-                                                                           -                                             ...
-                                  vascularization                          nutrientartery-    innervation                ...
-                            -               --fibula                          tibia                -                    -...
corticalbone                                      --spongybonetrabecula                             spongy            bone...
--      articulation/joint                           --                                   -----sternum                    ...
-                                               --                                               ballandsocket    acetabul...
flexion                                                         extension                         extension- flexion      ...
socket-                                         and      socket          intraarticularspace-                             ...
---                        osteoarthritis                                              osteomyelitis                      ...
scapula                                    clavicle-                                           ---                        ...
-                                               -intra articular -                                                        ...
--                                                                                    Thorax    pulmonaryaa. / v.         ...
xiphoidprocess      xiphiloid                        --                          body-                  sternumangle-     ...
--                                         –InferiorThoracicAperture           Xiphoid-        T12                  costal...
-                                                       -                     T1 & C7--                    spinousprocess-...
apex                                             midsternalline-                                            mid sternal li...
oblique                                               -                              internal-                            ...
---CNS                                    --      ----       -                post-            post- pre                  ...
-           - serous              membrane                        ---               parietal         pleurainterlobal -   ...
pleural      effusion                                               Costal                                            pleu...
root of -                         mediastunum-                                      root of lung-                         ...
collapse             -plleuromediastunum          Pleural     effusion                                           --       ...
longitudinal       fibers  elastic                                            fiberstransverse -          transverse      ...
-       superiorlobeBronchus-                                                                                anteriorsegme...
superior             lobe           -                      lingular                                                       ...
-inferior                                                               middle --      superiorpulmonarynerveplexus     hi...
superficial                 fascia-                                                                                    ---...
deep                                                        -loose                areolar                tissue           ...
retracted                                                        retraction    erection                                   ...
glandulartissue-                             -       subareolarspace-                                                     ...
alveoli-             lobules-               lobe                                    areolar tissue       lactiferous duct-...
prolactin                          GrowthHormone  growth                                                                  ...
- axillaryvein-                        areola-                     venouscircle                                           ...
MRI--                Pectoralis Major                                 -- Mastectomy                                       ...
-                                                      -                                                                  ...
transverse sinuspulmonary vein (4), superior & inferior vena                                 pulmonary trunk aortaapex-   ...
(fossa              ovalis)                                                             --       -                        ...
CO2pulmonary          trunk                                           --Ligamentum          arteriosum                    ...
-                            -                       --                       -                  --                       ...
-      parietal     pleura              Parietal    Pericardium---      pulmonary trunk-           SVC       --           ...
4Valves                                                                               ConductionSystem ion                ...
--        ForamenOvale-Septum                                              Septum Secundum-           Primum              ...
leftauricle                                                 -                                                             ...
SANode-                                                             SVC-                                                  ...
,coronary                                                cusp-                RCA-                                        ...
----           Hypertrophic       Cardiomyopathy                          mitral                     regurgitation       ...
--                 Arrhythmia      Coronary      Artery    disease       ---                                   -          ...
--                        Angina    Pectoris-collaterals   --                                                            l...
-    Acute        Thrombotic       Occlusion                   Tissue Plasminogen Activator Streptokinase Balloon Angiopla...
--      LAD                                 LAD                  -                                          -             ...
----                           chordae       tendinae  - --                                                               ...
-                Atherothrombosis                Plaque   rupture          CVAVF     52
Werner       Forssmann                                              -      Aortic        Stenosis                         ...
---                                                                                Stridor                                ...
apnea                                                                 CO2                                                 ...
bochdalek    -                                        ---Right                                                    Lung Age...
SuperficialFascia- superficial            fascia- trunk-                superficial            fascia-                    ...
--                                              -        origin    --         ExternalObliqueilliaccrest-                 ...
external                  oblique                       -subcotanuos/Superficial                              Inguinal    ...
Superior -        inferiorlayer superiorlayer -                                            --                      rectus ...
transversus                                                 -                                          abdominis          ...
rectus -                                  --                                  flexion         abdominis            PsoasMa...
----                umbilicus-                  umbilical       hernia deep -                             deep inguinal ri...
--Conjoint               Tendonreflected part ofinternal       -                                                          ...
external oblique aponeurosis-                   external spermatic fascia--                  internal spermatic fascia-   ...
Inguinal                            -                              superficial inguinal ring-                             ...
MESH     Inferior ilioinguinal nerve-                                           recurrence fermoral                   lacu...
-                                                                         mesentery               lessersac- greatersac-  ...
Lesser - Greater sac  omentalbursa                                                                             sac        ...
