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Philosophies of Building
the Workplace
@ZsoltFabok
by
Zsolt Fabok
2015.04.16 !
http://zsoltfabok.com/
Intro
book: http://www.libri.hu/konyv/empowerment-a-felelosseg-hatalma.html
book: http://www.triballeadership.net/book
image: https://technologybubbles.files.wordpress.com/2012/06/screen-shot-2012-06-28-at-12-21-22-pm.png
Processes
Frederick Taylor
more info: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scientific_management
Henri Fayol
more info: http://hu.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henri_Fayol
Max Weber
more info: http://hu.wikipedia.org/wiki/Max_Weber
Let’s jump forward in time
book: http://www.amazon.com/Toyota-Production-System-Beyond-Large-Scale/dp/0915299143
more info: http://zsoltfabok.com/blog/2012/08/waste-in-software-development/
book: http://www.amazon.co.uk/This-Lean-Resolving-Efficiency-Paradox/dp/919803930X
source: https://innovation.internews.org/pilots/agile-methodology-human-development
source: http://www.mountaingoatsoftware.com/agile/scrum/overview
more info: http://edu.leankanban.com/ http://www.zsoltfabok.com/blog/tag/kanban/
Small incremental
evolutionary changes
(continuous improvement)
The Pull System
If you understand the purpose of small
incremental evolutionary changes and the
pull system, you’ll do fine with the Kanban...
It is hard to improve the invisible, so
we have to see what we have at our
hands.
Meet the team
Value Stream Mapping
Start with what you do now
(possibly end to end)
Car manufacturing
vs
software engineering
“The gemba walk”
(Unfortunately, you won’t see much at a
software engineering wo...
Value Stream Mapping
Design
Implementation
Delivery
Test information
work item
http://zsoltfabok.com/blog/2012/04/see-the-whole-flow-exercise/
Design
Implementation
Delivery
Test
Ready Design Implementation Test Delivery Live
This board was a “traditional” board,
how about a less “traditional” one?
Courtesy of Prezi.com
We decided that we are going to discover
our value stream (flow) on the go.
Ready Design Implementation Test Delivery Live
Flow (Stream)
The flow ([value] stream) starts at the left side,
and ends at...
The Flow is different in a typical
enterprise and start-up environment.
Typical enterprise flow
Flow (Stream)
Typical start-up flow
Flow
Flow
Flow
Now we can see the previously unseen,
but we need to start pulling work items
otherwise they won’t get delivered.
Ready Design Implementation Test Delivery Live
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Ready Design Implementation Test Delivery Live
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Ready Design Implementation Test Delivery Live
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Ready Design Implementation Test Delivery Live
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The pull system itself does not guarantee
that work items get to be delivered.
That’s when the Work In Progress (WIP)
limit comes into the picture.
Ready Design Implementation Test Delivery Live
# ~	
~ ~
1 2 1 3
# ~	
~ ~
# ~	
~ ~
# ~	
~ ~
# ~	
~ ~
How to set the WIP limit
at the beginning?
# ~	
~ ~
# ~	
~ ~
# ~	
~ ~
work done
staff liquidity + internal queue
Too low WIP limit creates unnecessary
bottleneck, too high WIP limit encourages
multitasking and/or longer lead time.
Yes, the WIP limit can
change over time.
# ~	
~ ~
work done
week 1 week 2 week 3 week 4
Car manufacturing
vs
software engineering
“The inventory”
(AtToyota the inventory is finite, however in
software engineerin...
And now, back to the queues.
There is another kind of queue: the
infinite queue.
2
1
Visible
Invisible
2 3
Infinite queues
Now the work items are getting delivered,
it is time to improve the system.
!
Improvement requires measurement.
The lead time
The lead time
Ready Design Implementation Test Delivery Live
1 2 1 3
# ~	
~ ~
# ~	
~ ~
# ~	
~ ~
commitment
Distribution of lead times
days
count
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 22 28 33 56
average
median*
*...
Car manufacturing
vs
software engineering
“The takt time”
(In software engineering the demand is not
quantitive, therefore...
Car manufacturing
vs
software engineering
“The throughput”
(In software engineering we don’t have to deliver 10
features, ...
Car manufacturing
vs
software engineering
“The throughput”
(In software engineering we don’t have to deliver 10
features, ...
0
2
4
5
7
week 1 week 2 week 3 week 4
incoming
outgoing
The throughput
The throughput (output) is helpful, if
and only if it is compared to the
demand (input).
