Cities and society


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  • Critique of Fordism Also Anthony Giddens Lewis Mumford Big question time space distanciation or time space compression
  • Point 1 - The three-year agreement is between Manchester City Council, its partners and government. It was developed with all agencies in the partnership and it includes priorities and actions based on what residents and local intelligence told us were the most important things that must be done if the vision is to be achieved by 2015. Point 2 - All the targets are measurable and the performance of partners in achieving those targets is reported on regularly. Transparency in delivery enables gaps to be identified at an early stage and any hurdles preventing targets being achieved can be identified. It keeps the LAA programme on track. Point 3 - Manchester’s issues are profound. We are getting better at resolving some of these, but we need to do so in new and different ways - and we achieve results faster. We need to be more innovative in the way we work and in the way we commission things. Point 4 - Statutory changes this year now mean that ALL the partners are now accountable for their contribution to the targets. This strengthens our working relationship. They way we report on performance identifies partners that are failing to achieve for whatever reason. Point 5 - Thanks to the LAA we now have an agreed consistent approach around what WE in the city think is important for Manchester.
  • This slide shows who is involved in the delivery of the Local Area Agreement . The Manchester Board owns the actual agreement, while the Public Service Board acts as the management group. A variety of other bodies are responsible for delivery against the targets. Manchester Partnership – the people involved The non-executive Manchester Board drives partners’ work and challenges their contribution to improving residents’ quality of life. The Public Service Board makes sure that the targets set are being met, so that the vision for 2015 is achieved. The Core Thematic Partnerships focus on specific themes and targets, but work in a cross cutting way. The Private Sector Engagement Group is in development and, at present, is included on specific topics. The Agenda 2010 Steering Group ensures improved race equality is integral to all the work of the thematic partnerships. The Performance and Resources Subgroup analyses quarterly data and makes recommendations to the Public Service Board.
  • This illustration captures the concept of how change will occur in order to achieve the vision by 2015. The three arrows at the centre of the diagram are the core drivers. They show how the aspiration for economic success, described on the left, can deliver the improved outcomes for Manchester people as described on the right. The arrows are called ‘spines’ because they form the framework for our priorities and they support the actions needed to address those priorities.   Looking at these in more detail:- - The first of the three spines connects more local people to our economic success by supporting them to achieve their full potential through education, skills and employment. - Recognising that as people reach their potential they often choose to leave the city, the third spine will build green sustainable communities where people choose to live and stay because of the quality of life on offer. - The middle spine connects and supports the other two. This recognises that public services on their own cannot achieve these things – everyone has a part to play but some of people may need support so that they can play a fuller part than they currently do. In that context, partner agencies will facilitate and support individuals and communities to achieve their full potential, to raise ambitions and to develop mutual respect for themselves as individuals and their communities. The outcome we seek is a happier, healthier, wealthier population.
  • This last slide shows how all the elements of the Local Area Agreement fit together. It shows the hierarchy of measure in place to monitor its success and the standard ways of reporting this. Each year the State of the City report is produced and is made available to partners and public through the website By analysing our performance we can see where extra work needs to be done and we can identify any new trends that may affect our priorities.
  • Housing Market Areas from Hincks and Wong 2008
  • TTWAs from Hincks and Wong
  • Cities and society

    1. 1. Manchester “Original: Modern”300 years of the machinations of ‘Manchester men’ Cities and Society Nicola Headlam December 8th 2011
    2. 2. Lecture Structure• Introduction• Manchester : Original Modern• Industrial Philanthro-Capitalism• Post-Industrial Philanthro-Capitalism• What next?
    3. 3. Processes – Definitions?• Reification• Philanthro-capitalism• Gentrification• Industrial and Post Industrial• Civic• Urbis• Agora
    4. 4. civiccivic      adj  of or relating to a city, citizens, or citizenship  civic duties        (C16: from Latin civicus, from civis citizen)  ♦   civically    adv  civic centre      n    (Brit)  the public buildings of a town, including recreational facilities and offices of local administration  civic university      n  (in Britain) a university originally instituted as a higher education college serving a particular city  
    5. 5. urbis• The Latin Phrase Urbs Urbis has many meanings, mainly: city
    6. 6. agora agora1n pl -rae [-riː -raɪ](Historical  Terms) (often capital)a.  the marketplace in  Athens, used for popular meetings, or any  similar place of assembly in ancient  Greece b.  the meeting itself[from Greek,  from agorein to gather]
    7. 7. Post-industrialDaniel Bell ‘The coming of the Post-Industrial Society’"knowledge and information are becoming the strategic resource and transforming agent of post-industrial society just as the combination of energy, resources and machine technology were the transforming agencies of industrial society" (Bell, 1974)
    8. 8. Knowledge EconomyExtension of the post-industrial argumentEconomy focussed on exchange of goods and services Think about… Planning for no commuters, home-working, vide- conferencing, death of distance because the nature and location of work is in flux.