-                                                                                           coronaryligament right        ...
fissure for -                               visceral peritoneum-                                                ligamentum...
parietal              peritoneum                                                              greatersac- omentalbursa-   ...
parietal                   - hepato-                                                           peritoneum--      peritonea...
sigmoidcolon                   --visceral                  peritoneum-                     sigmoidmesocolon-              ...
-                               Sacro-GenitalFold                             neck- -                       rectovesicle  ...
urachus                                                  --                 medianumbilicalfold/ligament             media...
IVC-                          -superior -                                                                                 ...
spleno--                                                       line        alba-                                          ...
recesses retro-cecalrecess         recess   cecum-             recess   mesoappendix-                                     ...
thoracotomy                      laparotomy fibrous--                                                           coat-     ...
reflux mucous          membrane               ----     -                                              leftcrus-           ...
----                   vagotomy                          gastric nerves               selectinve vagotomy                 ...
visceral     peritoneum                  --        intra     peritonealtransverse     -                           ileum-  ...
-- Solitary Lymph Follicles                                                               Aggregated Lymph Follicles      ...
---      longitudonalfibers                                                                                               ...
-                                    rectalvenousplexus  folds                  ----Internal         hemorhorids          ...
אנטומיה א סיכום עינת   תוספות ברלה 2011
אנטומיה א סיכום עינת   תוספות ברלה 2011
אנטומיה א סיכום עינת   תוספות ברלה 2011
אנטומיה א סיכום עינת   תוספות ברלה 2011
אנטומיה א סיכום עינת   תוספות ברלה 2011
אנטומיה א סיכום עינת   תוספות ברלה 2011
אנטומיה א סיכום עינת   תוספות ברלה 2011
אנטומיה א סיכום עינת   תוספות ברלה 2011
אנטומיה א סיכום עינת   תוספות ברלה 2011
אנטומיה א סיכום עינת   תוספות ברלה 2011
אנטומיה א סיכום עינת   תוספות ברלה 2011
אנטומיה א סיכום עינת   תוספות ברלה 2011
אנטומיה א סיכום עינת   תוספות ברלה 2011
אנטומיה א סיכום עינת   תוספות ברלה 2011
אנטומיה א סיכום עינת   תוספות ברלה 2011
אנטומיה א סיכום עינת   תוספות ברלה 2011
אנטומיה א סיכום עינת   תוספות ברלה 2011
אנטומיה א סיכום עינת   תוספות ברלה 2011
אנטומיה א סיכום עינת   תוספות ברלה 2011
אנטומיה א סיכום עינת   תוספות ברלה 2011
אנטומיה א סיכום עינת   תוספות ברלה 2011
אנטומיה א סיכום עינת   תוספות ברלה 2011
אנטומיה א סיכום עינת   תוספות ברלה 2011
אנטומיה א סיכום עינת   תוספות ברלה 2011
אנטומיה א סיכום עינת   תוספות ברלה 2011
אנטומיה א סיכום עינת   תוספות ברלה 2011
אנטומיה א סיכום עינת   תוספות ברלה 2011
אנטומיה א סיכום עינת   תוספות ברלה 2011
אנטומיה א סיכום עינת   תוספות ברלה 2011
אנטומיה א סיכום עינת   תוספות ברלה 2011
אנטומיה א סיכום עינת   תוספות ברלה 2011
אנטומיה א סיכום עינת   תוספות ברלה 2011
אנטומיה א סיכום עינת   תוספות ברלה 2011
אנטומיה א סיכום עינת   תוספות ברלה 2011
אנטומיה א סיכום עינת   תוספות ברלה 2011
אנטומיה א סיכום עינת   תוספות ברלה 2011
אנטומיה א סיכום עינת   תוספות ברלה 2011
אנטומיה א סיכום עינת   תוספות ברלה 2011
אנטומיה א סיכום עינת   תוספות ברלה 2011
אנטומיה א סיכום עינת   תוספות ברלה 2011
אנטומיה א סיכום עינת   תוספות ברלה 2011
אנטומיה א סיכום עינת   תוספות ברלה 2011
אנטומיה א סיכום עינת   תוספות ברלה 2011
אנטומיה א סיכום עינת   תוספות ברלה 2011
אנטומיה א סיכום עינת   תוספות ברלה 2011
אנטומיה א סיכום עינת   תוספות ברלה 2011
אנטומיה א סיכום עינת   תוספות ברלה 2011
אנטומיה א סיכום עינת   תוספות ברלה 2011