1 2 1 3
# ~
~ ~
# ~
~ ~
0
2
4
5
7
w 1 w 2 w 3 w 4
6
The goal is to have a stable system
(first target) because improvement on
a stable system will have a long term
effect (sec...
1 2 1 3
# ~
~ ~# ~
~ ~
0
2
4
5
7
w 1 w 2 w 3 w 4
7
It is Monday on Week 5...
# ~
~ ~
# ~
~ ~
# ~
~ ~
# ~
~ ~
# ~
~ ~
# ~
~...
1 2 1 3
# ~
~ ~# ~
~ ~
0
2
4
5
7
w 1 w 2 w 3 w 4
7
It is Monday on Week 5...
# ~
~ ~
# ~
~ ~
# ~
~ ~
# ~
~ ~
# ~
~ ~
# ~
~...
The aging items mess up your forecasting.
0
2
4
5
7
w 1 w 2 w 3 w 4
throughput
*This argument is so weak that a decent philosopher stops thinking about
philosophy a...
days
count
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
But in reality you are actually here:
5 != [6,9]
Protect the bottleneck and don’t punish the
phase before the bottleneck.
(with Theory of Constraints)
3 3 4 2
# ~
~ ~
# ~
~ ~
Bottleneck
3 3 4 2
# ~
~ ~
It hurts here...
...because the work items queue up here.
# ~
~ ~
# ~
~ ~
# ~
~ ~
# ~
~ ~
3 3 4
2
# ~
~ ~
# ~
~ ~
2
Now the bottleneck is better protected...
# ~
~ ~
# ~
~ ~
# ~
~ ~
...and the phase before the bo...
Cost of delay flavored Kanban
Courtesy of Prezi.com
time
impact
Level 1
The original idea comes from Thomas Jeffrey: http://bit.ly/exBGNo
time
impact
cost of delay
Level 1
time
impact
Level 2
t1
cost of delay
time
impact
Level 2
time
impact
t2
Level 2 will eventually turn into Level 1
time
impact
Level 3
time
impact
t1
no cost of delay
Level 3
time
impact
t2
Level 3 will eventually turn into Level 2
time
impact
And, Level 2 will turn into Level 1
time
impact
Improvement, technical debts. You know those
we always talk about, but never actually do
Courtesy of Prezi.com
0
3
6
9
12
week 1 week 2 week 3 week 4
incoming
outgoing
Real data will come after finishing this experiment!
If you understand the purpose of small
incremental evolutionary changes and the
pull system, you’ll do fine in Kanban land,...
source: [
source: http://bbrt.org/
People
Definition:
!
The time spent on any item of the agenda will be
inverse proportion to the sum involved.
The good thing about science is that
it's true whether or not you believe in it
by
Prof. Dr. Martin Seligman (1967)
The dog experiment
image: http://bit.ly/14axX5J
Learned helplessness
Is a technical term that refers to the condition of
a human or animal that has learned to behave
help...
by

Robert Rosenthal and Lenore Jacobson (1968)
The class room experiment
image: http://bit.ly/12IiNzR
Pygmalion Effect
People will perform to the level of
expectations you set for them.
image: http://bit.ly/1cwnw2l
by

Elton Mayo (1927)
The Hawthorne experiments
image: http://bit.ly/PEucyR
Hawthorne Effect
The phenomenon in which subjects in
behavioral studies change their performance
in response to being obse...
by

Lee Ross, David Green, Pamela House (1977)
The False-consensus Effect
image: http://bit.ly/9n66nj
False-consensus Effect
There is a tendency for people to assume that
their own opinions, beliefs, preferences, values
and ...
by

Edmund Gettier (1963)
The Gettier Problem
(campus clock version)
The Gettier Problem is a philosophical thought experi...
Gettier Problems
The problems are actual or possible situations in
which someone has a belief that is both true and
well s...
Thank you very much for your attention!
