what it is today <br />through a slow evolution and discovery of wine varieties and <br />wine-making techniques.<br />Wine played an important part in ancient society, from <br />everyday life, religion and as a way of bringing together <br />community in ancient rituals. It was an important part <br />bringing together ancient kingdoms and bring people together <br />in celebration as it continues to do so today.<br />
  28. 28. Bibliography<br />Alhoff, F. (2008). Wine & Philosophy: A Symposium on Thinking <br />& Drinking. Victoria, Australia: Blackwell Publishing.<br />McGovern, P.E. (2003) Ancient Wine: The Search for the Origins <br />of Viniculture. Princeton, United States of America: <br />Princeton University Press. <br />
  29. 29. References<br />Alhoff, F. (2008). Wine & Philosophy: A Symposium on Thinking <br />& Drinking. Victoria, Australia: Blackwell Publishing.<br />Fosters Group. History of Wine. Retrieved 31st July, 2009,<br />from<br />McGovern, P.E. (2003). Ancient Wine: The Search for Origins<br />of Viniculture. Princeton, United States of America:<br />Princeton University Press.<br />University of Pensylvania. University of Pensylvania Museum <br />of Archeology & Anthropology presents: The Origins and <br />Ancient History of Wine. Retrieved 31st July, 2009, from, <br /><br />
  30. 30. References<br />Walton, S. (2005). The Ultimate Book of Cocktails. London, <br />United Kingdom: Annes Publishing Ltd.<br />Wikipedia. History of Wine. Retrieved on 31st July, 2009, <br />from<br />Wikipedia. Ancient Rome and Wine Expansion of <br />Viticulture. Retrieved on 31st July, 2009, from <br /><br />Wine History. Retrieved on 31st of July, 2009, from<br /><br />