אנטומיה א סיכום עינת   תוספות ברלה 2011
אנטומיה א סיכום עינת   תוספות ברלה 2011
אנטומיה א סיכום עינת   תוספות ברלה 2011
אנטומיה א סיכום עינת   תוספות ברלה 2011
אנטומיה א סיכום עינת   תוספות ברלה 2011
אנטומיה א סיכום עינת   תוספות ברלה 2011
אנטומיה א סיכום עינת   תוספות ברלה 2011
אנטומיה א סיכום עינת   תוספות ברלה 2011
אנטומיה א סיכום עינת   תוספות ברלה 2011
אנטומיה א סיכום עינת   תוספות ברלה 2011
אנטומיה א סיכום עינת   תוספות ברלה 2011
אנטומיה א סיכום עינת   תוספות ברלה 2011
אנטומיה א סיכום עינת   תוספות ברלה 2011
אנטומיה א סיכום עינת   תוספות ברלה 2011
אנטומיה א סיכום עינת   תוספות ברלה 2011
אנטומיה א סיכום עינת   תוספות ברלה 2011
אנטומיה א סיכום עינת   תוספות ברלה 2011
אנטומיה א סיכום עינת   תוספות ברלה 2011
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אנטומיה א סיכום עינת תוספות ברלה 2011

  1. 1. - - pointerslong ---long bone, flat bone, cubic bone bones epiphysis  shaft long bones- diaphysis  longbones cubicbones-- - flat/irregularbone articularcartilage peri -- os periosteum fibroustissue -- elasticfibers 1
  2. 2. - vascularization nutrientartery- innervation 2
  3. 3. - - --fibula tibia - - compactbone 3
  4. 4. corticalbone --spongybonetrabecula spongy bone-- shaftmetapysis endosteum medullarycavity - bonemarrow osteomedulla ---long cubic bones short bones bones flate bones 4
  5. 5. -- articulation/joint -- -----sternum wrist - 5
  6. 6. - -- ballandsocket acetabulum socketsliding gliding ---- (trochlea) sliding gliding 6
  7. 7. flexion extension extension- flexion sliding Facet - facet ulna -- PivotC1 axis- C2  gliding epiphysis- articularcartilagearticular - hyalinecartilage cartilage --ball 7
  8. 8. socket- and socket intraarticularspace- articular capsule- ---- extracapsular # intracapsularfracture 8
  9. 9. --- osteoarthritis osteomyelitis -- ligament tendon -- Ligament CapsularLigaments 9
  10. 10. scapula clavicle- --- Accessory Ligaments capsularligaments sprain --- Avulsion Fracture intra-articular space Synovial Membrane intra articular - Synovia - space 10
  11. 11. - -intra articular - spacearticular - fibrocartilage disc- sternoclavicularjoint insertion - origin - - 11
  12. 12. -- Thorax pulmonaryaa. / v. –--  (IVC&SVC Inferior&SuperiorVenaCava (thoracicspinalcord) T1-T12  parasympatheticnerves (Vagus) thoracicsymphathetictrunk (DRG --  T T thoracicduct lymphnodes ---  esophagus  T1-T12 ---- sternum true false floating - - -- spinous -- sternumjugularnotch- manubrium- body- T2 12
  13. 13. xiphoidprocess xiphiloid -- body- sternumangle- T2 sternal angle- - SuperiorThoracicApertureSVC inlet T1 13
  14. 14. -- –InferiorThoracicAperture Xiphoid- T12 costalmargin IVC -- - MidSternalLine  - MidClavicularLine  - MidAxillaryLine  jugularnotchthoracic -- SternalAngle duct 14
  15. 15. - - T1 & C7-- spinousprocess- T10-11sparecapacity -- recess recess - apexoflung- -- - 15
  16. 16. apex midsternalline- mid sternal line -- --- -- externalintercostalmuscles  external --- internalintercostalmuscles  internal --- innermostintercostalmuscles  -- major/ minorpectoralis 16
  17. 17. oblique - internal- external groove Vein, Artery, Nerve -- VAN VAN ---- - VAN- VAN- costal groove innermost- internal internal thoracic - - artery groove - --Inferiorandsuperiorvenacava T1-T12 -- CNS Dorsal Root - CNS -- PNS Ganglia 17
  18. 18. ---CNS -- ---- - post- post- pre - 18
  19. 19. - - serous membrane --- parietal pleurainterlobal - visceral pleura -fissures - - 19
  20. 20. pleural effusion Costal pleura apex- costal pleura- Cervical pleura neck-superpleural membranetransverse - C7 processscalenous - musclescalenustransverse - minimus muscle C7 process cervical membrane-root of lung- Mediastinal pleura Pulmanory hilus-Pulmonary - pulmonary veins bronchus areteryinferior lobe- suprior lobe- hilus-lymph nodes Hilus-- pulmonary nerve plexus 20
  21. 21. root of - mediastunum- root of lung- lungroot - visceral pleura- of lung esophagouspulmonary visceral pleura- ligament - Hilus Diaphragmatic pleuracostophrenic angle pleural cavity- -Pleumothorax - -- visceral pleura- 21