@ZsoltFabokhttp://zsoltfabok.com/
Philosophies of Building the Workplace
Philosophies of Building the Workplace
Philosophies of Building the Workplace
Philosophies of Building the Workplace
Philosophies of Building the Workplace
Philosophies of Building the Workplace
Philosophies of Building the Workplace
Philosophies of Building the Workplace
Philosophies of Building the Workplace
Philosophies of Building the Workplace
Philosophies of Building the Workplace
Philosophies of Building the Workplace
Philosophies of Building the Workplace
Philosophies of Building the Workplace
Philosophies of Building the Workplace
Philosophies of Building the Workplace
Philosophies of Building the Workplace
Philosophies of Building the Workplace
Philosophies of Building the Workplace
Philosophies of Building the Workplace
Philosophies of Building the Workplace
Philosophies of Building the Workplace
Philosophies of Building the Workplace
Philosophies of Building the Workplace
Philosophies of Building the Workplace
Philosophies of Building the Workplace
Philosophies of Building the Workplace
Philosophies of Building the Workplace
Philosophies of Building the Workplace
Philosophies of Building the Workplace
Philosophies of Building the Workplace
Philosophies of Building the Workplace
Philosophies of Building the Workplace
Philosophies of Building the Workplace
Philosophies of Building the Workplace
Philosophies of Building the Workplace
Philosophies of Building the Workplace
Philosophies of Building the Workplace
Philosophies of Building the Workplace
Philosophies of Building the Workplace
Philosophies of Building the Workplace
Philosophies of Building the Workplace
Philosophies of Building the Workplace
Philosophies of Building the Workplace
Philosophies of Building the Workplace
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Philosophies of Building the Workplace

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I gave this talk at the Budapest University of Technology and Economics to psychology students about the philosophies we use to build and improve a workplace. I covered a wide range of topics (Taylor, Kanban, staff liquidity, cynefin, etc.)

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Philosophies of Building the Workplace

  1. 1. Philosophies of Building the Workplace @ZsoltFabok by Zsolt Fabok 2015.04.16 ! http://zsoltfabok.com/
  2. 2. Intro
  3. 3. book: http://www.libri.hu/konyv/empowerment-a-felelosseg-hatalma.html
  4. 4. book: http://www.triballeadership.net/book
  5. 5. image: https://technologybubbles.files.wordpress.com/2012/06/screen-shot-2012-06-28-at-12-21-22-pm.png
  6. 6. Processes
  7. 7. Frederick Taylor more info: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scientific_management
  8. 8. Henri Fayol more info: http://hu.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henri_Fayol
  9. 9. Max Weber more info: http://hu.wikipedia.org/wiki/Max_Weber
  10. 10. Let’s jump forward in time
  11. 11. book: http://www.amazon.com/Toyota-Production-System-Beyond-Large-Scale/dp/0915299143
  12. 12. more info: http://zsoltfabok.com/blog/2012/08/waste-in-software-development/
  13. 13. book: http://www.amazon.co.uk/This-Lean-Resolving-Efficiency-Paradox/dp/919803930X
  14. 14. source: https://innovation.internews.org/pilots/agile-methodology-human-development
  15. 15. source: http://www.mountaingoatsoftware.com/agile/scrum/overview
  16. 16. more info: http://edu.leankanban.com/ http://www.zsoltfabok.com/blog/tag/kanban/
  17. 17. Small incremental evolutionary changes (continuous improvement)
  18. 18. The Pull System
  19. 19. If you understand the purpose of small incremental evolutionary changes and the pull system, you’ll do fine with the Kanban Method, because you can easily deduce the rest. (helping questions:Am I improving? Am I pulling the work?)
  20. 20. It is hard to improve the invisible, so we have to see what we have at our hands.
  21. 21. Meet the team
  22. 22. Value Stream Mapping Start with what you do now (possibly end to end)
  23. 23. Car manufacturing vs software engineering “The gemba walk” (Unfortunately, you won’t see much at a software engineering workplace) (http://zsoltfabok.com/blog/2013/06/gemba-walk-has-low-value/)
  24. 24. Value Stream Mapping
  25. 25. Design Implementation Delivery Test information work item http://zsoltfabok.com/blog/2012/04/see-the-whole-flow-exercise/
  26. 26. Design Implementation Delivery Test
  27. 27. Ready Design Implementation Test Delivery Live
  28. 28. This board was a “traditional” board, how about a less “traditional” one?
  29. 29. Courtesy of Prezi.com
  30. 30. We decided that we are going to discover our value stream (flow) on the go.
  31. 31. Ready Design Implementation Test Delivery Live Flow (Stream) The flow ([value] stream) starts at the left side, and ends at the right side of the board.
  32. 32. The Flow is different in a typical enterprise and start-up environment.
