Hitler becomes führer


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Hitler becomes führer

  1. 1. Hitler Becomes Führer<br />
  2. 2. January 30, 1933: <br />Hitler appointed Chancellor<br /><ul><li>Hindenburg used Article 48 to appoint Hitler
  3. 3. Hitler asks Hindenburg to call for new elections on March 5  </li></li></ul><li>Hitler’s goal: pass the Enabling Act:<br /><ul><li>Complete power transfer from Reichstag to Cabinet for four years
  4. 4. Allowed laws to “deviate from the constitution”
  5. 5. Required a 2/3 majority vote of the Reichstag</li></li></ul><li>Hermann Goering controlled Prussian state police<br /><ul><li>February 22, 1933: Declared Communists were plotting a coup
  6. 6. SA were deputized as police auxiliaries</li></li></ul><li>February 27, 1933: ReichstagFire<br /><ul><li>Communists accused of arson
  7. 7. Hindenburg invoked Article 48
  8. 8. National government assumed the powers of the state governments.
  9. 9. Hitler declared martial law
  10. 10. Goering in charge of all police</li></li></ul><li>March 1, 1933: KPD banned; 4,000 KPD and SPD officials arrested<br />
  11. 11. Goering ordered Heinrich Himmler to build Dachau to house 15,000 political prisoners.<br />
  12. 12. Concentration camps later also used for homeless, beggars, gypsies and hardened criminals.<br />
  13. 13. March 5, 1933: Political terror and state-run propaganda gave the Nazis their best election results yet but … <br /><ul><li>still only 44%
  14. 14. lacked a 2/3 majority to pass the Enabling Act</li></li></ul><li>March 23, 1933: The Enabling Act passes<br /><ul><li>107 representatives from SPD and KPD were missing
  15. 15. Catholic Centre Party voted in favor in return for Nazi guarantees regarding the Church liberties.
  16. 16. SPD only party to vote against
  17. 17. Passed 441 – 84
  18. 18. Renewed every four years through WWII</li></ul>German Reichstag in session. <br />
  19. 19. All rival political parties banned or dissolved.<br />All remaining German institutions and organizations Nazified or disbanded.<br />
  20. 20. By 1934, SA's usefulness had come to an end. <br /><ul><li>Hitler needed support of regular Army generals and industry leaders to rebuild Germany, re-arm military, and expand German territory.
  21. 21. Hitler and army and industry supporters feared SA Supreme Commander, Ernst Rohm.</li></li></ul><li>June 30, 1934:<br />Night of the Long Knives<br /><ul><li>Rohm had the power to remove Hitler.
  22. 22. Army generals feared 4.5 million member SA would absorb the 100,000 man German Army
  23. 23. Industrialists disliked Rohm’s socialist views.
  24. 24. Many Nazi leaders disapproved of Rohm’s and other SA leaders’ homosexuality
  25. 25. Many Germans disliked SA’s thuggish behavior</li></li></ul><li>June 30, 1934: Hitler and SS arrested Rohm and SA leaders. 200-1000 SA leaders executed. <br /><ul><li>Secured loyalty of German Army for Hitler.
  26. 26. SS given independent status; no longer part of the SA.
  27. 27. SS Leader Heinrich Himmler now answered to Hitler and no one else.
  28. 28. SA brownshirts absorbed into the regular army after Hitler re-introduced military conscription in 1935. </li></li></ul><li>“If anyone reproaches me and asks why I did not resort to the regular courts of justice, then all I can say is this: In this hour I was responsible for the fate of the German people, and thereby I became the supreme judge of the German people. … Everyone must know for all future time that if he raises his hand to strike the State, then certain death is his lot.”<br /><ul><li> Adolf Hitler, speech to Reichstag July 13, 1934
  29. 29. Proclaimed himself to be supreme judge of the German people making his word the law
  30. 30. Instilled a permanent sense of fear in the German people</li></li></ul><li>Hitler Becomes Führer<br />August 2, 1934: Hindenburg dies; Hitler combines Presidency and Chancellorship; assumes title of Führer.<br />August 19, 1934: A direct vote approved the combination of the two offices. 95% of registered voters went to the polls and gave Hitler 90% approval.<br />
  31. 31. August 20, 1934: All public employees – military, civil service, police, teachers, and judiciary – had to take a loyalty oath not to the constitution or Germany, but to Hitler.<br />
  32. 32. Myth or Fact: Adolf Hitler was elected to power.<br />Myth or Fact: Adolf Hitler was elected to power.<br />Hitler never received more than 37% of the popular vote in the honest elections that occurred before he became Chancellor. He would never have risen to power had the German Republic been truly democratic.<br />Myth or Fact:Hitler’s rise to power was inevitable.<br />Myth or Fact:Hitler’s rise to power was inevitable.<br />Hitler’s rise to power was not inevitable. It was due to:<br />Fatal flaws in the Weimar Republic constitution.<br />German leaders who had a weak devotion to democracy, came in actively plotting to overthrow it.<br />Events of the Great Depression.<br />A half-senile President Hindenburg.<br />Incompetent competition.<br />
  33. 33. Works Cited<br />Bergen, Doris L. War and Genocide, A Concise History of the Holocaust. New York: Barnes and Noble, 2007.<br />Bullock, Alan. Hitler: A Study in Tyranny. New York: HarperCollins, 1962.<br />The History Place.http://www.historyplace.com/worldwar2/riseofhitler/index.htm.<br />St. Martin’s College.http://www.history-ontheweb.co.uk/topic/topic_weimar.htm.<br />Shirer, William. The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1960.<br />The Shoah Education Project.http://www.shoaheducation.com/weimar.html.<br />Suite 101.com.http://weuropeanhistory.suite101.com/article.cfm/the_weimar_republic.<br />The U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum. www.ushmm.org.<br />The Walter Benjamin Research Syndicate: New College of California. http://www.wbenjamin.org/weimar.html.<br />Western New England College.http://mars.wnec.edu/~grempel/courses/germany/lectures/23weimar_collapse.html.<br />YadVashem. www.yadvashem.org.<br />