  22. 22. collapse -plleuromediastunum Pleural effusion -- sternal angle- manubrium midline -- trachea- bronchi- carina-elastic fibrous membrane 22
  23. 23. longitudinal fibers elastic fiberstransverse - transverse fibers- fibrous longitudinal – mucus membrane- -- Carina mainbronchus brunchi right&LeftPrincipalBronchus endotrachial tube bronchus- -- right principal bronchus- - right main bronchus- - superiorlobebronchus lobarbronchi - Segmental Bronchi- apex apicalsegmentalbronchus- posteriorsegmentalbronchus--- - superior- lateral posterior posterior lateral inferior inferior 23
  24. 24. - superiorlobeBronchus- anteriorsegmentalbronchus lateral anterior superiorlobebronchus-lobe bronchus - main right bronchus- middle lobe bronchus- middle lobe bronchus -- lateral medial segmentalbronchi- middle lobe bronchu- epicalbasal segmentalbronchus rightbronchus inferiorlobe- epicalsegmentalbronchusofinferiorlobe middlelobe- rightbronchus- medialsegmentalbronchusofinferiorlobe/medialbasalsegmentalbronchus - right bronchus- posteriorbasal - anteriorbasal lateralbasal leftprincipalbronchus- superiorlobarbronchus- superiordivision- superiorlobebronchus- superior division- inferiordivision anteriorsegmentalbronchus superior division apicoposterior- apicoposterior apicalsegmental- posteriorsegmental-lingularbronchus -- inferior division- Middlelobebronchusmedial- middle lobe inferiorlingular- superiorlingular- lingular- lateral- superior lobe bronchus-- middle lobe- lingular bronchus- superior division 24
  25. 25. superior lobe - lingular bronchus lingularpneumonia - left bronchus- medialbasalbronchus -- bronchi- bronchioli terminalbronchiolus alveoli- alveoli alveolarsac alveolar sacs- lobulus alveolar sacs lobuluslobulus lobules broncho- pulmonarysegmentsegmental segmental bronchus - broncho pulmonary segment bronchus medial basal  lobe superior lobe- superior inferior lobe middle lobe lingular- middle- inferiorhorizontal- oblique interlobarfissure obliquefissure pulmonary hilus pulmonaryHilus -- 2pulmonaryveins- principalbronchi- pulmonaryartery 25
  26. 26. -inferior middle -- superiorpulmonarynerveplexus hilus- lobe- principal bronchus- anterior- posterior anterior- anterior- posterior- principal bronchus- posteriorlymph - lymphnodes hilus nodes -  -- explorative laparotomy MRI Glandulartissue  AreolarTissue  FibrousTissue  FattyTissue   26
  27. 27. superficial fascia- ---mid axillary line-- ) axilla- Axillary Tail pectoral lymph nodes- deep fascia- ---- pectoralis major- deep fascia- - external oblique aponeurosis- serratus anterior - 27
  28. 28. deep -loose areolar tissue fascia Mamma submammaryspace RertomammarySpaceretromammary - space retromammary space- pectoralis major- deep fascia- pectoralis major- pectoralis major- -- pectoralis major- axillary tail--- Nipple- lactiferousducts sinusoflactiferousduct- circularfibers - nipple- erection longitudinalfibers - nipple nipple- retraction longitudinal fibers- retracted nipple- 28
  29. 29. retracted retraction erection -- Areola nipple- areola - areola- areolarglands areola areola- - nipple- areola areolar - glands - I.V. sebaceousglands areolar glands--- sweatglands areolar glands sebaceous glands- sweat glands areolar glands- subcutaneous fat pectoralis major- deep fascia -- Cooper suspensoryligaments areola- nipple- suspensory - ligaments suspensory ligaments- fibrous tissue contractures 29
  30. 30. glandulartissue- - subareolarspace- deep- alveolus alveoli-- lobules lobulus alveoli alveoliareolartissue lobules lobules areolar tissue lobe- lobe lobulus - lobe lactiferousducts -- lobes lobe- lactiferous ducts lactiferous ducts-lactiferous ducts --pectoralis major- retromammary space - 30
  31. 31. alveoli- lobules- lobe areolar tissue lactiferous duct- elasticfibers transverse longitudinal basementmembranemyoepithelialcells columnarepithelium columnar epithelium-sinus- nipple- stratifiedsquamousepithelium-columnar stratified squamous epithelium epithelium alveoli--- hypothalamus oxytocin hypothalamusmyoepithelial - cells Oesterogens corpusluteum- progesteronelactiferous - alveolipseudo-alveoli glandular- ducts alveoli placenta- corpus luteum- 31