    9. 9. Post-fordist• Another economic argument.• Rooted in a mode of production.• Ford Motor Cars• assembly lines Think about… Planning for consumption rather than production (ie shopping rather than assembly lines)
    10. 10. Books• Managing the city: the aims and impacts of urban policy Brian Turnbull Robson 1987• Managing the city eds Liddle, Diamond, Southern 2007• City of Revolution eds Ward and Peck• How Manchester is managed 1925-1939
    11. 11. Stories of “Mancunian ways”• Mancunian Ways : the politics of regeneration Robson (Chapter 3 City of Revolution)• Metropolitan Manoeuvres : making greater Manchester Deas and Ward (Chapter City of Revolution)• Greater Manchester – ‘up and going’, 2000 Hebbert and Deas• Greater Manchester : conurbation complexity and local government structure Barlow, 1995• Manchester: Making it Happen Hebbert, 2009
    12. 12. Think tanks: Manchester• Work Foundation : Ideopolis• Localis : Can Localism Deliver? Lessons from Manchester• Policy Exchange : Cities Limited• NESTA : Original Modern : Manchester’s journey to innovation and growthCity publications
    13. 13. Central-Local Policy NetworkCongested terrain!
    14. 14. What is Manchester?• Political• Economic• Statistical• Administrative• Cultural (music and sport)ConstructionA Brand?
    15. 15. Industrial Era Civic Philanthro capitalismKey Actors• Humphry Chetham• John Rylands• Richard Arkwright• Joseph Whitworth• John Owens• Duke of Bridgewater
    16. 16. Vanity projects?• Knowledge: University, Libraries• Culture : Halle Orchestra / Lit & Phil Society• Infra-structure : Town Hall / Canals (!)
    17. 17. (Post-industrial) regeneration era philanthro-capitalistsKey Actors• Tom Bloxham (Urban Splash)• Peter Saville• Anthony Wilson
    18. 18. Vanity Projects• Knowledge : Urbis• Culture : Manchester International Festival• Infra-structure?? Housing/Regen??
    19. 19. • Millenium Communities progress unclear• Communities minister Ian Austin has confirmed that no long-term evaluation of the Millennium Communities programme will be made before its completion in 2012.In a written answer to shadow communities minister Robert Neill, Mr Austin said the Homes & Communities Agency is responsible for delivering the bulk of the programme and DCLG scrutinizes its performance.“The Millennium Communities is an active programme that is demonstrating how mixed-use, environmentally positive communities can be created on difficult, brownfield sites,” he said.• “It will continue to deliver outputs up to at least 2012. An evaluation of the longer-term outcomes and cost-effectiveness of the Millennium Communities programme would be expected to be undertaken following its completion.”
    20. 20. City Centre• Iconic Architecture
    21. 21. What is regeneration?• “’Regeneration seems to offer an almost infinitely inclusive canopy under which all may be persuaded to shelter and find agreement, yet vital issues remain beyond the pale” (Furbey 1999) pg 440• “…so urban regeneration is in principle a floating signifier but in practice it does not float very far. It is ubiquitously used to a fairly standard set of policy goals and outcomes ”(Lovering 2007) pg 344
    22. 22.  HO PSA DeliveryPSA  PSA  PSA 2 (Joint  PSA  PSA  PSA  PSA  5 3 OCJR) 1 4 7 6 IND NOMS OCJR CRCSG Communities N A T I O Policing Policing Crime N NASS Prisons Probation CJS ASB Drugs CCU, REU, F ACD Policy Standards Reduction A L Prisons  Probation  HMIC R Inspectorate Inspectorate E  Individual Regional Offices GOEM  G I (43Staff) 5 Police Forces; 9 DATs; O 40 CDRPs; 49 Local Auth’s N A L One City  Police  Partnership CJIP LCJB CDRP NDC DAT Authority (LSP) Compact L O Notts Police Probation C CPS Courts HMP A Service L Nottingham Voluntary & Community Sector Nott BCU YOT City Council 9 Area Committees
    23. 23. drivers and levers• Change mechanisms = interactions between relevant policy drivers and levers.• Policy drivers = the general aims of government in specific policy areas• Policy levers = are the instruments available to government to effect change in public policy and services.
    24. 24. drivers and levers : theory of changeSelection of policy drivers and levers is informed by the interaction of actors exercising political judgement about priorities. As governance systems rely on human interactions attempts at steering are likely to be met with unexpected and unintended though not necessarily unwelcome reactions and outcomes. (CLG, Sullivan 2008)
    25. 25. Manchester’sLocal Area Agreement2008/09 – 2010/11Powerpoint presentation
    26. 26. Manchester’s LAA• It’s a three-year plan to deliver our Community Strategy• It drives partners to achieve targets related to our priorities• It stimulates innovation• It builds accountability and stronger relationships• It forms a constructive relationship with the Government
    27. 27. Partnership structure ‘Team Manchester’
    28. 28. Delivering change
    29. 29. Measuring Success: State of the City
    30. 30. Think tanks re: recession• LGA from recession to recovery: the local dimension• CLES toward a new wave of local economic activism• Work Foundation: Recession and Recovery: How UK cities can respond and drive the recovery
    31. 31. Ideopolis - Work Foundation
    32. 32.   Barcelona Principles – The Work Foundationi. Don’t waste the crisis, but respond with leadership and purpose.ii. Make the case for continued public investment and public services and thetaxes and other sources of investment required.iii. In the long-term: build local economic strategies which align with long-termdrivers and identify future sources of jobs, enterprise, and innovation.iv. In the short-term: focus on retaining productive people, business, incomes,jobs, and investment projects.v. Build the tools and approaches to attract and retain external investment overthe Build genuine long-term relationships with the private sector, trade unions,and other key partners.vii. Take steps to ensure the sustainability and productivity of public works,infrastructure, and major developments/events.viii Local leaders should act purposefully to support their citizens in the face ofincreased hardship.ix. Local economies have benefitted and should continue to benefit from beingopen and attractive to international populations and capital.x. Communicate and align with national and other higher tier governments.
