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Avocado Consumption Increases Neural Lutein Concentrations
which Improves Cognitive Function
Elizabeth J. Johnson, Ph.D.
A...
Background
Rationale
• There is a need for novel, cost-effective public health strategies that
will delay, slow, or prevent cognitive...
Rationale
• There is a need for novel, cost-effective public health strategies that
will delay, slow, or prevent cognitive...
Rationale
• There is a need for novel, cost-effective public health strategies that
will delay, slow, or prevent cognitive...
Methods
Subjects
• Men and women aged >50 y (n=20, treatment group; n=20, control group)
who meet the following criteria:
lutein i...
Subjects
• Men and women aged >50 y (n=22, treatment group; n=22, control group)
who meet the following criteria:
lutein i...
Study Design
Month/Study Measures 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
Avocado or control meal pick-up/delivery x x x x x x
Height, weight, blood...
Test Assessment
Choice reaction time General alertness and motor speed
Delayed matching to sample Forced choice recognitio...
www.macularmetrics.com
Heterochromatic flicker photometer
(for measure of macular pigment optical density, MPOD)
Section through fovea of rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta). © Max Snodderly, 2002
Biomarker Measures in Plasma
Biomarker Method Reference or Source
Bioavailability: carotenoids Reverse-phase HPLC Johnson,...
Results
No change in inflammation of
oxidative stress in either group.
No change in inflammation of
oxidative stress in either group.
Measures in normal range.
b
c
a
Serum Lutein, nmol/L (mean + SD)
Month
Change from baseline, P value: a0.001, b0.05, c0.0005
Macular Pigment Density (mean + SD)
Month
a
b c
Change from baseline, P value: a0.05, b0.005, c0.0005
Lutein supplement vs Avocado
Lutein Supplement* Avocado
subjects (n) 11 20
age, yrs 60-80 50-85
lutein, mg/d 12 0.5
study ...
Lutein supplement vs Avocado
Lutein Supplement* Avocado
subjects (n) 11 20
age, yrs 60-80 50-85
lutein, mg/d 12 0.5
study ...
Lutein supplement vs Avocado
Lutein Supplement* Avocado
subjects (n) 11 20
age, yrs 60-80 50-85
lutein, mg/d 12 0.5
study ...
Lutein supplement vs Avocado
Serum Lutein
(∆ baseline), nmol/L/lutein total dose
Macular Pigment Density
(∆ baseline), OD/...
Lutein supplement vs Avocado
Serum Lutein
(∆ baseline), nmol/L/lutein total dose
Macular Pigment Density
(∆ baseline), OD/...
Why?
HDL
MUFA major transporter of lutein neural tissue
Control Group:
No relationships between lutein status and cognitive function
were observed.
Avocado Group:
The change in M...
Control Group:
No relationships between lutein status and cognitive function
were observed.
Avocado Group:
The change in M...
Spatial Span forwarda
Paired Associates Learningc
Spatial Working Memoryb
Control, n = 20
Avocado, n = 20
Significant time...
Significant time effect:
• Learning effect?
• Bioactives in potatoes/chickpeas?
Per 100 g Avocado Chickpea Potato
Lutein, mg 0.5 0.0 0.0
MUFA, g 9.8 0.4 0.0
Vitamin C, mg 8.8 0.1 13.0
Folate, mg 89 25 9
Conclusion
A dietary intervention with avocados to increase
neural lutein levels could be an effective dietary
strategy fo...
Acknowledgments
Antioxidants Research Laboratory:
Rohini Vishwanathan, Ph.D
Emily Mohn, M.S.
Oliver Chen, Ph.D.
Jordan Had...
Ej johnson.avocado.cognition 2015
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Ej johnson.avocado.cognition 2015

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Avocado Consumption Increases Neural Lutein Concentrations which Improves Cognitive Function

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Ej johnson.avocado.cognition 2015