  32. 32. prolactin GrowthHormone growth - hormone adenohypophysis- hibernate alveoli- menopause- – alveoly - - Witches Milk ---- axillary artery- thoraco-acromial superiorthoracic, lateralthoracic --- anteriorintercostalarteries internal/mammarythoracicartery anterior thoracic arteries 32
  33. 33. - axillaryvein- areola- venouscircle internalthoracicvein T4-6- -axillarylymphnodes- superficial lymph nodes- lymph nodes deep lymph nodes axillary lymph nodes- -- Axial/Apical lateral central lateral - posterior sub-scapularpectoral lymph - anterior axillary tail- nodeslymph - lymphaticducts nodes -- Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS) in situ ducts-myoepithelial cells- myoepithelial cells-DCIS myoepithelial cells-myoepithelial cells -- Infiltrate/Invasive Ductal Carcinoma 33
  34. 34. MRI-- Pectoralis Major -- Mastectomy - Lumpectomy lymph - axilla- lymph nodes- nodes lymphatic - ducts sentinal node- lymph - lymph - node node lymph node 34
  35. 35. - - - vertebra-coelomic 1. cavity 3. aorta Pleura gut Coelomic cavity Dorsal mesocardium Coelomic wall Pleura Hearttube Visceral Parietal pericardium pericardium . 4.parietal pericardium Visceral pericardium 35
  36. 36. transverse sinuspulmonary vein (4), superior & inferior vena pulmonary trunk aortaapex- cavaoblique sinus ---- transverse sinusfibrous pericardium ---- left auricle coronary sinusSA node crista terminalis LA RA V 36
  37. 37. (fossa ovalis) -- - interventricularseptum) - pulmonary - aorta- trunk- membranous intraventricular septum blue babiespulmonary trunk -- left subclavian arteryleft pulmonary artery 37
  38. 38. CO2pulmonary trunk --Ligamentum arteriosum cusps cusps--right auricle ---------Right coronary artery Right & left coronary sinus Left coronary artery left anterior descending left auricle circumflex branchcircumflex - AV node branch of left coronary artery --Coronary sinus anterior cardiac veins coronary artery- : - ---- 38
  39. 39. - - -- - -- -- - Trans- Esophageal Echo - 39
  40. 40. - parietal pleura Parietal Pericardium--- pulmonary trunk- SVC -- Fibrous Pericardium- epicardial Visceral Pericardium--C3, C4, C5 phrenic- parietal pericardium- - Myocardium 40
  41. 41. 4Valves ConductionSystem ion flux Coronary A&V BloodSupply - -- - SinusVenarum Sinus Venosus-- rightauricle- CristaTerminallis - SVC  --- IVC  Coronary Venous Sinus  right atrio-ventricular canal  Foramen Ovale -- Fossa Ovale  tricuspid - ----- 41
  42. 42. -- ForamenOvale-Septum Septum Secundum- Primum ChordaeTendineae -- papillarymuscles SinusArteriosus TrabeculaeCarnaeTrabeculae Carnae AorticVestibule 42
  43. 43. leftauricle - - Pulmonary Trunk-cusps PulmonaricValve -- AorticValve-right&left - cusp coronary arteries- mitral- tricuspid- - septum - - 43
  44. 44. SANode- SVC- -- AV Node-Common Bundle Of AV Node- coronary venous sinus crux- Hiss - RightBundle- LeftBundle bundles PurkinjeFibers -RCA LCA --- LCA- LCA- cusp-- interventricular groove- LADcoronary - LeftCurcumflexCA - groove LeftMarginalArtery 44
  45. 45. ,coronary cusp- RCA- groove- rightmarginalbranchinterventricular - posteriordescending- circumflex apex- LAD- groove- left circumflex- right posterior descending- LAD- RCA - --VITAMINC: Vascular, Infectious, Traumatic, Autoimmune, Metabolic, Idiopathic, Neoplastic, Congenital 45
  46. 46. ---- Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy  mitral regurgitation Dilated Cardiomyopathy  Sterling SterlingCongestive Heart Failure - VITAMINC Endocarditis  Aortic & Mitral Stenosis + Regurgitation Rheumatic Heart Disease A - 46
  47. 47. -- Arrhythmia Coronary Artery disease --- - elastic lamina -- TunicaIntima -- TunicaMedia TunicaAdventitia -------- tunica media- intima 47
  48. 48. -- Angina Pectoris-collaterals -- lumen - PlaqueRupture thrombus 48
  49. 49. - Acute Thrombotic Occlusion Tissue Plasminogen Activator Streptokinase Balloon Angioplasty -- slow atheriosclerotic occlusion--- -- -- ----- internal thoracicinternal - thoracic - - -- 49