  33. 33. Typical enterprise flow Flow (Stream)
  34. 34. Typical start-up flow Flow Flow Flow
  35. 35. Now we can see the previously unseen, but we need to start pulling work items otherwise they won’t get delivered.
  36. 36. Ready Design Implementation Test Delivery Live # ~ ~ ~ # ~ ~ ~ # ~ ~ ~ # ~ ~ ~ # ~ ~ ~
  37. 37. Ready Design Implementation Test Delivery Live # ~ ~ ~ # ~ ~ ~ # ~ ~ ~ # ~ ~ ~ # ~ ~ ~
  38. 38. Ready Design Implementation Test Delivery Live # ~ ~ ~ # ~ ~ ~ # ~ ~ ~ # ~ ~ ~ # ~ ~ ~
  39. 39. Ready Design Implementation Test Delivery Live # ~ ~ ~ # ~ ~ ~ # ~ ~ ~ # ~ ~ ~ # ~ ~ ~
  40. 40. The pull system itself does not guarantee that work items get to be delivered.
  41. 41. That’s when the Work In Progress (WIP) limit comes into the picture.
  42. 42. Ready Design Implementation Test Delivery Live # ~ ~ ~ 1 2 1 3 # ~ ~ ~ # ~ ~ ~ # ~ ~ ~ # ~ ~ ~
  43. 43. How to set the WIP limit at the beginning?
  44. 44. # ~ ~ ~ # ~ ~ ~ # ~ ~ ~ work done staff liquidity + internal queue
  45. 45. Too low WIP limit creates unnecessary bottleneck, too high WIP limit encourages multitasking and/or longer lead time.
  46. 46. Yes, the WIP limit can change over time.
  47. 47. # ~ ~ ~ work done week 1 week 2 week 3 week 4
  48. 48. Car manufacturing vs software engineering “The inventory” (AtToyota the inventory is finite, however in software engineering it is infinite, therefore we cannot approach it with the same attitude)
  49. 49. And now, back to the queues.
  50. 50. There is another kind of queue: the infinite queue.
  51. 51. 2 1 Visible Invisible 2 3 Infinite queues
  52. 52. Now the work items are getting delivered, it is time to improve the system. ! Improvement requires measurement.
  53. 53. The lead time
  54. 54. The lead time Ready Design Implementation Test Delivery Live 1 2 1 3 # ~ ~ ~ # ~ ~ ~ # ~ ~ ~ commitment
  55. 55. Distribution of lead times days count 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 22 28 33 56 average median* *Calculation of medians is a popular technique in summary statistics and summarizing statistical data, since it is simple to understand and easy to calculate, while also giving a measure that is more robust in the presence of outlier values Courtesy of Digital Natives
  56. 56. Car manufacturing vs software engineering “The takt time” (In software engineering the demand is not quantitive, therefore it doesn’t matter how much time we spend between two features)
  57. 57. Car manufacturing vs software engineering “The throughput” (In software engineering we don’t have to deliver 10 features, we have to deliverTHE feature, therefore the number of delivered feature doesn’t help us, but it is a good “secondary” measure)
  58. 58. Car manufacturing vs software engineering “The throughput” (In software engineering we don’t have to deliver 10 features, we have to deliverTHE feature, therefore the number of delivered feature doesn’t help us, but it is a good “secondary” measure to see how we react to changes, or how good we are at forecasting)
  59. 59. 0 2 4 5 7 week 1 week 2 week 3 week 4 incoming outgoing The throughput
  60. 60. The throughput (output) is helpful, if and only if it is compared to the demand (input).
  61. 61. 1 2 1 3 # ~ ~ ~ # ~ ~ ~ 0 2 4 5 7 w 1 w 2 w 3 w 4 6
  62. 62. The goal is to have a stable system (first target) because improvement on a stable system will have a long term effect (second target).
  63. 63. 1 2 1 3 # ~ ~ ~# ~ ~ ~ 0 2 4 5 7 w 1 w 2 w 3 w 4 7 It is Monday on Week 5... # ~ ~ ~ # ~ ~ ~ # ~ ~ ~ # ~ ~ ~ # ~ ~ ~ # ~ ~ ~
  64. 64. 1 2 1 3 # ~ ~ ~# ~ ~ ~ 0 2 4 5 7 w 1 w 2 w 3 w 4 7 It is Monday on Week 5... # ~ ~ ~ # ~ ~ ~ # ~ ~ ~ # ~ ~ ~ # ~ ~ ~ # ~ ~ ~ Aging item
  65. 65. The aging items mess up your forecasting.