  1. 1. Avocado Consumption Increases Neural Lutein Concentrations which Improves Cognitive Function Elizabeth J. Johnson, Ph.D. Antioxidants Research Laboratory Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging Tufts University
  2. 2. Background
  3. 3. Rationale • There is a need for novel, cost-effective public health strategies that will delay, slow, or prevent cognitive decline associated with aging. • Our preliminary studies suggest that lutein may also be important in cognitive function in the elderly. • Avocados are likely a highly bioavailable source of lutein.
  4. 4. Rationale • There is a need for novel, cost-effective public health strategies that will delay, slow, or prevent cognitive decline associated with aging. • Our preliminary studies suggest that lutein may also be important in cognitive function in the elderly. • Avocados are likely a highly bioavailable source of lutein.
  5. 5. Rationale • There is a need for novel, cost-effective public health strategies that will delay, slow, or prevent cognitive decline associated with aging. • Our preliminary studies suggest that lutein may also be important in cognitive function in the elderly. • Avocados are likely a highly bioavailable source of lutein.
  6. 6. Methods
  7. 7. Subjects • Men and women aged >50 y (n=20, treatment group; n=20, control group) who meet the following criteria: lutein intake of <3 mg/d macular pigment density <0.5 OD MMSE score >24 BMI 19-29 kg/m2 • Exclusions: carotenoid supplements for >2 mo prior to study start >2 alcoholic beverages/day fat absorption/metabolism anemia, diabetes, bleeding disorders, hyperlipidemia
  8. 8. Subjects • Men and women aged >50 y (n=22, treatment group; n=22, control group) who meet the following criteria: lutein intake of <3 mg/d macular pigment density <0.5 OD MMSE score >24 BMI 19-29 kg/m2 • Exclusions: carotenoid supplements for >2 mo prior to study start >2 alcoholic beverages/day fat absorption/metabolism anemia, diabetes, bleeding disorders, hyperlipidemia
  9. 9. Study Design Month/Study Measures 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Avocado or control meal pick-up/delivery x x x x x x Height, weight, blood draw x x x Macular pigment & cognitive measures x x x Mood & fatigue, FFQ x x x Telephone calls x x x x Current medication review x x x Dietician interview x x x Compliance calendars x x x x x x
  10. 10. Test Assessment Choice reaction time General alertness and motor speed Delayed matching to sample Forced choice recognition memory for non- verbalizable patterns, testing matching and short term visual memory Spatial span Spatial span reverse Working memory capacity, and is a visuospatial analogue of the Digit Span test Paired associates learning Episodic and new learning Spatial working memory Retention and manipulation of visuospatial information. This self-ordered test has notable executive function demands, and measures strategy use as well as errors. Rapid visual information processing Sustained attention Stockings of Cambridge Spatial planning test which gives a measure of frontal lobe Cognitive Measures CANTAB, Cambridge Cognition Ltd
  11. 11. www.macularmetrics.com Heterochromatic flicker photometer (for measure of macular pigment optical density, MPOD)
  12. 12. Section through fovea of rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta). © Max Snodderly, 2002
  13. 13. Biomarker Measures in Plasma Biomarker Method Reference or Source Bioavailability: carotenoids Reverse-phase HPLC Johnson, et al., 2000 Oxidative capacity:LDL LDL resistance against Cu2+-induced oxidation Chen, et al., 2005 Inflammation: b-amyloid Direct solid-phase enzyme immunoassay Innugenetic, Inc., Belguim Inflammation: CRP Chemiluminescent assay DPC, Los Angeles, CA
  14. 14. Results
  15. 15. No change in inflammation of oxidative stress in either group.
  16. 16. No change in inflammation of oxidative stress in either group. Measures in normal range.
  17. 17. b c a Serum Lutein, nmol/L (mean + SD) Month Change from baseline, P value: a0.001, b0.05, c0.0005
  18. 18. Macular Pigment Density (mean + SD) Month a b c Change from baseline, P value: a0.05, b0.005, c0.0005
  19. 19. Lutein supplement vs Avocado Lutein Supplement* Avocado subjects (n) 11 20 age, yrs 60-80 50-85 lutein, mg/d 12 0.5 study duration, days 120 180 total lutein dose, g/d x day 1.44 0.9 serum lutein (∆ from baseline), nmol/L 315 84 MP density (∆ from baseline), OD 0.041 0.101 *Johnson et al, AJCN 87:1521-9 (2008)
  20. 20. Lutein supplement vs Avocado Lutein Supplement* Avocado subjects (n) 11 20 age, yrs 60-80 50-85 lutein, mg/d 12 0.5 study duration, days 120 180 total lutein dose, g/d x day 1.44 0.9 serum lutein (∆ from baseline), nmol/L 315 84 MP density (∆ from baseline), OD 0.041 0.101 *Johnson et al, 2008
  21. 21. Lutein supplement vs Avocado Lutein Supplement* Avocado subjects (n) 11 20 age, yrs 60-80 50-85 lutein, mg/d 12 0.5 study duration, days 120 180 total lutein dose, g/d x day 1.44 0.9 serum lutein (∆ from baseline), nmol/L 315 84 MP density (∆ from baseline), OD 0.041 0.101 *Johnson et al, 2008
  22. 22. Lutein supplement vs Avocado Serum Lutein (∆ baseline), nmol/L/lutein total dose Macular Pigment Density (∆ baseline), OD/ lutein total dose
  23. 23. Lutein supplement vs Avocado Serum Lutein (∆ baseline), nmol/L/lutein total dose Macular Pigment Density (∆ baseline), OD/ lutein total dose ~2x ~4x
  24. 24. Why? HDL MUFA major transporter of lutein neural tissue
  25. 25. Control Group: No relationships between lutein status and cognitive function were observed. Avocado Group: The change in MP density (6-0 months) was related to the change in spatial working memory (p<0.009) • The change in MP density (6-0 months) was related to improved efficiency of approaching a problem (p<0.036) • No significant relationships between change in serum lutein and cognitive function. Relationship between Lutein Status and Cognitive Function
  26. 26. Control Group: No relationships between lutein status and cognitive function were observed. Avocado Group: The change in MP density (6-0 months) was related to the change in spatial working memory (p<0.009) The change in MP density (6-0 months) was related to improved efficiency of approaching a problem (p<0.036) No significant relationships between change in serum lutein and cognitive function. Relationship between Lutein Status and Cognitive Function
  27. 27. Spatial Span forwarda Paired Associates Learningc Spatial Working Memoryb Control, n = 20 Avocado, n = 20 Significant time effect (p <): a0.05, b0.01, c0.001 No differences between groups p <0.05 p <0.05
  28. 28. Significant time effect: • Learning effect? • Bioactives in potatoes/chickpeas?
  29. 29. Per 100 g Avocado Chickpea Potato Lutein, mg 0.5 0.0 0.0 MUFA, g 9.8 0.4 0.0 Vitamin C, mg 8.8 0.1 13.0 Folate, mg 89 25 9
  30. 30. Conclusion A dietary intervention with avocados to increase neural lutein levels could be an effective dietary strategy for cognitive health in older adults.
  31. 31. Acknowledgments Antioxidants Research Laboratory: Rohini Vishwanathan, Ph.D Emily Mohn, M.S. Oliver Chen, Ph.D. Jordan Haddock, B.S. Metabolic Research Unit Helen M. Rasmussen, Ph.D, R.D. Neuroscience and Aging Laboratory Tammy M. Scott, Ph.D, Supported by Hass Avocado Board and USDA 58-1950-0-014

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