  50. 50. -- LAD LAD - - X- Ray ---------X- Ray CT MRI - ---- 50
  51. 51. ---- chordae tendinae - -- aortic stenosis -- SA node left & right bundle - AV node- branches -- AV Node- Sick sinus syndrome AV Node- AV- --- IVC 51
  52. 52. - Atherothrombosis Plaque rupture CVAVF 52
  53. 53. Werner Forssmann - Aortic Stenosis ------------- -Cleft mitral valve - --- condacting air ways respiratory ways - 53
  54. 54. --- Stridor -Congenital Stridorlaryngomalacia - Vocal Cord Paralysis - Subglotic Mangioma --- - --Tracheomalaciainominate brachiocephalic trunk artery double aortic arch 54
  55. 55. apnea CO2 ------ Tracheo- esophageal fistula atresia - Congenital Cystic Adenomatoid Malformation --- Congenital Lung Cyst ----Pulmonary Sequestration---- grunting 55
  56. 56. bochdalek - ---Right Lung Agenesis - - - -- inguinal hernia - ---ventral - hernia 56
  57. 57. SuperficialFascia- superficial fascia- trunk- superficial fascia- --- SuperficialLayerofSuperficialFascia FattyAreolar - inguinalligament scrotum - fatty areolar layer- DartosMuscle superficiallayerofsuperficialfaciaofperineum -- DeepLayerofSuperficialFascia FasciaLatea deep layer membranous/ - fundiformligamentofpenis deeplayerofsuperficialfasciaofperineum superficial - deep - layer layer - - superficialfascia- - Rectus RectusAbdominis Rectus 57
  58. 58. -- - origin -- ExternalObliqueilliaccrest- serratusanterior Aponeurosis aponeurosis tendon ExternalObliqueAponeurosis midline-LineaAlba- - symphysispubis-- illiac crest- -- sympysis pubis- ASIS AnteriorSuperiorIlliacSpinesymphysis - PubicTubercle inguinalligament- pubis Inguinal Ligament- Inguinal Ligament- -- femoralartery- externalilliacartery 58
  59. 59. external oblique -subcotanuos/Superficial Inguinal Ring Inguinal Canal -- InternalOblique external -– inguinalligament- illiaccrest- origin-inguinal ligament -- internalobliqueaponeurosis - rectusabdominis-PosteriorLayer- AnteriorLayer - arcuatelineexternal oblique - rectus abdominis-external oblique - internal oblique- aponeurosisrectus - internal oblique- aponeurosislinea - abdominis albainternal oblique -rectus abdominis- aponeurosis -- TransversusAbdominis origin transversus- illiaccrest- internal--thoracolumbar inguinalligament facia aponeurosis-rectus abdominis- 59
  60. 60. Superior - inferiorlayer superiorlayer - -- rectus abdominis- transversus abdominis- Layer posterior layer of internal oblique aponeurosis -rectus - inferior layer- tranversus abdominislinea - internal oblique aponeurosis- anterior layer- abdominisrectus - external oblique aponeurosis- alba abdominisRectusSheath rectus abdominis- rectus abdominis- - aponeurosis aponeurosisanterior layer of internal external oblique aponeurosis anteriorrectussheath inferior layer of transversus abdominis aponeurosis- oblique aponeurosissuperior layer of - posterior layer of internal oblique posteriorrectussheath transversus abdominis- rectus sheath transversalisfasciarectus - - SemicircularLine ArcuateLine sheath SemilunarLine rectus sheath A rectus sheath- internal - oblique aponeurosis - aponeurosis- anterior - externaloblique rectus sheath - rectus 60
  61. 61. transversus - abdominis rectus sheath- abdominis-- arcuate line- B transversus - inferior layer- internal oblique abdominis transversalisfascia- thoraco-lumbar fascia- Inguinal ligament- iliac crest-- iliacus- iliacfascia- pecten pubis - RectusAbdominis--- xiphoid process- origin rectus abdominis IntersectionTendons linea - intersection tendons- - alba semilunarline- rectus abdominis semilunar line- .Rectus - .pyramidalis- pubic - Rectus Abdominis- Abdominis rectus abdonomis muscle- symphisis 61
  62. 62. rectus - -- flexion abdominis PsoasMajor inguinal ligament- psoas-rectus - abdonomis - InguinalCanalexternal - superficialinguinalring-- oblique- internal oblique- deepinguinalring- spermatic cord- spermaticcord -- VasDeference = Deferentduct round ligament of uterus- spermatic cord 62