    33. 33. Role of localities in the recession : political considerations
    34. 34. The manchester case• What are the features of the local governance partnership architecture in the Greater Manchester city region?• How are existing institutions connected?• What are the connections back to National policy agendas?• What other international models are in play?• Is it unique in the UK? If so in what way?• Are the movers and shakers “the good guys”?Contention; there is something about manchester ; confidence, autonomy, stability, leadership, assertive bargaining stance with the centre (bombast?) (Robson - Mancunian Ways)“we use the bits of the SNR which fit our agenda and throw out the bits that don’t”
    35. 35. Features of political landscape in manchester city region• Helpful in explaining why confident city-regional governance may flourish in Greater Manchester• Straightforward, horse-trading politics of this…• Traditional Labour authorities (leader of Wigan/AGMA since 1984)• Entrepreneurial authorities (Manchester/Salford)• Lib-Dem oppositional authorities• Role of non-Executive Cllrs• Role of communities/3rd Sector• MPs many with LG background“we always had better discussions around policy within Labour Group than we do in the PLP…you have to work out how to be effective as an MP whereas in the council your authority is far more direct and tangible”
    36. 36. what have they created? • Using an MAA bidding process (first in the queue) • Building on AGMA, radically reformed • Incorporating TIF • Linking through to LAA structures • Stretching democratic mandate (!) • Working with business leaders (6/7) A “Commission” model (QMV, delegated authority comparable to EU commission) • 7 City Regional Thematic Commissions • Economic one central and fully formed others immanent (?!) Compare and contrast with readiness in other MAA areas ?
    37. 37. Organigramme I ; the MAA Public  Housing Transport Improvement  Health Economy Environment  Protection & Planning
    38. 38. • Interactions between separate tiers• MAA self organising autonomous governance network• LAA statutory output based performance framework
    39. 39. How Manchester is managed, 1935Regional Planning : The most effective planning scheme is one which is comprehensive in character and not limited by the artificial boundary of a local authority’s area. It’s success depends upon (1) securing an area capable of economic development (2) effective joint action with neighbouring authorities
    40. 40. City regional bodies
    41. 41. City Relationships:Economic linkages in Northern city regions
    42. 42. Different types of networks
    43. 43. AGMA    
    44. 44. SNA Greater Manchester MAA-LAA (accountabilty)
    45. 45. SNA with local government decentred
    46. 46. Summary : Urban PolicyUrban Policy “Laboratory” fast moving and complexpolicy areas dynamic and in tensionRegeneration and economic developmentLocal Government ModernisationPerformance Management and Measurement
    47. 47. Summary : Policy mechanisms• Underlying logics re: fragmentation and strategic oversight in tension with democratic accountability, political oversight show up in various mechanisms• PSA regime (National)• MAA/EPB/SCR (City Regional)• LAA (Locality plus)
    48. 48. Summary : Recession• Recession offers new challenges for city and locality leaders• Barcelona Principles could underpin responses• As could increased sub-national working
    49. 49. Summary : Manchester• Manchester Governance is an atypical case• Current city regional interest builds on longstanding partnership activity• Greater Manchester City Region and the roles of Manchester Enterprises, the Commission and AGMA have changed rapidly
    50. 50. MONDAY, 24 OCTOBER 2011KIO Launch new creative company!!!KIO-CREATIVE have just completed a branding, signage and lighting scheme in the newAvenue/North development in Spinningfields Manchester. The project is now completedandthe new mall that links Bridge Street to The Avenue shopping destination is due to openThursday 27th October. This mixed use development offers food, leisure and office space.The food and retail units run along the lower level mall and the offices occupy the spaceabove in the tower. This iconic Spinninfields building formally known as Manchester Househas now been named TOWER 12 , and we think that the name change is as iconic as thebuilding!The Avenue/North TOWER12 new signage and lighting installation works really well with thenew Oast House in Spinningfields, designed and development by Paul Danson Imagineeringand Allied london Properties. The rusty steel, illuminated branding, new glass facade andwooden slatted interior all complement each other and bring a different feel toSpinningfields.Architects Sheppard Robson and KIO-CREATIVE have delivered a solution that brings thebuilding into its new developed surrounding environment of Spinningfields.
    51. 51. The Great Neighbourhood Award 2011Sponsored by Ptarmigan LandCathedral Quarter, BelfastNorthern Quarter, Manchester (WINNER)Pollokshields, Glasgow