  66. 66. 0 2 4 5 7 w 1 w 2 w 3 w 4 throughput *This argument is so weak that a decent philosopher stops thinking about philosophy and looks for another profession every time one reads it up “We get N items a week” “We deliver N items a week” ! “Therefore we can deliver an item in a week” “We deliver an item in a week” ! Therefore our lead time is the length of the week which is 5 days)”*
  67. 67. days count 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 But in reality you are actually here: 5 != [6,9]
  68. 68. Protect the bottleneck and don’t punish the phase before the bottleneck. (with Theory of Constraints)
  69. 69. 3 3 4 2 # ~ ~ ~ # ~ ~ ~ Bottleneck
  70. 70. 3 3 4 2 # ~ ~ ~ It hurts here... ...because the work items queue up here. # ~ ~ ~ # ~ ~ ~ # ~ ~ ~ # ~ ~ ~
  71. 71. 3 3 4 2 # ~ ~ ~ # ~ ~ ~ 2 Now the bottleneck is better protected... # ~ ~ ~ # ~ ~ ~ # ~ ~ ~ ...and the phase before the bottleneck doesn’t suffer.
  72. 72. Cost of delay flavored Kanban
  73. 73. Courtesy of Prezi.com
  74. 74. time impact Level 1 The original idea comes from Thomas Jeffrey: http://bit.ly/exBGNo
  75. 75. time impact cost of delay Level 1
  76. 76. time impact Level 2
  77. 77. t1 cost of delay time impact Level 2
  78. 78. time impact t2 Level 2 will eventually turn into Level 1
  79. 79. time impact Level 3
  80. 80. time impact t1 no cost of delay Level 3
  81. 81. time impact t2 Level 3 will eventually turn into Level 2
  82. 82. time impact And, Level 2 will turn into Level 1
  83. 83. time impact Improvement, technical debts. You know those we always talk about, but never actually do
  84. 84. Courtesy of Prezi.com
  85. 85. 0 3 6 9 12 week 1 week 2 week 3 week 4 incoming outgoing Real data will come after finishing this experiment!
  86. 86. If you understand the purpose of small incremental evolutionary changes and the pull system, you’ll do fine in Kanban land, because you can easily deduce the rest. And be skeptical about the practices that come from the manufacturing world (context matters).
  87. 87. source: [
  88. 88. source: http://bbrt.org/
  89. 89. People
  90. 90. Definition: ! The time spent on any item of the agenda will be inverse proportion to the sum involved.
  91. 91. The good thing about science is that it's true whether or not you believe in it
  92. 92. by Prof. Dr. Martin Seligman (1967) The dog experiment image: http://bit.ly/14axX5J
  93. 93. Learned helplessness Is a technical term that refers to the condition of a human or animal that has learned to behave helplessly, failing to respond even though there are opportunities for it to help itself by avoiding unpleasant circumstances or by gaining positive rewards.
  94. 94. by
 Robert Rosenthal and Lenore Jacobson (1968) The class room experiment image: http://bit.ly/12IiNzR
  95. 95. Pygmalion Effect People will perform to the level of expectations you set for them.
  96. 96. image: http://bit.ly/1cwnw2l
  97. 97. by
 Elton Mayo (1927) The Hawthorne experiments image: http://bit.ly/PEucyR
  98. 98. Hawthorne Effect The phenomenon in which subjects in behavioral studies change their performance in response to being observed.
  99. 99. by
 Lee Ross, David Green, Pamela House (1977) The False-consensus Effect image: http://bit.ly/9n66nj
  100. 100. False-consensus Effect There is a tendency for people to assume that their own opinions, beliefs, preferences, values and habits are 'normal' and that others also think the same way that they do. This tends to lead to the perception of a consensus that does not exist, a 'false consensus'.
  101. 101. by
 Edmund Gettier (1963) The Gettier Problem (campus clock version) The Gettier Problem is a philosophical thought experiment that has nothing to do with social sciences, yet it is important image: http://bit.ly/MG8Kbn
  102. 102. Gettier Problems The problems are actual or possible situations in which someone has a belief that is both true and well supported by evidence, yet which — according to almost all epistemologists — fails to be knowledge.
  103. 103. Thank you very much for your attention! @ZsoltFabokhttp://zsoltfabok.com/

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