  63. 63. ---- umbilicus- umbilical hernia deep - deep inguinal ring- inguinal ring inguinal ligament -- ReflectedPartofInguinalLigament linea alba- pecten - inguinal ligament --Lacunar Ligament pubis lacunar -- Pectineal Ligament pecten pubis- ligament lacunar ligament- 63
  64. 64. --Conjoint Tendonreflected part ofinternal - inguinal ligamentinguinal - obliquetransversus - tendinae ligamentpecten - conjoint tendon- abdominis aponeurosisrectus - anterior layer- pubis interfoveolar ligament sheathtransversus abdominis - superior ramus- aponeurosis superficial inguinal ring- external oblique aponeurosis- IntercruralFibers - deep- external . oblique superficial inguinal ring- internal oblique muscle-- Vas Deferens- spermatic cord-- spermatic cord internalspermaticfascia vascord externalspermaticfascia Cremaster 64
  65. 65. external oblique aponeurosis- external spermatic fascia-- internal spermatic fascia- internal oblique- cremaster- - Vas dferens- transversus abdominis -- cremaster- cremasteric reflex inguinal InguinalTriangle -- (hesselbach semilunarline --- inguinalligamrnt canal rectus inferiorepigastricvein&artery -- rectus abdominis conjoint tendon- abdominis-- Inguinal Hernia - inguinal hernia inguinal -- Direct inguinal hernia triangle 65
  66. 66. Inguinal - superficial inguinal ring- Triangledeep inguinal -- Indirect Inguinal Hernia ring Indirect- directsuperficial -inguinal ring scrotum-inguinal - canal - - –- MESH ilioinguinal nerve --- 66
  67. 67. MESH Inferior ilioinguinal nerve- recurrence fermoral lacunar ligament- hernia - - --- Peritonitis perforation parietalperitoneum parietal visceralperitoneum peritoneum-- visceral parietal -- Mesentery 67
  68. 68. - mesentery lessersac- greatersac- sacs pubis - linea alba- symphysis extra-peritoneal tissue - mide line- –-- - caudatelobe neck 68
  69. 69. Lesser - Greater sac omentalbursa sac epiploicforamen--- LigamentumTeres fibrous cord .round ligament teres -- obliteratedumbilicalvein falciform falciformligament parietal peritoneum ligament-- falciform ligament- 69
  70. 70. - coronaryligament right - visceral peritoneum- lobe coronary ligament- coronary ligament- - right lobe- righttriangularligament barearea coronary ligament-- - left - falciform- lefttriangularligament left lobe- triangular ligament - left triangular ligament--- fissureforligamentumvenosum left lobe- caudatelobe visceral left lobe fissure- peritoneum 70
  71. 71. fissure for - visceral peritoneum- ligamentum venosum - fissure - fissure lesseromentumfundus ----visceral lessercurvature peritoneum majorcurve greateromentum mostanterior greater omentum- greater omentum- mostposterior -- greater omentum-greater - - midline- omentum- transverse colon- most posterior- pancreastransverse -mesentry of transversemesocolon- colon transverse colontransverse mesocolon- visceral peritoneumvisceral peritoneum- 71
  72. 72. parietal peritoneum greatersac- omentalbursa- lesser sac- lessersac - greater sac lesser sac caudate - caudate lobe- lobe - - fissureforligamentumvenosum - lesser omentum- fissure minorcurve, - greater omentum - visceral peritoneum- fundus hepato-duodenal ligamnet - hepato-gastric ligament-- greater - greater omentum- anterior - greater omentum- posterior omentum - transverse colon- -- transverse mesocolon epiploic lesser omentum- lesser sacs- greater - greater- foramen lesser - lesser left&right gastric arteries- omentum 72
  73. 73. parietal - hepato- peritoneum-- peritonealrecess renalligament (renalimpression) Sub- Hepato-renalPouch - recess MorisonsPouch hepaticPouch - visceral -- Ascites parietal Morisons Pouch morisons - -B pouch morisons - C pouch-- 73
  74. 74. sigmoidcolon --visceral peritoneum- sigmoidmesocolon- seminalvesicle Douglas Recto-VesiclePouch rectouterinepouch para- - rectalfossa fossa trunk -- ascites 74
  75. 75. - Sacro-GenitalFold neck- - rectovesicle pouch- folds pararectal fossa - sacro genital fold- fold- sacrogenitalligament -- para--- vasdeferens vesiclefossa para-vesicle fossa round ligament fold ligament para-rectal fossae- -- pararectal fossa folds - 75
  76. 76. urachus -- medianumbilicalfold/ligament medialumbilicalfolds obliteratedumbilicalarteries - lateralumbilicalfolds inferiorepigastricarteries fold .SupraVesicalFossae medial- median umbilical fold- MedialInguinalFossae lateral- medial-lateral -- LateralInguinalFossae lateral- inguinal fossa vaginal process- lateral inguinal fossa umbilical folds- inguinal fossae-femoralfossae- Lateral Inguinal Fossae- transverse colon -- parietal peritoneum- linea alba-- cecum- ascending colon mesentery - 76
  77. 77. IVC- -superior - mesentery mesentery- mesenteryvisceral - mesentery- - peritoneum - IVCparietal - mesenteryascending - descendingcolon- peritoneum sigmoidcolon- colonIVC- transverse colon --linea - falciformligament- alba lessersac-lesser omentum- greater omentum-- greater omentum- posterior parietal peritoneum caudate lobe -- Greater Omentum- -- rightfreeborder- omental bursa-greater omentum- great omentum- - head- neck- greater omentum- leftfreeborder -- transverse mesocolon- root 77
  78. 78. spleno-- line alba- renalligament-- gastro-splenicligament - lesser omentum fissureofligamentumvenosum splenorenal - gastro splenic ligament- shortgastricarteries- ligament - linea alba- subhepaticpouch reno splenar- gastro splenic- splenic recess right&leftgastropancreaticligament hepaticartery - leftgastricartery gastro splenic epipoicforamen- reno splenar- ligament gastrophrenicligament epipoic foramen- - greateromentum- greater - greater omentum- omentum perforation- -- greater omentum- transverse colon 78
  79. 79. recesses retro-cecalrecess recess cecum- recess mesoappendix- recess- - - - - esophgous- --- fibrouscoat fibrous coat -- 79
  80. 80. thoracotomy laparotomy fibrous-- coat- fibrous coat CT --- mucousmembrane --- 80
  81. 81. reflux mucous membrane ---- - leftcrus- rightcrus inspiration diaphragmatic -- esophagealhiatus hiatal hernia hernia - reflux anatomic sphincter - - left&rightvagus stamic Inferior Middle Superior-- GastricNerves - - celiacplexus- 81
  82. 82. ---- vagotomy gastric nerves selectinve vagotomy hepaticnerveplexus- left&rightgastric shortgastric - left&rightgastroomental rugae- - rugae - spincter pylorus -- - 82
  83. 83. visceral peritoneum -- intra peritonealtransverse - ileum- jejunum- colon sub/retroperitoneal splenorenal ligament --- jejunum-mesentery- ileum- jejunum- mesentery ileum rugae- circularfolds transverse folds rugae- circular folds-circular folds terminalileum- circular foldsintestinalvilli- mucous membrane-- muscularismucosa- villi- mucousmembrane villiCrohn’s --- Disease villi intestinal --- intestinalvilli thoracicduct lymphfollicles --lymph lymph follicles node 83
  84. 84. -- Solitary Lymph Follicles Aggregated Lymph Follicles PeyerPatches--- germinationcenters aggergate+solitary lymph node follicle - -- appendicesomenalis appendicesepiploica  caecum, appendix, Rectum ileum- caecum - omentum- reccesses Superiorileocaecal recess Inferiorileocaecal recess Retrocaecal recess--- caecum --  longitudial circular fibers- fibers 84
  85. 85. --- longitudonalfibers TaeniaColi transverse Taenia Libera colon transverse -- Taenia Mesocolica colon transverse -- Taenia Omentalis colon taenia coli taenia - taenia coli -–Haustrations  - longitudonal fibers- coli circular fibers- circular fibers- taenia taenia- haustrations solitary lymphfollicles mucus membrane- mocus membrane- longitudinalfolds  transverse - transversepermanentfolds  folds longitudinal transverse folds longitudinal fibers fibers - analcolumns vertical folds - anal superiorrectalvein superiorrectalartery column anal - analvalve columns analsinus anal valve 85
  86. 86. - rectalvenousplexus folds ----Internal hemorhorids hemorrhoids superior rectal--External hemoroids vein external venous plexus pectinateline anal sinus- spinal cord internal hemorrhoids external - hemerroids - - L2 portalvein- - splenicvein- SMV portal - IVC- vein gastroduodenalartery- lesser - bileduct- bile - hepaticartery- bile duct- omentum 86

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